Sensuroimatonta terveys- ja kulttuurivalistusta. Sivuston suunnittelussa avustaa sekä taloudellisesti että ideoinnilla Domainkeskus.com. Yhteystiedot: Christer Sundqvist, biologi (FT), christer.sundqvist@ravintokirja.fi, 040-7529274, Helsinki

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TULE MUKAAN ETSIMÄÄN TERVEYDEN AARRETTA

TULE SINÄKIN MUKAAN ETSIMÄÄN TERVEYDEN AARTEITA!

Tervetuloa mukaan rakentamaan yhdessä monisatasivuista terveyskirjaa!

Anna minulle mahdollisuus lähettää sinulle uusi terveyskurssini ”Terveys on aarre”. Siitä muodostuu vuosien 2017-2019 aikana markkinoiden laajin ja ajankohtaisin terveyskirja. Kun maksat erittäin kohtuullisen kertamaksun 49,95 euroa, saat luvan tarvittaessa tulostaa itsellesi kuukausittain täydentyvän terveyskirjan.

Sisällysluettelo
Osa 1 Älä kadota terveyden aarretta! (jaossa marraskuun lopusta 2017 lähtien)
Osa 2 Miksi vanhenemme? (joulukuun loppu 2017)
Osa 3 Ota terveytesi ja sairautesi vakavasti (tammikuun loppu 2018)
Osa 4 Nujerra sairaus ottamalla käyttöön kaikki hyvät keinot (helmikuun loppu 2018)
Osa 5 Naura sairautesi pois! (maaliskuun loppu 2018)
Osa 6 Vältä liiallista istumista – muista liikkua! (huhtikuun loppu 2018)
Osa 7 Muista levätä! (toukokuun loppu 2018)
Osa 8 Ajattele positiivisesti! (kesäkuun loppu 2018)
Osa 9 Syö terveellistä ruokaa! (heinäkuun loppu 2018)
Osa 10 Yksilöllisiä ruokavalintoja A-J (elokuun loppu 2018)
Osa 11 Yksilöllisiä ruokavalintoja K-M (syyskuun loppu 2018)
Osa 12 Yksilöllisiä ruokavalintoja N-R (lokakuun loppu 2018)
Osa 13 Yksilöllisiä ruokavalintoja S-Ö (marraskuun loppu 2018)
Osa 14 Hyvät ihmissuhteet (joulukuun loppu 2018)
Osa 15 Elämänhalu (tammikuun loppu 2019)
Osa 16 Usko parantumiseen sairaudesta (helmikuun loppu 2019)
Osa 17 Syvennä henkisyyttä ja pidä mieli virkeänä (maaliskuun loppu 2019)
Osa 18 Hoito-ohjeita sairastuneelle A-J (huhtikuun loppu 2019)
Osa 19 Hoito-ohjeita sairastuneelle K-R (toukokuun loppu 2019)
Osa 20 Hoito-ohjeita sairastuneelle S-Ö (kesäkuun loppu 2019)
Osa 21 Syventävää keskustelua terveydestä (heinäkuun loppu 2019)
Osat 22-24 Tulossa tietoon myöhemmin (elokuu-lokakuu 2019)

Tässä lisätietoja ja tietoa siitä miten maksu tapahtuu:

Kurssini on tavattoman suurella vaivalla työstetty useiden vuosien aikana ja sisältää valtavasti terveystietoa. Eräänlainen terveystestamenttini vuosilta 1987-2019.

Jos koet mahdolliseksi, tulisitko nyt heti mukaan kurssille ja ryhtyisit terveyskirjaa rakentamaan itsellesi? Voisitko pyytää ystäviäsi mukaan tälle kurssille, joka tyypilliseen edulliseen hintaani (49,95 euroa) tarjoaa erittäin paljon tietoa terveydestä? Ajankohtaisinta mahdollista tietoa on siis jaossa kerran kuukaudessa. On harjoitustehtäviä, tietoiskuja, terveystietoa, lukuvihjeitä…

Opiskelu- ja harjoitustehtävien suorittaminen on täysin vapaaehtoista ja jokainen saa tarvittaessa yksilöllistä ohjausta. Materiaalin saa sähköpostiin kerran kuukaudessa (laadukas PDF-tiedosto) riippumatta siitä milloin päättää aloittaa kurssin.

Maksu tapahtuu näin:

Kurssille pääsee mukaan maksamalla 49,95 euroa tilille FI94 5723 3320 0772 65 (OKOYFIHH), Christerin Akatemia. Kirjoita viestikenttään sähköpostiosoitteesi. Muita maksuja ei tule!

Rakkain terveisin,
Christer Sundqvist
biologi, FT
Lisätietoja: christer.sundqvist@ravintokirja.fi

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Tässä esimerkkejä luentotarjonnastani

Käytä älliä ruokavalinnoissa: Tämä on suosituimpia luentoaiheitani. Alustan ja herätän keskustelua älykkäistä ruokavalinnoista, ruoan luonnollisuudesta, säilyvyydestä ja käytössä olevista ruoan lisäaineista sekä pohdin sitä, mikä on terveellistä arki- ja juhlaruokaa. Miten liikkujan pitää syödä? Onko ikääntyvän ihmisen otettava huomioon jotain erityistä ruokavalintojen suhteen? Keskustellaan yhdessä miten voisimme parantaa ruokaostostemme laatua. Sillä mitä valitset ruokakaupasta ostoskassiisi, on merkitystä. Sisältääkö kassisi juureksia vai eineksiä? Ruokavallankumous alkakoon nyt! Tämä luento muokkautuu helposti kaikenikäisille ja monille erilaisille yhteisöille. Kerro mikä on tavoitteesi luennon suhteen, niin saat tällä tavalla räätälöidyn luennon minulta.

Onni, terveys ja äly – elämäsi melodia: Terveystietoinen ja viisaan onnellinen elämä rakentuu yksinkertaisista osatekijöistä. Tule kuuntelemaan turpaduunarin melodioita! Filosofian tohtori ja suosittu luennoitsija Christer Sundqvist on vauhdissa!

Terveystietoinen elämä: Terveellisestä elämäntavasta ei saa tehdä liian vaikeaa itselleen. Terveys säilyy vaikka välillä elää epäterveellisesti, mutta se mikä erottaa terveystietoisen muista ihmisistä, on se luontevuus ja rivakkuus mikä nähdään siinä paluussa terveellisten valintojen ääreen. Terveystietoinen oivaltaa, että niitä huonoja valintoja pitää välttää, ei sen takia että se olisi pakko, vaan sen takia, että hän pitää terveyttään erittäin suuressa arvossa.

Liikunta on lääke: Ihminen on luotu liikkumaan sopivasti ja monipuolisella tavalla. Liikunnalla voidaan ehkäistä sairauksia, hoitaa terveyttä ja kuntoutua monista pitkäaikaissairauksista. Luennolla mainitaan liikunnan teho tyypin 2 diabeteksessa, kohonneessa verenpaineessa, sydän- ja verisuonisairauksissa, lihavuuden hoidossa, astmassa, keuhkoahtaumataudissa, polven nivelrikossa, nivelreumassa, selkävaivoissa ja masennuksessa. Turpaduunari Sundqvist kehottaa tekemään liikunnasta pysyvä osa elintapamuutostasi.

Oivaltavaa urheilua: Filosofian tohtori, ravinto- ja urheiluvalmentaja sekä suosittu luennoitsija Christer Sundqvist on useiden vuosien aikana kehittänyt kokonaisvaltaista urheiluvalmennusta. Hän kertoo käytännönläheisesti ja hauskasti miten hänen urheiluvalmennuksestaan on ollut hyötyä sekä huippu-urheilijoille että liikunnallista elämäntapaa noudattaville. Luennolla tarkastellaan näiden osa-alueiden merkitystä urheilumenestykselle: yksilöllisesti määritelty harjoitusohjelma, ravitsemukselliset näkökulmat, unen ja levon merkitys, urheilijan rentoutuminen, elämän kokonaisrasitus, urheilijan henkiset voimavarat.

Laadukas ravinto terveyden lähde: Turpaduunari kertoo laadukkaista ruokavalinnoista. Hänen neuvoillaan löydät keinoja etsiä älliä ruokakaupasta. Haluat ehkä laittaa laadukasta lounasta ja haluat löytää lisäaineetonta luomua? Luonnollisesti tämä on täysin mahdollista kuunneltuasi Christerin ohjeita!

Vireä vanhuus: Biologi Christer Sundqvist kertoo meille menestysreseptinsä miten säilyttää hyvä vire ja terveys iäkkäänä. Tarjolla on runsaasti tietoa terveystietoisesta elämästä. Huumoria, iloista rentoutta ja oivaltavaa ideointia kannattaa tulla kuulemaan!

Elämän kokonaisrasitus hallintaan: Huomioi päivittäiset haasteet, kehottaa biologi Sundqvist luennollaan. Kun epäviisaasti joudut rientämään paikasta toiseen tukka putkella, muista kompensoida tämä huomioimalla terveen elämän kaikki osatekijät täysimääräisinä: hyvä ravinto, kunnon lepo, hyvät ihmissuhteet, virkistävä liikunta.

Rentoutta ja hengähdyshetkiä kiireiselle ihmiselle: Biologi Christer Sundqvist vie meidät rentouden maailmaan tällä luennollaan. Opi arvostamaan arjen hengähdyshetkiä. Muista oleskella puhtaassa ilmassa. Vedä keuhkoihin puhdasta ilmaa ja nauti siitä miten puhdas ilma vienosti koskettelee paljasta ihoasi. Voiko elämässä olla mitään ihanampaa? Älä stressaa! Et voi ratkaista yhtäkään ongelmaa stressaamalla itsesi puolikuolleeksi. Pidä siis itsesi täysillä elossa rennolla elämänasenteella. Nauti tästä hetkestä. Tartu kiinni ohikiitävään hetkeen, sillä elämä koostuu pienistä ihmeistä, jotka näemme vasta kun huomaamme pysähtyä niiden äärelle, hetki hetkeltä.

Aivot ja ravinto: Biologi Christer Sundqvist kertoo siitä mikä on parasta mahdollista aivoruokaa. Hyvä ruoka – hyvä mieli. Keskustelemme siitä miten voimme pitää aivot kirkkaana täsmäruoalla. Luennolla esitellään uutta aivotutkimusta selkokielellä. Varautukaa yllätyksiin!

Ruokaa suurella sydämellä: Huolehdi sydämesi kunnosta syömällä oikein terveellistä ruokaa, kehottaa biologi Christer Sundqvist. Yleisö saa alusta lähtien osallistua vilkkaaseen keskusteluun verenpaineen hoidosta ravinnolla, tarvitaanko kolesterolilääkkeitä ja millaisella ruoalla sydän lyö parhaiten. Kuuntele uusimmat sydäntutkimukset selkokielellä esitettynä.

Miten vatsasi voi? Biologi Christer Sundqvist kertoo parhaimmat vinkit miten suoliston saa toimimaan mahdollisimman hyvin. Keskustelemme hyvistä bakteereista ja siitä miten tärkeässä roolissa on suoliston hyvä terveys. Varautukaa yllätyksiin! Uusia suolistotutkimuksia saatte kuulla selkokielellä.

Rasvaista tarinaa: Ravintorasvat ja niiden terveellisyys tai vaarallisuus ovat jo pitkään aikaansaaneet kiihkeitä keskusteluja ja jopa väittelyjä. Biologi Christer Sundqvistin tieteellisiin tutkimuksiin pohjaavan alustuksen pohjalta keskustellaan luonnollisten rasvalähteiden terveyshyödyistä. Korkean kolesterolin negatiiviset terveysvaikutukset ja sen hoitoon käytettävien lääkkeiden sivuvaikutukset, ovat myös kuuma puheenaihe.

Ravitsemuksen kiistanaiheet ja tulevaisuuden näkymät: Läpi vuosikymmenten on kiistelty optimaalisesta ravinnosta. Löytyykö totuus kaurapuurosta myös tulevaisuudessa? Biologi Christer Sundqvist kertoo alustuksessaan mm. nutrigenomiikasta, tieteenalasta joka tutkii ravinto- ja perintötekijöiden yhteisvaikutuksia. Alustuksen pohjalta keskustellaan ravitsemuksen kiistanaiheista ja ravitsemustieteen tulevaisuuden näkymistä.

Reuman virallinen, täydentävä ja vaihtoehtoinen hoito: Luennolla esitellään reuman Käypä hoito suositukset ja käydän niiden pohjalta rakentavaa ja samalla kriittistä keskustelua. Hyviksi koettuja täydentäviä hoitomuotoja tuodaan esille ja tarkastellaan voiko olla apua jostakin vaihtoehtoisesta hoidosta.

Kolme tapaa hoitaa diabetes: virallisesti, täydentävästi ja vaihtoehtoisesti: Suositussa diabetesluennossaan biologi Sundqvist tuo esille koko kirjon erilaisia tapoja hoitaa tämä vakava sairaus yksilöllisesti tyydyttävällä tavalla.

Lisäksi tunteja, päiviä, viikkoja, kuukausia, jopa vuoden kestäviä koulutuksia ravinnosta, levosta, liikunnasta ja terveydestä. Varsinaista terveystykitystä!

Joka viikko tulee kymmeniä tutkimustuloksia, jotka osoittavat, että kova rasva ei ole terveydelle hyväksi?

Kirjoittaja: Christer Sundqvist

Meillä on töitä. Ravitsemusterapian professori Ursula Schwab väittää Ylen uutisissa seuraavaa:

”Joka viikko tulee kymmeniä tutkimustuloksia, jotka osoittavat, että kova rasva ei ole terveydelle hyväksi.”

Pitääkö väite paikkansa?

Yleisradion artikkelista selviää, että ”kovalla” rasvalla tarkoitetaan tyydyttynyttä rasvaa. ”Kova rasva” on virheellinen termi, pitää olla ”kiinteä rasva”. Professori Schwab väittää, että kiinteä rasva ei ole terveydelle hyväksi. Itse olen tästä asiasta eri mieltä, joten minua kiinnostaa erityisen paljon suomalaisprofessorin hätkähdyttävä väite: Joka viikko ilmestyy kymmeniä tutkimustuloksia, jotka osoittavat näiden rasvamuotojen epäterveellisyyden.

Asia on helppo tarkistaa. Yhdysvaltojen terveysvirasto (National Institutes of Health) ylläpitää mainiota lääketieteellistä kirjastopalvelua (US National Library of Medicine), joka on avoin kaikille maailman terveystutkijoille ja maallikoille.

Yhden viikon aikana ilmestyneet kiinteää rasvaa käsittelevät tutkimukset

Valitsin käsittelyyn kaikki viime viikolla ilmestyneet kiinteää rasvaa käsittelevät tutkimukset. Käytin hakualgoritmia:

(”fatty acids”[MeSH Terms] OR (”fatty”[All Fields] AND ”acids”[All Fields]) OR ”fatty acids”[All Fields] OR (”saturated”[All Fields] AND ”fat”[All Fields]) OR ”saturated fat”[All Fields]) AND (”2018/02/26″[PDAT] : ”2018/03/04″[PDAT])

Hakukriteerit täyttäviä tutkimuksia löytyi 391 kpl. Kutsun nyt kaikkia turpaduunarin lukijoita kanssani tarkastelemaan seuraavaa listausta, johon olen ottanut mukaan viime viikon aikana ilmestyneet lääketieteelliset tutkimukset. Löytyykö näiden tutkimusten joukosta kymmenittäin tutkimuksia, jotka osoittavat, että kiinteä rasva ei ole terveydelle hyväksi?

Työn eteneminen

Päivän mittaan (8.3.2018) olen käynyt listaa läpi yhdessä ystävieni kanssa. Asian käsittelyn kannalta lupaavimmilta vaikuttavat terveystutkimukset olen merkinnyt sinisellä tekstillä. Työ on kesken.

Tutkimus numero 68 vaikuttaa mielenkiintoiselta! Lue! Ote lyhennelmästä: ”Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties.

Myös tutkimus numero 84 kannattaa lukea tarkemmin: Ote lyhennelmästä: ”In view of the abundance of palm oil in the market, quantifying its true association with CVD outcomes is challenging. The present review could not establish strong evidence for or against palm oil consumption relating to cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. Further studies are needed to establish the association of palm oil with CVD.

Toivonkipinä Ursulalle syttyy tutkimuksessa numero 85. Ote lyhennelmästä: ”The supply of total fat, saturated fat and sugar considerably exceeded the current dietary recommendation. As regards nutrition security in 2010, the UK was reliant on imported foods to meet energy, fibre, total carbohydrate, iron, zinc and vitamin A requirements. This analysis demonstrates the importance of including nutrients other than energy to determine the adequacy of the food supply.

Ursulalle edullista tutkimusnäyttöä on tutkimuksessa numero 379. Ote lyhennelmästä: ”Based upon evidence to date, we believe that high-fat diets and SFA consumption should be avoided, and MUFA and omega-3 PUFA intake should be encouraged in order to regulate gut microbiota and inflammation, promoting body weight/fat control.

Aika huonolta näyttää Ursulan kannalta. Ehkä oli epätavallisen huono esimerkkiviikko? Otetaanko jokin toinen viikko tarkasteluun? Saanko muutamia ehdotuksia? Ehdottakaa satunnaisesti viikko ja vuosi tarkasteltavaksi!

 

1. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018 Mar 3. pii: S1050-4648(18)30121-9. doi:
10.1016/j.fsi.2018.03.004. [Epub ahead of print]

The functionality of prebiotics as immunostimulant: Evidences from trials on
terrestrial and aquatic animals.

Nawaz A(1), Bakhsh Javaid A(1), Irshad S(2), Hoseinifar SH(3), Xiong H(4).

Author information: 
(1)College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University,
Wuhan 430070, China.
(2)School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan
430070, China.
(3)Department of Fisheries, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and
Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
(4)College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University,
Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address: xionghanguo@163.com.

The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected
by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These
dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an
alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide
(FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and
xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well 
as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as 
treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive
understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the
intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy
intended for ailments. This review covers the most newly deep-rooted scientific
outcomes about the direct and indirect mechanism through which these dietetic
strategies can affect intestinal immunity of terrestrial and aquatic animals.
Prebiotics exert an influence on gut immune system via the increase in lysozyme
and phagocytic activity, macrophage activation and stimulation of
monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore, these functional molecules also
enhance epithelial barrier function, beneficial gut microbial population, and
production of intermediate metabolites for example short chain fatty acids
(SCFAs) that assist in balancing the immune system. Moreover, emphasis will be
sited on the relationship among food/feed, the microbiota, and the gut immune
system. In conclusion, further studies are nonetheless essential to confirm the
direct effect of prebiotics on immune response.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.03.004 
PMID: 29510254 


2. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Mar 3. pii: S0278-6915(18)30143-1. doi:
10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Modulation of key lipid raft constituents in primary rat hepatocytes by fumonisin
B1 - Implications for cancer promotion in the liver.

Burger HM(1), Abel S(2), Gelderblom WCA(3).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Biomedical and Microbial Biotechnology, Cape Peninsula University
of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville 7535, South Africa. Electronic address:
burgerh@cput.ac.za.
(2)Institute of Biomedical and Microbial Biotechnology, Cape Peninsula University
of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville 7535, South Africa. Electronic address:
abels@cput.ac.za.
(3)Institute of Biomedical and Microbial Biotechnology, Cape Peninsula University
of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville 7535, South Africa; Department of
Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South
Africa. Electronic address: gelderblomw@cput.ac.za.

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a group 2B natural occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin,
modulated lipid and fatty acid (FA) constituents of lipid rafts isolated from
primary hepatocytes following exposure to a cytotoxic concentration of FB1
(250 μM). The major effects observed in rafts, included a significant (p < 0.05) 
increase in raft cholesterol (CHOL) and glycerophospholipid such as
phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas sphingomyelin (SM) decreased (p < 0.05).
Changes in lipid constituents resulted in the disruption of important membrane
fluidity parameters represented as a decreased (p < 0.05) in the
phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PE and PC/(PE+SM) ratios and an increase (p < 0.05) in
the CHOL/PL (PL=PC+PE) ratio, suggesting the preservation of lipid raft rigidity 
and integrity. Observed FA changes in the raft PE fraction included a significant
(p < 0.05) increase in C18:2ω-6, C20:3ω-6, C20:4ω-6, C22:4ω-6, C22:5ω-3 and
C22:6ω-3, with an increase in total ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
(PUFAs). Modulation of the FA content in PE, specifically the C20:4ω-6 PC/PE
ratio and PUFA levels, together with changes in CHOL and SM are key determinants 
regulating the integrity and function of lipid rafts. In primary hepatocytes
these changes are associated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and
induction of apoptosis. A lipogenic mechanism is proposed whereby FB1 modulates
lipid rafts and differentially target cell survival indices of normal and
preneoplastic hepatocytes during cancer promotion in the liver.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.004 
PMID: 29510220 


3. Poult Sci. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.3382/ps/pey027. [Epub ahead of print]

Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich microalgae improves performance, serum
composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid profile of
broilers.

Long SF(1), Kang S(1), Wang QQ(1), Xu YT(1), Pan L(1), Hu JX(1), Li M(1), Piao
XS(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed
Industry Centre, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

riment was conducted with 126 as-hatched male Arbor Acres chicks (1-d-old,
weighing 45.3 ± 0.72 g) to determine the effects of microalgae [MA, containing
29% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on performance, serum composition, carcass trait,
antioxidant status, and fatty acid deposition of birds. The birds were allocated 
randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment (6 birds per
pen). The dietary treatments included a control diet [corn-soybean basal diet
supplemented with 3% soybean oil (SO), CON], 1% MA diet (basal diet supplemented 
with 1% MA and 2% SO, 1MA), and 2% MA diet (basal diet supplemented with 2% MA
and 1% SO, 2MA). All birds were raised in wire-floored cages. The trial consists 
of a starter phase from d 1 to 21 and a grower phase from d 22 to 42. Compared
with CON, birds supplemented with MA (1MA or 2MA) had greater (P < 0.05) average 
daily gain, liver percentage (liver weight/body weight), and serum glucose, as
well as lower (P < 0.05) feed conversation ratio, abdominal fat percentage
(abdominal fat weight/body weight), and total serum cholesterol. Moreover, due to
the high concentration of DHA in MA, birds fed MA showed increased (P < 0.05)
concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA, superoxide dismutase, and total
antioxidant capacity, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acid ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio, and
malondialdehyde in the breast and thigh muscle compared with CON. In conclusion, 
dietary supplementation with 1% or 2% DHA-rich microalgae had positive effects on
performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid
deposition in birds.

DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey027 
PMID: 29509916 


4. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2018 Mar;12(2):91-98.

Clinical Characterization of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid and Its Relationship With
Inflammation Factors in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy.

Zhou L, Yao D, Zhao S, Jiang Y, Lu W(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huai'an First People's Hospital,
Nanjing Medical University, Huaian, Jiangsu Province, China. 429536336@qq.com.

INTRODUCTION: A variety of molecular pathways, such as generation of advanced
glycation end products, inflammation, and oxidative stress, are involved in the
development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Recently, a protective effect of
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the kidney has been reported. This study
aimed to determine serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level and its association
with inflammation factors in patients with DN.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus were
divided into 3 groups of non-DN, early DN, and clinical DN, based on 24-hour
urinary albumin levels. Hemoglobin A1c, biochemical indicators, β2-microglobulin,
and 24-hour urine albumin levels were assessed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
was applied to determine the serum concentrations of DHA, advanced glycation end 
products, fractalkine, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor-α.
RESULTS: Lower serum DHA and superoxide dismutase and higher serum
β2-microglobulin and 24-hour urine albumin levels were associated with clinical
DN, compared to no DN and early DN. The reductions in serum DHA levels were
different among the patients with early and clinical DN, stratified by sex, body 
mass index, and serum lipid levels. Serum DHA significantly correlated positively
with superoxide dismutase and negatively with fractalkine and tumor necrosis
factor-α in the patients with DN.
CONCLUSIONS: Docosahexaenoic acid may suppress the expression and secretion of
fractalkine through inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor-α signaling pathway in
DN patients, which improves inflammation and oxidative stress of the kidney, and 
in turn, delaying the development of DN.


PMID: 29507271 


5. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018 Feb 28;64(3):35-39. doi:
10.14715/cmb/2018.64.3.6.

The determination of the effect of some 1,3,4 thiadiazole derivatives on
biochemical content (Fatty Acids, Sterols, Lipophilic Vitamins) in rat liver.

Parlak AE(1), Karagozoglu Y(2), Alayunt NÖ(3), Turkoglu S(4), Karatepe M(5),
Koparir M(5).

Author information: 
(1)Keban Vocational School of Higher Education, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.
(2)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Bingol University,
Bingol, Turkey.
(3)Banaz Vocational School, Usak University, Usak, Turkey.
(4)Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Firat
University, Elazig, Turkey.
(5)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Firat University,
Elazig, Turkey.

Thiadiazole derivatives and its metal compounds have antibacterial, antifungal,
antitumoral, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties. In the study, the
effects caused by thiadiazole ligand and its metal complexes upon the fatty acids
and lipophilic vitamins in livers of rats were examined. The fatty acids in liver
were specified by GC while the lipophilic vitamins were specified by HPLC. It was
observed that the amounts of oleic acids (18:1, n-9) and monounsaturated fatty
acids (MUFA) notably increased in the Mn complex group while the amounts of
arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) notably increased in the ligand group, compared to
control group. The amounts of vitamin K2, vitamin D3 and α-tocopherol
considerably increased in all groups compared to control group. It was noted that
the amounts of α-tocopherol were elevated in both the Mn and Cr complex groups
compared to control group. However, this elevation was matching with the amount
in the same groups. Nevertheless, the amount of retinol was determined to be
lower in the Mn complex group compared to other groups. Accordingly, it can be
considered that thanks to the utilization of toxic metals such as manganese,
cadmium and chrome, unsaturated fatty acids influenced the activities of the
enzymes in liver tissue, which are in charge of fatty acid chain elongation.


PMID: 29506628 


6. Poult Sci. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.3382/ps/pey039. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of short- and long-term feed restriction on ghrelin concentrations in
turkeys.

Vizcarra FR(1), Verghese M(1), Vizcarra JA(1).

Author information: 
(1)Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A&M University, Normal 35762.

One-day-old broad-breasted white turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were reared as
recommended by industry standards. In Experiment 1, starting at 5 wk of age
(WOA), birds were placed in individual cages with free access to feed and water. 
Blood samples were taken after 18 h of fasting (FASTING) and at 90 ± 5 min after 
feeding (1.5 h after feeding). In Experiment 2, birds were weighed, randomly
assigned to 2 treatments, and placed in individual cages. In treatment 1 (n =
10), birds were fed ad libitum (FF), while birds in treatment 2 (n = 11) were
placed on a restricted diet to allow for an average daily gain of 10.0 g per d
from 4 to 11 WOA (RES). In Experiment 1, concentrations of ghrelin (P = 0.012)
and glucose (P < 0.001) were increased 1.5 h after feeding compared with
concentration during FASTING, whereas concentrations of adrenocorticotropic
hormone (ACTH) (P < 0.001) and corticosterone (P = 0.002) were decreased 1.5 h
after feeding. Concentration of insulin, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies
followed a normal physiological response to fasting and feeding. Similarly, in
Experiment 2, concentrations of ghrelin (P < 0.001) and glucose (P = 0.038) were 
increased in FF birds, whereas concentrations of corticosterone were decreased (P
= 0.002) in FF birds. It could be concluded that in turkeys, preprandial (18 h of
fasting) and long-term feed restriction is associated with decreased
concentration of ghrelin-thus, the opposite effect of that reported in chickens
and mammalian species.

DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey039 
PMID: 29506221 


7. Plant Genome. 2018 Mar;11(1). doi: 10.3835/plantgenome2017.08.0069.

Genome-Wide Association and Metabolic Pathway Analysis of Corn Earworm Resistance
in Maize.

Warburton ML, Womack ED, Tang JD, Thrash A, Smith JS, Xu W, Murray SC, Williams
WP.

Maize ( L.) is a staple crop of economic, industrial, and food security
importance. Damage to the growing ears by corn earworm [ (Boddie)] is a major
economic burden and increases secondary fungal infections and mycotoxin levels.
To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a 
genome-wide association analysis was performed, followed by pathway analysis
using a gene-set enrichment-based approach. The gene-set enrichment exposed the
cumulative effects of genes in pathways to identify those that contributed the
most to resistance. Single nucleotide polymorphism-trait associations were linked
to genes including transcription factors, protein kinases, hormone-responsive
proteins, hydrolases, pectinases, xylogluconases, and the flavonol synthase gene 
(in the maysin biosynthesis pathway). The most significantly associated metabolic
pathways identified included those that modified cell wall components, especially
homogalacturonan, wax esters, and fatty acids; those involved in antibiosis,
especially 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), flavonoids, and
phenolics; and those involved in plant growth, including N uptake and energy
production. The pathways identified in this study, and especially the cell
wall-associated pathways, identified here for the first time, provide clues to
resistance mechanisms that could guide the identification of new resistant
ideotypes and candidate genes for creation of resistant maize germplasm via
selection of natural variants or gene editing.

Copyright © 2018 Crop Science Society of America.

DOI: 10.3835/plantgenome2017.08.0069 
PMID: 29505629 


8. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2018 Mar.;19(3):183-198. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1600490.

Role of exosome-associated microRNA in diagnostic and therapeutic applications to
metabolic disorders.

Yao ZY(1), Chen WB(2), Shao SS(1), Ma SZ(1), Yang CB(1), Li MZ(1), Zhao JJ(1),
Gao L(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to
Shandong University / Shandong Key Laboratory of Endocrinology and Lipid
Metabolism / Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Academy of
Clinical Medicine, Jinan 250021, China.
(2)Scientific Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong
University, Jinan 250021, China.

Metabolic disorders are classified clinically as a complex and varied group of
diseases including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Fat
toxicity, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, which may change cellular
functions, are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenetic progress 
of metabolic disorders. Recent studies have found that cells secrete nanoscale
vesicles containing proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and membrane receptors,
which mediate signal transduction and material transport to neighboring and
distant cells. Exosomes, one type of such vesicles, are reported to participate
in multiple pathological processes including tumor metastasis, atherosclerosis,
chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. Research on exosomes has focused
mainly on the proteins they contain, but recently the function of
exosome-associated microRNA has drawn a lot of attention. Exosome-associated
microRNAs regulate the physiological function and pathological processes of
metabolic disorders. They may also be useful as novel diagnostics and
therapeutics given their special features of non-immunogenicity and quick
extraction. In this paper, we summarize the structure, content, and functions of 
exosomes and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of
exosome-associated microRNAs in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1600490 
PMID: 29504312 


9. Algal Res. 2018 Mar;30:11-22. doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2017.12.001.

Comparing EPA production and fatty acid profiles of three Phaeodactylum
tricornutum strains under western Norwegian climate conditions.

Steinrücken P(1), Prestegard SK(2), de Vree JH(1), Storesund JE(1), Pree B(1),
Mjøs SA(3), Erga SR(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen,
Norway.
(2)Applied Biotechnology, Uni Research Environment, Nygårdsgaten 112, N-5006
Bergen, Norway.
(3)Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Allégaten 42, N-5020 Bergen,
Norway.

Microalgae could provide a sustainable alternative to fish oil as a source for
the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, growing microalgae on a large-scale is still
more cost-intensive than fish oil production, and outdoor productivities vary
greatly with reactor type, geographic location, climate conditions and microalgae
species or even strains. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been
intensively investigated for its potential in large-scale production, due to its 
robustness and comparatively high growth rates and EPA content. Yet, most
research have been performed in southern countries and with a single commercial
P. tricornutum strain, while information about productivities at higher latitudes
and of local strains is scarce. We examined the potential of the climate
conditions in Bergen, western Norway for outdoor cultivation of P. tricornutum in
flat panel photobioreactors and cultivated three different strains
simultaneously, one commercial strain from Spain (Fito) and two local isolates
(M28 and B58), to assess and compare their biomass and EPA productivities, and
fatty acid (FA) profiles. The three strains possessed similar biomass
productivities (average volumetric productivities of 0.20, 0.18, and
0.21 g L- 1 d- 1), that were lower compared to productivities reported from
southern latitudes. However, EPA productivities differed between the strains
(average volumetric productivities of 9.8, 5.7 and 6.9 mg L- 1 d- 1), due to
differing EPA contents (average of 4.4, 3.2 and 3.1% of dry weight), and were
comparable to results from Italy. The EPA content of strain Fito of 4.4% is
higher than earlier reported for P. tricornutum (2.6-3.1%) and was only apparent 
under outdoor conditions. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the relative FA
composition revealed strain-specific profiles. However, including data from
laboratory experiments, revealed more significant differences between outdoor and
laboratory-grown cultures than between the strains, and higher EPA contents in
outdoor grown cultures.

DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2017.12.001 
PMCID: PMC5798079
PMID: 29503805 


10. Immune Netw. 2018 Feb 26;18(1):e15. doi: 10.4110/in.2018.18.e15. eCollection 2018
Feb.

Regulation of Allergic Immune Responses by Microbial Metabolites.

Park HJ(1), Lee SW(1), Hong S(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of
Anticancer Medicine Development, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

Emerging evidence demonstrates that the microbiota plays an essential role in
shaping the development and function of host immune responses. A variety of
environmental stimuli, including foods and commensals, are recognized by the host
through the epithelium, acting as a physical barrier. Two allergic diseases,
atopic dermatitis and food allergy, are closely linked to the microbiota, because
inflammatory responses occur on the epidermal border. The microbiota generates
metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA),
which can modulate host immune responses. Here, we review how microbial
metabolites can regulate allergic immune responses. Furthermore, we focus on the 
effect of γPGA on allergic T helper (Th) 2 responses and its therapeutic
application.

DOI: 10.4110/in.2018.18.e15 
PMCID: PMC5833122
PMID: 29503745 

Conflict of interest statement: Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no
potential conflicts of interest.


11. J Oral Microbiol. 2018 Feb 26;10(1):1440128. doi: 10.1080/20002297.2018.1440128. 
eCollection 2018.

Importance of heterogeneity in Porhyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide lipid A
in tissue specific inflammatory signalling.

Olsen I(1), Singhrao SK(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo,
Norway.
(2)Dementia and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Faculty of Clinical
and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Central Lancashire,
Preston, UK.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis exists in at least two known
forms, O-LPS and A-LPS. A-LPS shows heterogeneity in which two isoforms
designated LPS1,435/1,449 and LPS1,690 appear responsible for tissue-specific
immune signalling pathways activation and increased virulence. The modification
of lipid A to tetra-acylated1,435/1,449 and/or penta-acylated1,690 fatty acids
indicates poor growth conditions and bioavailability of hemin. Hemin protects P. 
gingivalis from serum resistance and the lipid A serves as a site for its
binding. The LPS1,435/1,449 and LPS1,690 isoforms can produce opposite effects on
the human Toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR2 and TLR4 activation. This enables P.
gingivalis to select the conditions for its entry, survival, and that of its
co-habiting species in the host, orchestrating its virulence to control innate
immune pathway activation and biofilm dysbiosis. This review describes a number
of effects that LPS1,435/1,449 and LPS1,690 can exert on the host tissues such as
deregulation of the innate immune system, subversion of host cell autophagy,
regulation of outer membrane vesicle production, and adverse effects on pregnancy
outcome. The ability to change its LPS1,435/1,449 and/or LPS1,690 composition may
enable P. gingivalis to paralyze local pro-inflammatory cytokine production,
thereby gaining access to its primary location in periodontal tissue.

DOI: 10.1080/20002297.2018.1440128 
PMCID: PMC5827638
PMID: 29503705 

Conflict of interest statement: No potential conflict of interest was reported by
the authors.


12. Stem Cell Reports. 2018 Feb 26. pii: S2213-6711(18)30065-1. doi:
10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.01.039. [Epub ahead of print]

Contractile Work Contributes to Maturation of Energy Metabolism in hiPSC-Derived 
Cardiomyocytes.

Ulmer BM(1), Stoehr A(2), Schulze ML(3), Patel S(4), Gucek M(4), Mannhardt I(3), 
Funcke S(3), Murphy E(2), Eschenhagen T(3), Hansen A(5).

Author information: 
(1)University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of Experimental
Pharmacology and Toxicology, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Heart
Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic
address: b.ulmer@uke.de.
(2)Systems Biology Center, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
(3)University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of Experimental
Pharmacology and Toxicology, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Heart
Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany.
(4)Proteomics Core Facility, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
(5)University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of Experimental
Pharmacology and Toxicology, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Heart
Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic
address: ar.hansen@uke.de.

Energy metabolism is a key aspect of cardiomyocyte biology. Human induced
pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a promising tool for
biomedical application, but they are immature and have not undergone metabolic
maturation related to early postnatal development. To assess whether cultivation 
of hiPSC-CMs in 3D engineered heart tissue format leads to maturation of energy
metabolism, we analyzed the mitochondrial and metabolic state of 3D hiPSC-CMs and
compared it with 2D culture. 3D hiPSC-CMs showed increased mitochondrial mass,
DNA content, and protein abundance (proteome). While hiPSC-CMs exhibited the
principal ability to use glucose, lactate, and fatty acids as energy substrates
irrespective of culture format, hiPSC-CMs in 3D performed more oxidation of
glucose, lactate, and fatty acid and less anaerobic glycolysis. The increase in
mitochondrial mass and DNA in 3D was diminished by pharmacological reduction of
contractile force. In conclusion, contractile work contributes to metabolic
maturation of hiPSC-CMs.

Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.01.039 
PMID: 29503093 


13. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05414. [Epub ahead of
print]

Increases of Phenolics, Fatty Acids, Phytosterols, and Anticancer Activity of
Sweet Potato after Fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Shen Y, Sun H, Zeng H, Prinyawiwatkul W, Xu W, Xu Z.

Changes of phenolics, fatty acids, and phytosterols in the sweet potato (SP)
fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated and compared with its raw
and boiled SPs. The differences of profiles and levels of phenolics between raw
and boiled SPs were not as significant as their differences from fermented SP.
The level of caffeic acid or 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids in fermented SP increased
to more than 4 times higher than raw or boiled SP. Two phenolics, p-coumaric acid
and ferulic acid which were not detected in either raw or boiled SP were found in
fermented SP. The level of each fatty acid or phytosterol increased in fermented 
SP, but decreased in boiled SP. Among the hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts
obtained from both of raw and fermented SPs, the hydrophilic extract of fermented
SP exhibited the highest capability in inhibiting cancer cell PC-12
proliferation. However, each of the extracts had very low cytotoxicity to normal 
monkey kidney cell growth. The results indicated that fermented SP by
Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly increased free antioxidant-rich phenolics
and enhanced inhibit cancer cell proliferation activity without cytotoxicity to
normal cells.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05414 
PMID: 29502404 


14. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s11250-018-1553-3. [Epub ahead of
print]

Comparison of meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of finished
goat kids from indigenous and dairy breeds.

Yalcintan H(1), Ekiz B(2), Ozcan M(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Istanbul University Veterinary
Faculty, Avcilar, 34320, Istanbul, Turkey. hyalcint@istanbul.edu.tr.
(2)Department of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Istanbul University Veterinary
Faculty, Avcilar, 34320, Istanbul, Turkey.

The aim of the study was to compare the certain carcass and meat quality traits
and also fatty acid composition of goat kids from indigenous breeds (Gokceada and
Hair Goat) and dairy breeds (Saanen and Maltese). A total 40 male kids from
Saanen, Gokceada, Maltese and Hair Goat breeds were collected from commercial
farms after weaning. Kids were finished for 56 days with grower concentrate and
alfalfa hay in the sheepfold until slaughter. Higher mean values were found for
Saanen kids in terms of slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and real dressing
compared with Maltese, Hair Goat and Gokceada kids under the same intensive
conditions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between
breeds in terms of instrumental meat quality traits, except meat colour. Meat
from Gokceada and Hair Goat kids had higher lightness and Hue angle values than
Saanen kids after 24 h of blooming. High meat redness values were observed for
Saanen kids after 0 and 1 h of blooming. Panellist appreciated cooked meat from
Saanen and Maltese kids in overall acceptability. If the fatty acid composition
of meat was taken into consideration, kids from Saanen and Gokceada breeds
displayed better values, because of the lower ƩSFA percentage and higher
desirable fatty acids (C18:0 + ΣMUFA + ΣPUFA) percentage than Maltese and Hair
Goat kids. Our results indicate that male kids for Saanen which is dairy breed
could be assessable for quality goat meat production.

DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1553-3 
PMID: 29502289 


15. Diabetologia. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s00125-018-4583-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Loss of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in mice with diet-induced obesity uncouples
visceral obesity from glucose intolerance partly via the gut microbiota.

Janssen AWF(1), Katiraei S(2)(3), Bartosinska B(4)(5)(6), Eberhard D(4)(5)(6),
Willems van Dijk K(2)(3)(7), Kersten S(8).

Author information: 
(1)Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Division of Human Nutrition and
Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, the
Netherlands.
(2)Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the
Netherlands.
(3)Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University
Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
(4)Institute of Metabolic Physiology, Department of Biology, Heinrich Heine
University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
(5)Institute for Beta Cell Biology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for
Diabetes Research, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
(6)German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München Neuherberg, Germany.
(7)Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical
Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
(8)Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Division of Human Nutrition and
Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, the
Netherlands. sander.kersten@wur.nl.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of
triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes
lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for
ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in
obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and
related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and
development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4-/- mice fed a
standard high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to better characterise the role
of ANGPTL4 in glucose homeostasis and metabolic dysfunction during obesity.
METHODS: We chronically fed wild-type (WT) and Angptl4-/- mice a diet rich in
unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, combined with fructose in drinking
water, and studied metabolic function. The role of the gut microbiota was
investigated by orally administering a mixture of antibiotics (ampicillin,
neomycin, metronidazole). Glucose homeostasis was assessed via i.p. glucose and
insulin tolerance tests.
RESULTS: Mice lacking ANGPTL4 displayed an increase in body weight gain, visceral
adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and
visceral adipose tissue inflammation compared with WT mice. However, they also
unexpectedly had markedly improved glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by
elevated insulin levels. Loss of ANGPTL4 did not affect glucose-stimulated
insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islets. Since the gut microbiota have
been suggested to influence insulin secretion, and because ANGPTL4 has been
proposed to link the gut microbiota to host metabolism, we hypothesised a
potential role of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota composition was
significantly different between Angptl4-/- mice and WT mice. Interestingly,
suppression of the gut microbiota using antibiotics largely abolished the
differences in glucose tolerance and insulin levels between WT and Angptl4-/-
mice.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Despite increasing visceral fat mass, inactivation of
ANGPTL4 improves glucose tolerance, at least partly via a gut
microbiota-dependent mechanism.

DOI: 10.1007/s00125-018-4583-5 
PMID: 29502266 


16. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s10482-018-1058-0. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Ascidiaceibacter salegens gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an ascidian.

Chen L(1), Wang SC(1), Ma CH(1), Zheng DX(1), Du ZJ(2), Wang GY(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Bioengineering, School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin 
Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209, People's Republic of China.
(2)College of Marine Science, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, People's
Republic of China.
(3)Department of Bioengineering, School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin 
Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209, People's Republic of China.
wanggy18_2007@163.com.

An aerobic, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated as 
strain HQA918T, was isolated from an ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri, which was
collected from the coast of Weihai in the north of the Yellow Sea, in China. The 
strain grew optimally at 28-30 °C, at pH values 7.0-8.0, and in the presence of
1.0-3.0% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl). A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA 
gene sequences showed that strain HQA918T can be affiliated with the family
Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes, with 92.7% similarity to its close
relatives. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, and
summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1ω7c). The major polar lipids were
phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, and five unidentified
polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.1 mol%. On the basis of
the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic data, this organism
should be classified as a representative of a novel genus, for which the name
Ascidiaceibacter gen. nov. is proposed. The type species is Ascidiaceibacter
salegens sp. nov. (type strain HQA918T = KCTC 52719T = MCCC 1K03259T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-018-1058-0 
PMID: 29502262 


17. Biodegradation. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s10532-018-9825-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Anaerobic biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in long-term
methanogenic enrichment cultures from production water of oil reservoirs.

Hu H(1), Liu JF(2), Li CY(1), Yang SZ(1), Gu JD(3), Mu BZ(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Institute of Applied
Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road,
Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.
(2)State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Institute of Applied
Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road,
Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China. ljf@ecust.edu.cn.
(3)School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road,
Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.
(4)Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomanufacturing Technology,
Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.

The increasing usage of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in oilfields
as a flooding agent to enhance oil recovery at so large quantities is an
ecological hazard to the subsurface ecosystem due to persistence and inertness.
Biodegradation of HPAM is a potentially promising strategy for dealing with this 
problem among many other methods available. To understand the responsible
microorganisms and mechanism of HPAM biodegradation under anaerobic conditions,
an enrichment culture from production waters of oil reservoirs were established
with HPAM as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen incubated for over 328 days, 
and analyzed using both molecular microbiology and chemical characterization
methods. Gel permeation chromatography, High-pressure liquid chromatography and
Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy results indicated that, after 328 days 
of anaerobic incubation, some of the amide groups on HPAM were removed and
released as ammonia/ammonium and carboxylic groups, while the carbon backbone of 
HPAM was converted to smaller polymeric fragments, including oligomers and
various fatty acids. Based on these results, the biochemical process of anaerobic
biodegradation of HPAM was proposed. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene
sequences retrieved from the enrichments showed that Proteobacteria and
Planctomycetes were the dominant bacteria in the culture with HPAM as the source 
of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. For archaea, Methanofollis was more
abundant in the anaerobic enrichment. These results are helpful for understanding
the process of HPAM biodegradation and provide significant insights to the fate
of HPAM in subsurface environment and for possible bioremediation.

DOI: 10.1007/s10532-018-9825-1 
PMID: 29502248 


18. J Environ Manage. 2018 Mar 1;213:271-278. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.053.
[Epub ahead of print]

Combining microwave irradiation with sodium citrate addition improves the
pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of excess sewage sludge.

Peng L(1), Appels L(2), Su H(3).

Author information: 
(1)Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical
Technology, Beijing, China; Process and Environmental Technology Lab, Department 
of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium.
(2)Process and Environmental Technology Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, 
KU Leuven, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium. Electronic address:
lise.appels@kuleuven.be.
(3)Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical
Technology, Beijing, China. Electronic address: Suhj@mail.buct.edu.cn.

This study investigated the synergistic effect of sodium citrate (SC;
Na3C3H5O(COO)3) and microwave (MW) treatment on the efficiency of the anaerobic
digestion of excess sewage sludge. In terms of the methane yield, an increase of 
the digestion's efficiency was observed. Taking into account the cost for the MW 
energy supplied to the system, the optimum treatment conditions were a MW energy 
input of 20 MJ/kg TS and a SC concentration of 0.11 g/g TS, obtaining a methane
yield of 218.88 ml/g VS, i.e., an increase of 147.7% compared to the control. MW 
treatment was found to break the sludge structure, thereby improving the release 
of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The 
treatment of sodium citrate further strengthened the breakage of loosely bound
extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound extracellular
polymeric substances (TB-EPS). The increased VFA content stressed the improved
digestion by this pretreatment. Furthermore, the preliminary economic analysis
showed that at this point in the research, only operational but no financial
gains were achieved.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.053 
PMID: 29502012 


19. Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar 1;237:377-387. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.035. [Epub 
ahead of print]

Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract regulates metabolic disturbance in
rat liver exposed to lead associated with PPARα signaling pathway.

Yang D(1), Jiang H(2), Lu J(1), Lv Y(1), Baiyun R(3), Li S(3), Liu B(1), Lv Z(4),
Zhang Z(5).

Author information: 
(1)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin
150030, China.
(2)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin
150030, China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and
Pharmaceutical Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030,
China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for 
Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural
University, Harbin 150030, China.
(3)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin
150030, China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and
Pharmaceutical Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030,
China.
(4)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin
150030, China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of
Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast
Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.
(5)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin
150030, China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and
Pharmaceutical Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030,
China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for 
Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural
University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address: zhangzhigang@neau.edu.cn.

Lead, a pervasive environmental hazard worldwide, causes a wide range of
physiological and biochemical destruction, including metabolic dysfunction. Grape
seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural production with potential
metabolic regulation in liver. This study was performed to investigate the
protective role of GSPE against lead-induced metabolic dysfunction in liver and
elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of this event. Wistar rats received
GSPE (200 mg/kg) daily with or without lead acetate (PbA, 0.5 g/L) exposure for
56 d. According to biochemical and histopathologic analysis, GSPE attenuated
lead-induced metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and liver dysfunction.
Liver gene expression profiling was assessed by RNA sequencing and validated by
qRT-PCR. Expression of some genes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
alpha (PPARα) signaling pathway was significantly suppressed in PbA group and
revived in PbA + GSPE group, which was manifested by Gene Ontology analysis and
Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and validated by western
blot analysis. This study supports that dietary GSPE ameliorates lead-induced
fatty acids metabolic disturbance in rat liver associated with PPARα signaling
pathway, and suggests that dietary GSPE may be a protector against lead-induced
metabolic dysfunction and liver injury, providing a novel therapy to protect
liver against lead exposure.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.035 
PMID: 29502000 


20. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Mar 1. pii: S0378-8741(17)33482-7. doi:
10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Acetone fraction from Sechium edule (Jacq.) S.w. edible roots exhibits
anti-endothelial dysfunction activity.

Moreno CT(1), Martínez GC(1), Martínez MM(1), Ferrer JEJ(2), Chaverri JP(3),
Arrellín G(4), Zamilpa A(2), Campos ONM(3), Earl GL(2), Cruz GJB(1), Hernández
B(5), Ramírez CC(1), Santana MA(6), Fragoso G(7), Rosas G(8).

Author information: 
(1)Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, 
Morelos, México, CP 62350.
(2)Laboratorio de Farmacología. Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas del Sur.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social., Xochitepec, Morelos, México. CP 62790.
(3)Facultad de Química. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Coyoacán, Ciudad
de México, México, CP 04510.
(4)Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, 
Morelos, México, CP 62350; Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad
Panamericana. Ciudad de México, México. CP 03920.
(5)Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Coyoacán,
Ciudad de México, México, CP 04510.
(6)Centro de Investigación en Dinámica Celular, Universidad Autónoma del Estado
de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. CP
62209.
(7)Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México, CP 04510.
(8)Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, 
Morelos, México, CP 62350. Electronic address: gabriela.rosas@uaem.mx.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A recent ethnomedical survey on medicinal plants 
grown in Mexico revealed that Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) is one of
the most valued plant species to treat cardiovascular diseases, including
hypertension. Fruits, young leaves, buds, stems, and tuberous roots of the plant 
are edible. Considering that endothelial dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II
plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is accompanied by
a prooxidative condition, which in turn induces an inflammatory state, vascular
remodeling, and tissue damage, and that S. edule has been reported to possess
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activity, its capability to
control endothelial dysfunction was also assessed.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess in vivo the anti-endothelial dysfunction activity of 
the acetone fraction (rSe-ACE) of the hydroalcoholic extract from S. edule roots.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endothelial dysfunction was induced in female C57BL/6J
mice by a daily intraperitoneal injection of angiotensin II for 10 weeks. Either 
rSe-ACE or losartan (as a control) were co-administered with angiotensin II for
the same period. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 5, and 10. Kidney
extracts were prepared to determine IL1β, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL17, IFNγ, TNFα, and
TGFβ levels by ELISA, along with the prooxidative status as assessed by the
activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of ICAM-1 was evaluated by
immunohistochemistry in kidney histological sections. Kidney and hepatic damage, 
as well as vascular tissue remodeling, were studied.
RESULTS: The rSe-ACE fraction administered at a dose of 10mg/kg was able to
control hypertension, as well as the prooxidative and proinflammatory status in
kidney as efficiently as losartan, returning mice to normotensive levels.
Additionally, the fraction was more efficient than losartan to prevent liver and 
kidney damage. Phytochemical characterization identified cinnamic acid as a major
compound, and linoleic, palmitic, and myristic acids as the most abundant
non-polar components in the mixture, previously reported to aid in the control of
hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress, three important components of
endothelial dysfunction.
IN CONCLUSION: this study demonstrated that rSe-ACE has anti-endothelial
dysfunction activity in an experimental model and highlights the role of cinnamic
acid and fatty acids in the observed effects.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.036 
PMID: 29501845 


21. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Feb 28. pii: S0022-0302(18)30176-0. doi:
10.3168/jds.2017-13693. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of hot season on blood parameters, fecal fermentative parameters, and
occurrence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in feces of lactating dairy cows.

Calamari L(1), Morera P(2), Bani P(1), Minuti A(3), Basiricò L(2), Vitali A(4),
Bernabucci U(2).

Author information: 
(1)Istituto di Zootecnica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia
Parmense, 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.
(2)Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali (DAFNE), Università degli Studi
della Tuscia, via S. Camillo De Lellis, s.n.c, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.
(3)Istituto di Zootecnica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia
Parmense, 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. Electronic address:
andrea.minuti@unicatt.it.
(4)Facoltà di Bioscienze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari ed Ambientali, Università di
Teramo, Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy.

High temperature influences rumen and gut health, passage rate, and diet
digestibility, with effects on fermentative processes. The main aim of the study 
was to investigate the effect of hot season on hindgut fermentation, the
occurrence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in bovine feces, and on their
relationship with metabolic conditions in dairy cows producing milk used for
Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out on 7 dairy farms located in the Po
Valley (Italy), involving 1,950 Italian Friesian dairy cows. The study was
carried out from November 2013 till the end of July 2014. Temperature and
relative humidity were recorded daily by weather stations. Constant management
conditions were maintained during the experimental period. Feed and diet
characteristics, metabolic conditions, and fecal characteristics were recorded in
winter (from late November 2013 to the end of January 2014), spring (from April
to May 2014), and summer (July 2014) season. In each season, blood samples were
collected from 14 multiparous lactating dairy cows per herd to measure
biochemical indices related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well
as markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. Fecal samples were also
collected and measurements of moisture, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were
performed. The DNA extracted and purified from fecal samples was used to detect
Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The daily
mean temperature-humidity index was 40.7 ± 4.6 (range 25 to 55), 61.2 ± 3.7
(range 39 to 77), and 70.8 ± 3.2 (range 54 to 83) in winter, spring, and summer, 
respectively. Total VFA concentration in feces progressively decreased from
winter to summer. The seasonal changes of acetate and propionate followed the
same trend of total VFA; conversely, butyrate did not show any difference between
seasons, and its molar proportion was greater in summer compared with winter. A
greater occurrence of Cl. tyrobutyricum spores in summer compared with the other 
seasons was observed. The plasma concentrations of glucose, urea, albumin, Ca,
Mg, Cl, Zn, and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in summer compared with 
winter, whereas the opposite occurred for bilirubin and Na. Our results show that
summer season, through direct and indirect effect of heat stress, affected fecal 
fermentative parameters and hindgut buffering capacity, and was responsible for
the increasing occurrence of Cl. tyrobutyricum spores in feces.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13693 
PMID: 29501337 


22. Water Res. 2018 Feb 28;136:112-119. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.047. [Epub
ahead of print]

Biorefinery of cellulosic primary sludge towards targeted Short Chain Fatty
Acids, phosphorus and methane recovery.

Crutchik D(1), Frison N(2), Eusebi AL(3), Fatone F(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; Faculty of
Engineering and Sciences, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile.
(2)Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic
address: nicola.frison@univr.it.
(3)Department of Science and Engineering of Materials, Environment and City
Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona,
Italy.
(4)Department of Science and Engineering of Materials, Environment and City
Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona,
Italy. Electronic address: f.fatone@univpm.it.

Cellulose from used toilet paper is a major untapped resource embedded in
municipal wastewater which recovery and valorization to valuable products can be 
optimized. Cellulosic primary sludge (CPS) can be separated by upstream dynamic
sieving and anaerobically digested to recover methane as much as
4.02 m3/capita·year. On the other hand, optimal acidogenic fermenting conditions 
of CPS allows the production of targeted short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as much 
as 2.92 kg COD/capita·year. Here propionate content can be more than 30% and can 
optimize the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes or the
higher valuable co-polymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In this work, first a
full set of batch assays were used at three different temperatures (37, 55 and
70 °C) and three different initial pH (8, 9 and 10) to identify the best
conditions for optimizing both the total SCFAs and propionate content from CPS
fermentation. Then, the optimal conditions were applied in long term to a
Sequencing Batch Fermentation Reactor where the highest propionate production
(100-120 mg COD/g TVSfed·d) was obtained at 37 °C and adjusting the feeding pH at
8. This was attributed to the higher hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulosic
materials (up to 44%), which increased the selective growth of Propionibacterium 
acidopropionici in the fermentation broth up to 34%. At the same time, around 88%
of the phosphorus released during the acidogenic fermentation was recovered as
much as 0.15 kg of struvite per capita·year. Finally, the potential market value 
was preliminary estimated for the recovered materials that can triple over the
conventional scenario of biogas recovery in existing municipal wastewater
treatment plants.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.047 
PMID: 29500972 


23. Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 1. pii:
/j/bchm.just-accepted/hsz-2018-0125/hsz-2018-0125.xml. doi:
10.1515/hsz-2018-0125. [Epub ahead of print]

Intracellular communication between lipid droplets and peroxisomes: the Janus
face of PEX19.

Schrul B(1), Schliebs W(2).

Author information: 
(1)1Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Molecular Signaling
(PZMS), Faculty of Medicine, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 100, D-66421
Homburg/Saar, Germany.
(2)2Institute of Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Department of Systems
Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum,
Germany.

In order to adapt to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability, cells 
have to orchestrate multiple metabolic pathways, which are catalyzed in distinct 
specialized organelles. Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are both endoplasmic
reticulum-derived organelles that fulfill complementary functions in lipid
metabolism: Upon nutrient supply, LDs store metabolic energy in the form of
neutral lipids and, when energy is needed, supply fatty acids for oxidation in
peroxisomes and mitochondria. How these organelles communicate with each other
for a concerted metabolic output remains a central question. Here, we summarize
recent insights into the biogenesis and function of LDs and peroxisomes with
emphasis on the role of PEX19 in these processes.

DOI: 10.1515/hsz-2018-0125 
PMID: 29500918 


24. Cell Biol Int. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10958. [Epub ahead of print]

Biological effects of trans fatty acids and their possible roles in the lipid
rafts in apoptosis regulation.

Qiu B(1)(2)(3), Wang Q(1)(2)(3), Liu W(1)(2)(3), Xu TC(1)(2)(3), Liu LN(1)(2)(3),
Zong AZ(1)(2)(3), Jia M(1)(2)(3), Li J(4), Du FL(1)(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Shandong Academy of
Agricultural Sciences, 202, Gongye North Road, Jinan 250100, PR China.
(2)Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing Technology of Shandong Province,
202, Gongye North Road, Jinan 250100, PR China.
(3)Key Laboratory of Novel Food Resources Processing, Ministry of Agriculture,
202 Gongye North Road, Jinan 250100, PR China.
(4)State Key Lab of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang,
Jiangxi 330047, China.

A large number of recent studies are focused on evaluating the mechanism of
action of trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the progression of apoptosis. A strong
positive association has been reported between TFA and coronary heart disease
(CHD), obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and so on. The present study
reviewed the biological effects of trans fatty acids (TFA) and their possible
roles in lipid rafts in regulating apoptosis. The following aspects of TFA were
included: the research about TFA and diseases affecting serum lipid levels,
inducing system inflammation and immune response, and the correlation between TFA
and apoptosis. The primary purpose of the review article was to comprehensively
evaluate the potential correlation between lipid rafts and apoptosis induced by
different structures of TFA and provide some new research progress and future
directions about it.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10958 
PMID: 29500886 


25. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2018 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s00449-018-1914-3. [Epub ahead
of print]

Growth medium sterilization using decomposition of peracetic acid for more
cost-efficient production of omega-3 fatty acids by Aurantiochytrium.

Cho CH(1)(2), Shin WS(3), Woo DW(1)(2), Kwon JH(4)(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Technology and Institute of Agriculture and
Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, Republic of Korea.
(2)Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 plus), Gyeongsang National University,
Jinju, 660-701, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701, Republic of Korea.
(4)Department of Food Science and Technology and Institute of Agriculture and
Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, Republic of Korea. 
jhkwon@gnu.ac.kr.
(5)Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 plus), Gyeongsang National University,
Jinju, 660-701, Republic of Korea. jhkwon@gnu.ac.kr.

Aurantiochytrium can produce significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids,
specifically docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. Use of a
glucose-based medium for heterotrophic growth is needed to achieve a high growth 
rate and production of abundant lipids. However, heat sterilization for reliable 
cultivation is not appropriate to heat-sensitive materials and causes a
conversion of glucose via browning (Maillard) reactions. Thus, the present study 
investigated the use of a direct degradation of Peracetic acid (PAA) for omega-3 
production by Aurantiochytrium. Polymer-based bioreactor and glucose-containing
media were chemically co-sterilized by 0.04% PAA and neutralized through a
reaction with ferric ion (III) in HEPES buffer. Mono-cultivation was achieved
without the need for washing steps and filtration, thereby avoiding the
heat-induced degradation and dehydration of glucose. Use of chemically sterilized
and neutralized medium, rather than heat-sterilized medium, led to a twofold
faster growth rate and greater productivity of omega-3 fatty acids.

DOI: 10.1007/s00449-018-1914-3 
PMID: 29500661 


26. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1038/s41430-017-0065-y. [Epub ahead of
print]

Association between plasma trans fatty acids concentrations and leucocyte
telomere length in US adults.

Mazidi M(1)(2), Banach M(3), Kengne AP(4).

Author information: 
(1)Key State Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics
and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
moshen@genetics.ac.cn.
(2)Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, International College, The
University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100101, China.
moshen@genetics.ac.cn.
(3)Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
(4)Non-Communicable Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council
and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between plasma trans-fatty
acids (TFAs) levels and leucocyte telomere length (TL) in a US adult population
sample.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
database was used for this study. Gas chromatography was used to separate
derivatised fatty acids (Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans
vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid
(C18:2n-6t,9t)]) which were then quatified using negative chemical ionization
mass spectrometry. Data analyses used multivariable linear regressions, while
accounting for the survey design.
RESULTS: A total of 5446 eligible participants, with 46.8% (n = 2550) being men, 
were included. Their average age was 47.1 years for the total sample, and 47.8
and 46.5 years in men and women respectively (p = 0.085 for men vs. women
difference). Concentrations of palmitelaidic acid and linolelaidic acid decreased
with increasing length of the telomere (p < 0.05). Univariable linear regressions
revealed a significant negative association between levels of the palmitelaidic
acid, elaidic acid, vaccenic acid, and linolelaidic acid with TL. However when
models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, marital status,
sub-clinical inflammation, body mass index, and smoking, only palmitelaidic acid 
and linolelaidic acid remained significant (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: TFAs levels and particularly palmitelaidic and linolelaidic acids,
are likely negatively associated with telomere lenght. Future studies should
explore the potential implications of these associations.

DOI: 10.1038/s41430-017-0065-y 
PMID: 29500463 


27. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 2;8(1):3902. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22233-9.

Enhanced insulin receptor, but not PI3K, signalling protects podocytes from ER
stress.

Garner KL(1), Betin VMS(1), Pinto V(1), Graham M(1), Abgueguen E(2), Barnes M(2),
Bedford DC(2), McArdle CA(3), Coward RJM(4).

Author information: 
(1)Bristol Renal, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin 
Building, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK.
(2)Takeda Cambridge Ltd., 418 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4
0PZ, UK.
(3)Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Bristol Medical
School, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol,
BS1 3NY, UK.
(4)Bristol Renal, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin 
Building, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK. Richard.Coward@bristol.ac.uk.

Disruption of the insulin-PI3K-Akt signalling pathway in kidney podocytes causes 
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to podocyte apoptosis and proteinuria 
in diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesised that by improving insulin sensitivity we
could protect podocytes from ER stress. Here we use established activating
transcription factor 6 (ATF6)- and ER stress element (ERSE)-luciferase assays
alongside a novel high throughput imaging-based C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)
assay to examine three models of improved insulin sensitivity. We find that by
improving insulin sensitivity at the level of the insulin receptor (IR), either
by IR over-expression or by knocking down the negative regulator of IR activity, 
protein tyrosine-phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), podocytes are protected from ER stress
caused by fatty acids or diabetic media containing high glucose, high insulin and
inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. However, contrary to this, knockdown of the
negative regulator of PI3K-Akt signalling, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted
from chromosome 10 (PTEN), sensitizes podocytes to ER stress and apoptosis,
despite increasing Akt phosphorylation. This indicates that protection from ER
stress is conferred through not just the PI3K-Akt pathway, and indeed we find
that inhibiting the MEK/ERK signalling pathway rescues PTEN knockdown podocytes
from ER stress.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22233-9 
PMCID: PMC5834602
PMID: 29500363 


28. J Lipid Res. 2018 Mar 2. pii: jlr.P081620. doi: 10.1194/jlr.P081620. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (selenoprotein I) is critical for the neural
development and maintenance of plasmalogen in human.

Horibata Y(1), Elpeleg O(2), Eran A(3), Hirabayashi Y(4), Savitzki D(5), Tal
G(6), Mandel H(6), Sugimoto H(7).

Author information: 
(1)Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.
(2)Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Israel.
(3)Rambam Health Care Campus Haifa, Israel.
(4)Molecular Membrane Neuroscience, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Japan.
(5)Pediatric Neurology Unit, Galilee Medical Center, Israel.
(6)Metabolic Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus, Rappaport School of Medicine,
Israel.
(7)Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan; h-sugi@dokkyomed.ac.jp.

Ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (EPT1), also known as selenoprotein 1
(SELENOI), is an enzyme that transfers phosphoethanolamine from cytidine
diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine to lipid acceptors to produce ethanolamine
glycerophospholipids such as diacyl-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and
ether-linked plasmalogen (plasmenyl-PE). However, to date there has been no
analysis of the metabolomic consequence of the mutation of EPT1 on the
concentration of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in mammalian cells. We studied
a patient with severe complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia,
sensorineural-deafness, blindness, and seizures. Neuroimaging revealed
hypomyelination, followed by brain atrophy mainly in the cerebellum and
brainstem. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel EPT1 mutation
(exon skipping). In vitro EPT activity as well as the rate of biosynthesis of
ethanolamine glycerophospholipids was markedly reduced in cultures of the
patient's skin fibroblasts. Quantification of phospholipids by LC-MS/MS
demonstrated reduced levels of several PE species with polyunsaturated fatty
acids, such as 38:6, 38:4, 40:6, 40:5, and 40:4. Notably, most plasmenyl-PE
species were significantly decreased in the patient's cells whereas most
plasmanyl-choline (plasmanyl-PC) species were increased. Similar findings
regarding decreased plasmenyl-PE and increased plasmanyl-PC were obtained using
EPT1-KO HeLa cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time the indispensable
role of EPT1 in the myelination process and in neurodevelopment, and in the
maintenance of normal homeostasis of ether-linked phospholipids in human.

Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology, Inc.

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.P081620 
PMID: 29500230 


29. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Mar 2. pii: canprevres.0249.2017. doi:
10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0249. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolomics profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean prospective cohort:
the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II.

Jee SH(1), Kim M(2), Kim M(2), Yoo HJ(3), Kim H(3), Jung KJ(1), Hong S(4), Lee
JH(5).

Author information: 
(1)Institute for Health Promotion, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei
University.
(2)Research Center for Silver Science, Institute of Symbiotic Life-TECH, Yonsei
University.
(3)Department of Food and Nutrition, Yonsei University.
(4)National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center.
(5)Department of Food and Nutrition, Yonsei University jhleeb@yonsei.ac.kr.

In the prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II), we investigated
the application of metabolomics to differentiate subjects with incident
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC group) from subjects who remained free of cancer
(control group) during a mean follow-up period of 7 years with the aim of
identifying valuable metabolic biomarkers for HCC. We used baseline serum samples
from 75 subjects with incident HCC and 134 age- and gender-matched cancer-free
subjects. Serum metabolic profiles associated with HCC incidence were
investigated via metabolomics analysis. Compared to the control group, the HCC
group showed significantly higher serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase
(AST), alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. At baseline, 
compared to the control group, the HCC group showed significantly higher levels
of 9 metabolites, including leucine, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, phenylalanine,
tyrosine, arachidonic acid, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), but lower
levels of 28 metabolites, including oleamide, androsterone sulfate,
L-palmitoylcarnitine, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) 16:0, LPA 18:1, and
lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs). Multiple linear regression revealed that the 
incidence of HCC was associated with the levels of tyrosine, AST, lysoPCs (16:1, 
20:3), oleamide, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, androsterone sulfate, and TUDCA
(adjusted R2=0.514, P=0.036). This study showed the clinical relevance of the
dysregulation of not only branched amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and lysoPCs
but also bile acid biosynthesis and linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and fatty
acid metabolism. Additionally, tyrosine, AST, lysoPCs (16:1, 20:3), oleamide,
5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, androsterone sulfate, and TUDCA were identified as
independent variables associated with the incidence of HCC.

Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0249 
PMID: 29500188 


30. Trends Biochem Sci. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0968-0004(18)30005-7. doi:
10.1016/j.tibs.2018.01.005. [Epub ahead of print]

SREBPs in Lipid Metabolism, Insulin Signaling, and Beyond.

DeBose-Boyd RA(1), Ye J(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical
Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9046, USA. Electronic
address: Russell.DeBose-Boyd@utsouthwestern.edu.
(2)Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical
Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9046, USA. Electronic
address: Jin.Ye@utsouthwestern.edu.

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of
membrane-bound transcription factors that activate genes encoding enzymes
required for synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. SREBPs are
controlled by multiple mechanisms at the level of mRNA synthesis, proteolytic
activation, and transcriptional activity. In this review, we summarize the recent
findings that contribute to the current understanding of the regulation of SREBPs
and their physiologic roles in maintenance of lipid homeostasis, insulin
signaling, innate immunity, and cancer development.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2018.01.005 
PMID: 29500098 


31. BMC Pediatr. 2018 Mar 2;18(1):94. doi: 10.1186/s12887-018-1075-1.

Variations in the rancid-flavor compounds of human breastmilk under general
frozen-storage conditions.

Hung HY(1), Hsu YY(1), Su PF(2), Chang YJ(3)(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Nursing & Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of
Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Daxue Rd., East Dist., Tainan,
Taiwan.
(2)Department of Statistics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
(3)Department of Nursing & Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of
Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Daxue Rd., East Dist., Tainan,
Taiwan. yxc2@mail.ncku.edu.tw.
(4)Nursing Department, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
yxc2@mail.ncku.edu.tw.

BACKGROUND: Human breastmilk provides the best nutrition for infants. When women 
or infants have difficulties in breastfeeding directly, breastmilk is usually
pumped and frozen for later use. However, while frozen, breastmilk may develop a 
rancid flavor, which induces infant feeding stress and raises the mothers'
concerns about the quality of frozen breastmilk. Nevertheless, few studies have
investigated the variations in the compounds that cause the rancid flavor of
breastmilk during frozen storage.
METHODS: A repeated-measures design was adopted to quantify the variations in
rancid-flavor compounds, namely acid value (AV), total free fatty acids (FFAs),
and short-and intermediate-chain FFAs of breastmilk during frozen storage.
Breastmilk was obtained from ten healthy mothers of full-term infants and each
milk sample was divided into three aliquots: fresh, 7-day frozen and 30-day
frozen samples. The fresh samples were immediately analyzed, while the others
were frozen in a domestic fridge within a temperature range of -15 to -18 °C and 
analyzed 7 and 30 days later.
RESULTS: The rancid-flavor compounds of the breastmilk, namely AV, total FFAs and
intermediate-chain FFAs, significantly increased with storage time, all of which 
reached the sensory threshold for detecting the rancid flavor of milk. In
addition, the FFAs of the breastmilk samples frozen for 7 days far exceeded the
detection threshold for unpleased rancid flavor, while the 30-day samples were
higher than the intolerable level for most people.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the human breastmilk develops a rancid
flavor during frozen storage. Therefore, we recommend that when infants refuse
thawed milk, mothers can try to provide freshly expressed milk whenever possible 
or provide breastmilk frozen for less than 7 days. Future studies could explore
the methods for slowing breastmilk lipolysis to maintain its fresh flavor.

DOI: 10.1186/s12887-018-1075-1 
PMCID: PMC5833047
PMID: 29499686 


32. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05131. [Epub ahead of
print]

Metabolomics reveal optimal grain pre-processing (milling) toward rice koji
fermentation.

Lee S, Lee DE, Singh D, Lee CH.

A time-correlated mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolic profiling was performed 
for rice koji made using the substrates with varying degrees of milling (DOM).
Overall, 67 primary and secondary metabolites were observed as significantly
discriminant among different samples. Notably, a higher abundance of carbohydrate
(sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, phenolic acids) and lipid (fatty acids,
lysophospholipids) derived metabolites with enhanced hydrolytic enzyme activities
were observed for koji made with substrate's DOM 5-7, at 36 h. The antioxidant
secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolic acid) were relatively higher in
koji with substrate's DOM 0, followed by DOM 5 > 7 > 9 and 11, at 96 h. Hence, we
conjecture that the rice substrate pre-processing between DOM 5-7 was potentially
optimal toward koji fermentation with end-product being rich in distinctive
organoleptic, nutritional, and functional metabolites. The study rationalizes the
substrate pre-processing steps vital for commercial koji making.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05131 
PMID: 29499610 


33. Bone. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S8756-3282(18)30082-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.023.
[Epub ahead of print]

Biochemical transformation of calciprotein particles in uraemia.

Smith ER(1), Hewitson TD(2), Hanssen E(3), Holt SG(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria,
Australia; Department of Medicine - Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of
Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:
edward.smith@mh.org.au.
(2)Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria,
Australia; Department of Medicine - Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of
Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
(3)Melbourne Advanced Microscopy Facility and Department of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute,
University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Calciprotein particles (CPP) have emerged as nanoscale mediators of
phosphate-induced toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Uraemia favors
ripening of amorphous CPP (CPP-I) to the crystalline state (CPP-II) but the
pathophysiological significance of this transformation is uncertain. Clinical
studies suggest an association between CPP ripening and inflammation, vascular
dysfunction and mortality. Although ripening has been modelled in vitro, it is
unknown whether particles synthesised in serum resemble their in vivo
counterparts. Here we show that in vitro formation and ripening of CPP in uraemic
serum is characterised by extensive physiochemical rearrangements involving the
accretion of mineral, loss of surface charge and transformation of the mineral
phase from a spherical arrangement of diffuse domains of amorphous calcium
phosphate to densely-packed lamellar aggregates of crystalline hydroxyapatite.
These physiochemical changes were paralleled by enrichment with small soluble
apolipoproteins, complement factors and the binding of fatty acids. In
comparison, endogenous CPP represent a highly heterogeneous mixture of particles 
with characteristics mostly intermediate to synthetic CPP-I and CPP-II, but are
also uniquely enriched for carbonate-substituted apatite, DNA fragments, small
RNA and microbe-derived components. Pathway analysis of protein enrichment
predicted the activation of cell death and pro-inflammatory processes by
endogenous CPP and synthetic CPP-II alike. This comprehensive characterisation
validates the use of CPP-II generated in uraemic serum as in vitro equivalents of
their endogenous counterparts and provides insight into the nature and
pathological significance of CPP in CKD, which may act as vehicles for various
bioactive ligands.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.023 
PMID: 29499417 


34. Biotechnol Adv. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0734-9750(18)30037-5. doi:
10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Paradigm shift - Metabolic transformation of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic
acids to bioactives exemplify the promise of fatty acid drug discovery.

Halade GV(1), Black LM(2), Verma MK(3).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, The University of 
Alabama at Birmingham, AL, United States. Electronic address:
ganeshhalade@uabmc.edu.
(2)Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Alabama at
Birmingham, AL, United States.
(3)Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and
Research, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Fatty acid drug discovery (FADD) is defined as the identification of novel,
specialized bioactive mediators that are derived from fatty acids and have
precise pharmacological/therapeutic potential. A number of reports indicate that 
dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and limited intake of omega-6 promotes
overall health benefits. In 1929, Burr and Burr indicated the significant role of
essential fatty acids for survival and functional health of many organs. In
reference to specific dietary benefits of differential omega-3 fatty acids,
docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA and EPA) are transformed to
monohydroxy, dihydroxy, trihydroxy, and other complex mediators during infection,
injury, and exercise to resolve inflammation. The presented FADD approach
describes the metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA in response to injury,
infection, and exercise to govern uncontrolled inflammation. Metabolic
transformation of DHA and EPA into a number of pro-resolving molecules
exemplifies a novel, inexpensive approach compared to traditional, expensive drug
discovery. DHA and EPA have been recommended for prevention of cardiovascular
disease since 1970. Therefore, the FADD approach is relevant to cardiovascular
disease and resolution of inflammation in many injury models. Future research
demands identification of novel action targets, receptors for biomolecules,
mechanism(s), and drug-interactions with resolvins in order to maintain
homeostasis.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.014 
PMID: 29499340 


35. Neurosci Lett. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0304-3940(18)30148-4. doi:
10.1016/j.neulet.2018.02.059. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationship between the hippocampal expression of selected cytochrome P450
isoforms and the animal performance in the hippocampus-dependent learning task.

Gjota-Ergin S(1), Gökçek-Saraç Ç(2), Adalı O(1), Jakubowska-Doğru E(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara,
06800, Turkey.
(2)Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Akdeniz
University, Antalya, 07058, Turkey.
(3)Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara,
06800, Turkey. Electronic address: bioewa@metu.edu.tr.

Despite very extensive studies on the molecular mechanisms of memory formation,
relatively little is known about the molecular correlates of individual variation
in the learning skills within a random population of young normal subjects. The
role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the brain also remains poorly
understood. On the other hand, these enzymes are known to be related to the
metabolism of substances important for neural functions including steroids, fatty
acids, and retinoic acid. In the present study, we examined the potential
correlation between the animals' performance in a place learning task and the
levels of selected CYP isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP2D1 and CYP7A1) in the rat
hippocampus. According to their performance, rats were classified as "good"
learners (percent error/number of trials to criterion ≤ group mean - 3SEM) or
"poor" learners (percent error/number of trials to criterion ≥ group
mean + 3SEM). The CYP enzyme levels were determined by Western Blot at the early,
intermediary and advanced stages of the task acquisition (day 4, day 8 and after 
reaching a performance criterion of 83% correct responses). In this study, as
expected, CYP2E1 and CYP2D1 isoforms have been found in the rat hippocampus.
However, a putative CYP7A1 isoform was also visualized. Hippocampal expression of
these enzymes was shown to be dependent on the stage of learning and animals'
cognitive status. In "good" learners compared to "poor" learners, significantly
higher levels of CYP2E1 were found at the early stage of training, significantly 
higher levels of CYP2D1 were found at the intermediate stage of training, and
significantly higher levels of CYP7A1-like protein were found after reaching the 
acquisition criterion. These findings suggest that the differential expression of
some CYP isoforms in the hippocampus may have impact on individual learning
skills and that different CYP isoforms may play different roles during the
learning process.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.02.059 
PMID: 29499309 


36. Biochimie. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0300-9084(18)30057-9. doi:
10.1016/j.biochi.2018.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Exercise training impacts exercise tolerance and bioenergetics in gastrocnemius
muscle of non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat in vivo.

Macia M(1), Pecchi E(2), Desrois M(2), Lan C(2), Vilmen C(2), Portha B(3),
Bernard M(2), Bendahan D(2), Giannesini B(2).

Author information: 
(1)Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRMBM, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
benoit.giannesini@univ-amu.fr.
(2)Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRMBM, Marseille, France.
(3)Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire B2PE, Unité BFA,
CNRS EAC 4413, Paris, France.

The functional and bioenergetics impact of regular physical activity upon type-2 
diabetic skeletal muscle independently of confounding factors of overweight
remains undocumented. Here, gastrocnemius muscle energy fluxes, mitochondrial
capacity and mechanical performance were assessed noninvasively and
longitudinally in non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats using magnetic resonance 
(MR) imaging and dynamic 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) throughout a
6-min fatiguing bout of exercise performed before, in the middle (4-week) and at 
the end of an 8-week training protocol consisting in 60-min daily run on a
treadmill. The training protocol reduced plasmatic insulin level (-61%) whereas
blood glucose and non-esterified fatty acids levels remained unaffected, thereby 
indicating an improvement of insulin sensitivity. It also increased muscle
mitochondrial citrate synthase activity (+45%) but this increase did not enhance 
oxidative ATP synthesis capacity in working muscle in vivo while glycolytic ATP
production was increased (+33%). On the other hand, the training protocol
impaired maximal force-generating capacity (-9%), total amount of force produced 
(-12%) and increased ATP cost of contraction (+32%) during the fatiguing
exercise. Importantly, these deleterious effects were transiently worsened in the
middle of the 8-week period, in association with reduced oxidative capacity and
increased basal [Pi]/[PCr] ratio (an in vivo biomarker of muscle damage). These
data demonstrate that the beneficial effect of regular training on insulin
sensitivity in non-obese diabetic rat occurs separately from any improvement in
muscle mitochondrial function and might be linked to an increased capacity for
metabolizing glucose through anaerobic process in exercising muscle.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie
Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2018.02.014 
PMID: 29499298 


37. J Pharm Sci. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0022-3549(18)30101-1. doi:
10.1016/j.xphs.2018.02.017. [Epub ahead of print]

A newly identified impurity in Polysorbate 80, the long-chain ketone
12-tricosanone, forms visible particles in a biopharmaceutical drug product.

Hampl V(1), Guo X(1), Ehrenstrasser C(1), Viertler M(1), Rayner L(1), Campanelli 
G(1), Schipflinger R(1), Thewes K(1), Cerreti A(1), Boehm S(1), Sonderegger C(2).

Author information: 
(1)Novartis Biologics Technical Development and Manufacturing, Sandoz GmbH
Austria.
(2)Novartis Biologics Technical Development and Manufacturing, Sandoz GmbH
Austria. Electronic address: corinna.sonderegger@novartis.com.

Visible particles linked to polysorbates used in biopharmaceutical drug products 
have been observed repeatedly in recent years as an industry-wide issue, with
polysorbate degradation and insoluble degradation products, especially fatty
acids and fatty acid esters, being suspected as root-cause. We have shown that
the visible particles observed in a monoclonal antibody (mAB) drug product
solution in vials after 18 months of long-term storage at 5 ± 3°C were neither
linked to reduction in polysorbate (PS80) concentration nor to any known
polysorbate degradation product, but consist of 12-tricosanone, an impurity
present in the raw material PS80, not a degradation product. The occurrence of
visible 12-tricosanone particles in drug product correlated with the usage of
specific PS80 raw material lots, where 12-tricosanone was found as impurity at
elevated levels. The quantities detected in these PS80 lots directly translate
into the amount found in the respective mAB drug product batches. This is the
first time that a clear correlation between the occurrence of the impurity
12-tricosanone in PS80 and the occurrence of visible particles in drug product
batches is reported. The observation and techniques described enable the control 
of this ketone in polysorbate raw materials, providing means to prevent
respective visible particle formation in drug products.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2018.02.017 
PMID: 29499279 


38. J Biotechnol. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0168-1656(18)30062-2. doi:
10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.02.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolomic elucidation of the effects of media and carbon sources on fatty acid 
production by Yarrowia lipolytica.

Yun EJ(1), Lee J(1), Kim DH(1), Kim J(1), Kim S(1), Jin YS(2), Kim KH(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, 
South Korea.
(2)Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.
(3)Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, 
South Korea. Electronic address: khekim@korea.ac.kr.

Lipid production by oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica depends highly on culture
environments, such as carbon sources, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, types of
media, and cellular growth phases. In this study, the effects of media and carbon
sources on lipid and metabolite production were investigated by profiling fatty
acids and intracellular metabolites of Y. lipolytica grown in various media. The 
highest total fatty acid yield 114.04 ± 6.23 mg/g dry cell weight was achieved by
Y. lipolytica grown in minimal medium with glycerol (SCG) in the exponential
phase. The high lipid production by Y. lipolytica in SCG was presumed to be due
to the higher C/N ratio in SCG than in the complex media. Moreover, glycerol
promoted lipid production better than glucose in both complex and minimal media
because glycerol can easily incorporate into the core of triglycerides.
Metabolite profiling revealed that levels of long-chain fatty acids, such as
stearic acid, palmitic acid, and arachidic acid, increased in SCG medium.
Meanwhile, in complex media supplemented with either glucose or glycerol, levels 
of amino acids, such as cysteine, methionine, and glycine, highly increased. This
metabolomic approach could be applied to modulate the global metabolic network of
Y. lipolytica for producing lipids and other valuable products.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.02.011 
PMID: 29499237 


39. Neurotoxicology. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0161-813X(18)30058-5. doi:
10.1016/j.neuro.2018.02.017. [Epub ahead of print]

Myxobacterial Natural Products: An Under-Valued Source of products for Drug
Discovery for Neurological Disorders.

Dehhaghi M(1), Mohammadipanah F(2), Guillemin GJ(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of
Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of
Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Neuropharmacology group, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.
(2)Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of
Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of
Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: fmohammadipanah@ut.ac.ir.
(3)Neuropharmacology group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie
University, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: gilles.guillemin@mq.edu.au.

Age-related disorders impose noticeable financial and emotional burdens on
society. This impact is becoming more prevalent with the increasing incidence of 
neurodegenerative diseases and is causing critical concerns for treatment of
patients worldwide. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis 
and motor neuron disease are the most prevalent and the most expensive to treat
neurodegenerative diseases globally. Therefore, exploring effective therapies to 
overcome these disorders is a necessity. Natural products and their derivatives
have increasingly attracted attention in drug discovery programs that have
identified microorganisms which produce a large range of metabolites with
bioactive properties. Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria with large 
genome size, produce a wide range of secondary metabolites with significant
chemical structures and a variety of biological effects. They are potent natural 
product producers. In this review paper, we attempt to overview some secondary
metabolites synthesized by myxobacteria with neuroprotective activity through
known mechanisms including production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduction
of apoptosis, immunomodulation, stress reduction of endoplasmic reticulum,
stabilization of microtubules, enzyme inhibition and serotonin receptor
modulation.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2018.02.017 
PMID: 29499217 


40. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Feb 27. pii: S0005-2736(18)30065-8. doi:
10.1016/j.bbamem.2018.02.024. [Epub ahead of print]

Interactions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine with ceramide-based mixtures.

Gooris GS(1), Kamran M(1), Kros A(2), Moore DJ(3), Bouwstra JA(4).

Author information: 
(1)Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Gorlaeus
laboratories, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.
(2)Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Gorleaus laboratories, 2333 
CC Leiden, The Netherlands.
(3)GSK Consumer Healthcare, 184 Liberty Corner Road, Warren, NJ, United States.
(4)Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Gorlaeus
laboratories, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
bouwstra@chem.leidenuniv.nl.

The outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), acts as the natural
physical barrier. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a crystalline lipid 
matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. Although
phospholipids are frequently present in topical formulations, no detailed
information is reported on the interactions between phospholipids and SC lipids. 
The aim of this study was to examine the interactions between a model
phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and synthetic ceramide-based 
mixtures (referred to as SC lipids). (Perdeuterated) DPPC was mixed with SC
lipids and the lipid organization and mixing properties were examined. The
studies revealed that DPPC participates in the same lattice as SC lipids thereby 
enhancing a hexagonal packing. Even at a high DPPC level, no phase separated pure
DPPC was observed. When a DPPC containing formulation is applied to the skin
surface it must partition into the SC lipid matrix prior to any mixing with the
SC lipids. To mimic this, DPPC was applied on top of a SC lipid membrane. DPPC
applied in a liquid crystalline state was able to mix with the SC lipids and
participated in the same lattice as the SC lipids. However, when DPPC was applied
in a rippled gel-state very limited partitioning of DPPC into the SC lipid matrix
occurred. Thus, when applied to the skin, liquid crystalline DPPC will have very 
different interactions with SC lipids than DPPC in a (rippled-)gel phase.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2018.02.024 
PMID: 29499188 


41. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002667. [Epub ahead
of print]

Parvibium lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Alcaligenaceae 
isolated from a freshwater pond.

Chen WM(1), Xie PB(2), Hsu MY(2), Sheu SY(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Seafood Science, Laboratory of Microbiology, National
Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Hai-Chuan Rd. Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung City 811, 
Taiwan, ROC.
(2)2​Department of Marine Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Marine University,
No. 142, Hai-Chuan Rd. Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan, ROC.

A bacterial strain designated KMB9T was isolated from a freshwater pond in Taiwan
and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain KMB9T
were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating, motile by
means of a monopolar flagellum, non-spore-forming and rods surrounded by a thick 
capsule and forming white-coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 20-40 °C
(optimum, 25-37 °C), at pH 6.5-7.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-0.5 % NaCl
(optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene and four
housekeeping gene sequences (recA, rpoA, rpoB and atpD) showed that strain KMB9T 
forms a distinct phyletic line within the family Alcaligenaceae, and the levels
of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest relatives with validly
published names were less than 93.3 %. The predominant fatty acids were summed
feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The 
major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The major polyamine was putrescine. The polar
lipid profile revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine,
phosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids, aminolipids,
phospholipids and lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain KMB9T was
54.5 mol%. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain KMB9T
represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Alcaligenaceae, for which
the name Parvibium lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
KMB9T (=BCRC 81053T=LMG 30055T=KCTC 52814T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002667 
PMID: 29498621 


42. J Med Microbiol. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000707. [Epub ahead of print]

Roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in
branched-chain membrane fatty acid levels and associated functions in
Staphylococcus aureus.

Singh VK(1), Sirobhushanam S(2), Ring RP(1), Singh S(1), Gatto C(2), Wilkinson
BJ(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Microbiology & Immunology, A.T. Still University of Health Sciences,
Kirksville, MO 63501, USA.
(2)2​Microbiology Group, School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State
University, Normal, IL 61790, USA.

PURPOSE: Membrane fluidity to a large extent is governed by the presence of
branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase
(BKD) is the key enzyme in BCFA synthesis. A Staphylococcus aureus BKD-deficient 
strain still produced substantial levels of BCFAs. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
with structural similarity to BKD has been speculated to contribute to BCFAs in
S. aureus.
METHODOLOGY: This study was carried out using BKD-, PDH- and BKD : PDH-deficient 
derivatives of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain JE2. Differences in growth 
kinetics were evaluated spectrophotometrically, membrane BCFAs using gas
chromatography and membrane fluidity by fluorescence polarization. Carotenoid
levels were estimated by measuring A465 of methanol extracts from 48 h cultures. 
MIC values were determined by broth microdilution.Results/Key findings. BCFAs
made up 50 % of membrane fatty acids in wild-type but only 31 % in the
BKD-deficient mutant. BCFA level was ~80 % in the PDH-deficient strain and 38 %
in the BKD : PDH-deficient strain. BKD-deficient mutant showed decreased membrane
fluidity, the PDH-deficient mutant showed increased membrane fluidity. The BKD-
and PDH-deficient strains grew slower and the BKD : PDH-deficient strain grew
slowest at 37 °C. However at 20 °C, the BKD- and BKD : PDH-deficient strains grew
only a little followed by autolysis of these cells. The BKD-deficient strain
produced higher levels of staphyloxanthin. The PDH-deficient and
BKD : PDH-deficient strains produced very little staphyloxanthin. The
BKD-deficient strain showed increased susceptibility to daptomycin.
CONCLUSION: The BCFA composition of the cell membrane in S. aureus seems to
significantly impact cell growth, membrane fluidity and resistance to daptomycin.

DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000707 
PMID: 29498620 


43. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002659. [Epub ahead
of print]

Flavobacterium fluviatile sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater creek.

Chen WM(1), Su CL(2), Young CC(3), Sheu SY(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Seafood Science, National
Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Hai-Chuan Rd. Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung City 811, 
Taiwan, ROC.
(2)2​Department of Marine Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Marine University,
No. 142, Hai-Chuan Rd. Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan, ROC.
(3)3​College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Soil and
Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan,
ROC.

A yellowish-pink-coloured bacterial strain, TAPY14T, was isolated from a
freshwater creek in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene
sequences showed that strain TAPY14T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and
showed the highest similarity (97.3 %) with respect to
Flavobacteriumreichenbachii WB 3.2-61T, Flavobacteriumginsengisoli DCY54T and
Flavobacterium defluvii EMB117T and less than 97 % with other members of the
genus. Cells of strain TAPY14T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile
by gliding and rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 20-30 °C, pH 6 and in the
presence of 0.5 % NaCl. Strain TAPY14T contained iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3
(C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) as the predominant fatty acids. The polar lipid
profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, four uncharacterized
aminophospholipids, one uncharacterized phospholipid and one uncharacterized
lipid. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The major isoprenoid quinone was
MK-6. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA
hybridization values for strain TAPY14T with F. reichenbachii DSM 21791T, F.
ginsengisoli JCM 17336T and F. defluvii DSM 17963T were less than 30 %. On the
basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain TAPY14T should be
classified as a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium fluviatile sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is TAPY14T (=BCRC 81012T=LMG 29733T=KCTC
52446T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002659 
PMID: 29498618 


44. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002676. [Epub ahead
of print]

Amnibacterium endophyticum sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from 
Aegiceras corniculatum.

Li FN(1), Tuo L(2), Lee SM(3), Jin T(4)(5), Liao S(6)(4)(5), Li W(7), Yan X(7),
Sun CH(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China.
(2)2​Research Center for Medicine and Biology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi
563003, PR China.
(3)3​State Key Laboratory of Quality Research of Chinese Medicine and Institute
of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, PR China.
(4)5​China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Jinsha Road, Shenzhen 518120, PR
China.
(5)4​BGI-Shenzhen, Beishan, Industrial Zone, Shenzhen 518083, PR China.
(6)6​BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen
518083, PR China.
(7)7​China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China.

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and
short-rod-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain 1T4Z-3T, was isolated from a 
piece of surface-sterilized branch of Aegiceras corniculatum collected from the
Cotai Ecological Zones in Macao, China. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence
analysis showed that strain 1T4Z-3T was clearly affiliated to the genus
Amnibacterium and exhibited 97.9 % gene sequence similarity to Amnibacterium
kyonggiense JCM 16463T, 97.3 % gene sequence similarity to Amnibacterium soli JCM
19015T and less than 96.4 % gene sequence similarities to other genera of the
family Microbacteriaceae. Strain 1T4Z-3T had L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the
diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty
acids) were iso-C16 : 0 (46.6 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (27.3 %). The predominant
menaquinones of strain 1T4Z-3T were MK-11 (81.4 %) and MK-12 (14.1 %). The polar 
lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, six unidentified
glycolipids, four unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA
G+C content of strain 1T4Z-3T was 71.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic,
phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain 1T4Z-3T is considered to represent
a novel species of the genus Amnibacterium, for which the name Amnibacterium
endophyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Amnibacterium endophyticum 
is 1T4Z-3T (=KCTC 39983T=CGMCC 1.16066T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002676 
PMID: 29498617 


45. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002674. [Epub ahead
of print]

Marmoricola silvestris sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from alpine
forest soil.

Schumann P(1), Zhang DC(2), França L(3), Margesin R(3).

Author information: 
(1)1​Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell
Cultures, Inhoffenstrasse 7B, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
(2)2​Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR
China.
(3)3​Institute of Microbiology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25,
6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

A Gram-stain-positive, flagellated, catalase- and cytochrome c oxidase-positive
bacterial strain, designated S20-100T, was isolated from alpine forest soil.
Growth occurred at a temperature range of 0-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence 
of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed
that strain S20-100T was related to the genus Marmoricola and had the highest 16S
rRNA gene sequence similarity to Marmoricola ginsengisoli Gsoil 097T (98.4 %) and
Marmoricola solisilvae KIS18-7T (98.3 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain
S20-100T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid (ll-Dpm) as the diagnostic diamino acid
and was of the type A3γ ll-Dpm - Gly. The strain contained MK-8(H4) as the
predominant isoprenoid quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, 
four unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified lipids in lower amounts.
The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω6c and
C18 : 1ω9c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.2 mol%. Combined data of
phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that strain
S20-100T represents a novel species of the genus Marmoricola, for which the name 
Marmoricolasilvestris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S20-100T (=DSM
104694T=LMG 30008T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002674 
PMID: 29498616 


46. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s00216-018-0912-2. [Epub ahead of
print]

Development and application of a UHPLC-MS/MS metabolomics based comprehensive
systemic and tissue-specific screening method for inflammatory, oxidative and
nitrosative stress.

Schoeman JC(1)(2), Harms AC(3)(4), van Weeghel M(3)(5)(6), Berger R(3)(4),
Vreeken RJ(3)(4)(7), Hankemeier T(3)(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug
Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, Netherlands.
j.c.schoeman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl.
(2)Netherlands Metabolomics Centre, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC,
Leiden, Netherlands. j.c.schoeman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl.
(3)Department of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug
Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, Netherlands.
(4)Netherlands Metabolomics Centre, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC,
Leiden, Netherlands.
(5)Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden
University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2333 ZC, Leiden, Netherlands.
(6)Department of Clinical Chemistry, Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases,
Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ,
Amsterdam, Netherlands.
(7)Discovery Sciences, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.

Oxidative stress and inflammation are underlying pathogenic mechanisms associated
with the progression of several pathological conditions and immunological
responses. Elucidating the role of signalling lipid classes, which include, among
others, the isoprostanes, nitro fatty acids, prostanoids, sphingoid bases and
lysophosphatidic acids, will create a snapshot of the cause and effect of
inflammation and oxidative stress at the metabolic level. Here we describe a
fast, sensitive, and targeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem
mass spectrometry metabolomics method that allows the quantitative measurement
and biological elucidation of 17 isoprostanes as well as their respective
isomeric prostanoid mediators, three nitro fatty acids, four sphingoid mediators,
and 24 lysophosphatidic acid species from serum as well as organ tissues,
including liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney and brain. Application of this
method to paired mouse serum and tissue samples revealed tissue- and
serum-specific stress and inflammatory readouts. Little correlation was found
between localized (tissue) metabolite levels compared with the systemic (serum)
circulation in a homeostatic model. The application of this method in future
studies will enable us to explore the role of signalling lipids in the metabolic 
pathogenicity of stress and inflammation during health and disease.

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-0912-2 
PMID: 29497765 


47. Food Funct. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01979c. [Epub ahead of print]

The impact of lactation and gestational age on the composition of branched-chain 
fatty acids in human breast milk.

Jie L(1), Qi C(1), Sun J(1), Yu R(2), Wang X(3), Korma SA(1), Xiang J(2), Jin
Q(1), Akoh CC(4), Xiao H(5), Wang X(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation
Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food
Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and
Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, PR China. 
ceqi@jiangnan.edu.cn.
(2)Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Wuxi 214002, Jiangsu, China.
(3)Center of Applied Processing Technology, COFCO Nutrition & Health Research
Institute, Beijing 100000, PR China.
(4)Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
30602, USA.
(5)Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.

Breast milk consumption reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) 
in preterm infants compared to formula. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are
present in breast milk but not in most formulas intended for preterm infants. We 
aimed to determine the composition of BCFAs in the breast milk of mothers with
preterm infants, and to understand the impact of gestational age at birth and
stage of lactation on BCFA content. The main BCFAs in preterm breast milk were
iso-14:0, iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0, and anteiso-17:0. Breast
milk BCFAs as a percent of total fatty acids (g per 100 g, %) were significantly 
different across lactation stages, with the highest concentration in colostrum,
followed by transitional and mature breast milk (median: 0.41, 0.31, and 0.28%,
respectively, p < 0.05). Lower BCFAs in preterm breast milk compared to term
breast milk may have been related to maternal intake, or the ability of the
mammary gland to extract BCFA from plasma, or differences in mammary gland BCFA
synthesis. BCFAs were mainly in the sn-2 position (52-65%), similar to palmitic
acid. Overall, preterm and term breast milk BCFAs were similar and showed
specific concentration patterns, resembling 16:0 with respect to sn-2 positional 
distribution. BCFAs were reduced with lactation stage, similar to highly
unsaturated fatty acids.

DOI: 10.1039/c7fo01979c 
PMID: 29497729 


48. Analyst. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1039/c8an00017d. [Epub ahead of print]

Deciphering the biochemical similarities and differences among mouse embryonic
stem cells, somatic and cancer cells using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

Güler G(1), Acikgoz E(2), Karabay Yavasoglu NÜ(3), Bakan B(3), Goormaghtigh E(4),
Aktug H(5).

Author information: 
(1)Center for Drug Research & Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications
(ARGEFAR), Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey. gunnurgorucu@gmail.com.
(2)Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University,
35100, Izmir, Turkey. acikgozedaa@gmail.com and Department of Histology and
Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080, Van, Turkey.
(3)Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100, Izmir,
Turkey.
(4)Laboratory of Structure and Function of Biological Membranes, Center of
Structural Biology and Bioinformatics, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels,
Belgium.
(5)Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University,
35100, Izmir, Turkey. acikgozedaa@gmail.com.

Cellular macromolecules play important roles in cellular behaviors and biological
processes. In the current work, cancer (KLN205), normal (MSFs) and mouse
embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are compared using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
Modifications in the composition, concentration, structure and function-related
changes in the cellular components were deciphered using the infrared spectra.
Our results revealed that cancer and embryonic stem cells are very similar but
highly different from the normal cells based on the spectral variations in the
protein, lipid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid components. The longest lipid acyl 
chains exist in mESCs, while cancer cells harbor the lowest lipid amount, short
lipid acyl chains, a high content of branched fatty acids and thin cell
membranes. The highest cellular growth rate and accelerated cell divisions were
observed in the cancer cells. However, the normal cells harbor low nucleic acid
and glycogen amounts but have a higher lipid composition. Any defect in the
signaling pathways and/or biosynthesis of these cellular parameters during the
embryonic-to-somatic cell transition may lead to physiological and molecular
events that promote cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. We
conclude that an improved understanding of both similarities and differences in
the cellular mechanisms among the cancer, normal and mESCs is crucial to develop 
a potential clinical relevance, and ATR-FITR can be successfully used as a novel 
approach to gain new insights into the stem cell and cancer research. We suggest 
that targeting the cellular metabolisms (glycogen and lipid) can provide new
strategies for cancer treatment.

DOI: 10.1039/c8an00017d 
PMID: 29497718 


49. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 1;8(1):3874. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22157-4.

Transcriptional activation of zebrafish fads2 promoter and its transient
transgene expression in yolk syncytial layer of zebrafish embryos.

Tay SS(1), Kuah MK(2), Shu-Chien AC(3)(4).

Author information: 
(1)School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden,
Penang, Malaysia.
(2)Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Sains@USM, Block B No.
10, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
(3)School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden,
Penang, Malaysia. alex@usm.my.
(4)Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Sains@USM, Block B No.
10, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. alex@usm.my.

The front-end desaturases (Fads) are rate-limiting enzymes responsible for
production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The full spectrum
of the transcriptional regulation of fads is still incomplete, as cloning of fads
promoter is limited to a few species. Here, we described the cloning and
characterisation of the zebrafish fads2 promoter. Using 5'-deletion and mutation 
analysis on this promoter, we identified a specific region containing the sterol 
regulatory element (SRE) which is responsible for the activation of the fads2
promoter. In tandem, two conserved CCAAT boxes were also present adjacent to the 
SRE and mutation of either of these binding sites attenuates the transcriptional 
activation of the fads2 promoter. An in vivo analysis employing GFP reporter gene
in transiently transfected zebrafish embryos showed that this 1754 bp upstream
region of the fads2 gene specifically directs GFP expression in the yolk
syncytial layer (YSL) region. This indicates a role for LC-PUFA in the transport 
of yolk lipids through this tissue layer. In conclusion, besides identifying
novel core elements for transcriptional activation in zebrafish fads2 promoter,
we also reveal a potential role for fads2 or LC-PUFA in YSL during development.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22157-4 
PMCID: PMC5832746
PMID: 29497119 


50. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 1;8(1):3829. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22052-y.

Human milk oligosaccharides protect against the development of autoimmune
diabetes in NOD-mice.

Xiao L(1), Van't Land B(2)(3), Engen PA(4), Naqib A(5), Green SJ(5), Nato A(1),
Leusink-Muis T(1), Garssen J(1)(6), Keshavarzian A(1)(4)(7), Stahl B(6), Folkerts
G(1).

Author information: 
(1)Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
(2)Nutricia Research, Department of Immunology/Human milk research platform,
Utrecht, The Netherlands. B.vantland@Umcutrecht.nl.
(3)University Medical Center Utrecht, The Wilhelmina Children's Hospital,
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
B.vantland@Umcutrecht.nl.
(4)Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition,
Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
(5)DNA Services Facility, Research Resources Center, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
(6)Nutricia Research, Department of Immunology/Human milk research platform,
Utrecht, The Netherlands.
(7)Department of Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Rush University Medical 
Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such
as optimal microbiome development during early life that "programs" the immune
system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor
against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk
Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune
responses directly. Here we show that early life provision (only for a period of 
six weeks) of 1% authentic HMOS (consisting of both long-chain, as well as
short-chain structures), delayed and suppressed T1D development in non-obese
diabetic mice and reduced development of severe pancreatic insulitis in later
life. These protective effects were associated with i) beneficial alterations in 
fecal microbiota composition, ii) anti-inflammatory microbiota-generating
metabolite (i.e. short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)) changes in fecal, as well as
cecum content, and iii) induction of anti-diabetogenic cytokine profiles.
Moreover, in vitro HMOS combined with SCFAs induced development of tolerogenic
dendritic cells (tDCs), priming of functional regulatory T cells, which support
the protective effects detected in vivo. In conclusion, HMOS present in human
milk are therefore thought to be vital in the protection of children at risk for 
T1D, supporting immune and gut microbiota development in early life.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22052-y 
PMCID: PMC5832804
PMID: 29497108 


51. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 1;8(1):3876. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21925-6.

Fatty Acid Supplementation Reverses the Small Colony Variant Phenotype in
Triclosan-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Genetic, Proteomic and Phenotypic
Analyses.

Bazaid AS(1)(2), Forbes S(3), Humphreys GJ(1), Ledder RG(1), O'Cualain R(4),
McBain AJ(5).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of
Biology, Medicine and Health, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester,
Manchester, UK.
(2)College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
(3)Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield,
UK.
(4)Biological Mass Spectrometry Core Facility, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and
Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
(5)Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of
Biology, Medicine and Health, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester,
Manchester, UK. andrew.mcbain@manchester.ac.uk.

Staphylococcus aureus can develop a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype in
response to sub-lethal exposure to the biocide triclosan. In the current study,
whole genome sequencing was performed and changes in virulence were investigated 
in five Staphylococcus aureus strains following repeated exposure to triclosan.
Following exposure, 4/5 formed SCV and exhibited point mutations in the triclosan
target gene fabI with 2/4 SCVs showing mutations in both fabI and fabD. The SCV
phenotype was in all cases immediately reversed by nutritional supplementation
with fatty acids or by repeated growth in the absence of triclosan, although fabI
mutations persisted in 3/4 reverted SCVs. Virulence, determined using
keratinocyte invasion and Galleria mellonella pathogenicity assays was
significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in 3/4 SCVs and in the non-SCV
triclosan-adapted bacterium. Proteomic analysis revealed elevated FabI in 2/3 SCV
and down-regulation in a protein associated with virulence in 1/3 SCV. In
summary, attenuated keratinocyte invasion and larval virulence in
triclosan-induced SCVs was associated with decreases in growth rate and virulence
factor expression. Mutation occurred in fabI, which encodes the main triclosan
target in all SCVs and the phenotype was reversed by fatty acid supplementation, 
demonstrating an association between fatty acid metabolism and triclosan-induced 
SCV.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21925-6 
PMCID: PMC5832852
PMID: 29497096 


52. J Med Genet. 2018 Mar 1. pii: jmedgenet-2017-105172. doi:
10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-105172. [Epub ahead of print]

Dominant ELOVL1 mutation causes neurological disorder with ichthyotic
keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination and dysmorphic features.

Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak A(#)(1), Rydzanicz M(#)(2), Chlebowski A(3),
Kłosowska-Kosicka K(3), Mika A(4)(5), Gruchota J(3), Jurkiewicz E(6), Kowalewski 
C(7), Pollak A(8), Stradomska TJ(9), Kmieć T(10), Jakubowski R(11)(12),
Gasperowicz P(2), Walczak A(2), Śladowski D(13), Jankowska-Steifer E(14),
Korniszewski L(8), Kosińska J(2), Obersztyn E(1), Nowak W(15), Śledziński T(5),
Dziembowski A(3), Płoski R(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of the Mother and Child, Warsaw,
Poland.
(2)Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
(3)Laboratory of RNA Biology and Functional Genomics, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Warsaw, Poland.
(4)Department of Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of
Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
(5)Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdansk,
Gdansk, Poland.
(6)Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Children's Memorial Health Institute,
Warsaw, Poland.
(7)Department of Dermatology and Immunodermatology, Medical University of Warsaw,
Warsaw, Poland.
(8)Department of Genetics, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing,
Warsaw, Poland.
(9)Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine,
Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
(10)Child Neurology Department, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw,
Poland.
(11)Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus
Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
(12)Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
(13)Department of Transplantology and Central Tissue Bank, Centre for
Biostructure, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
(14)Department of Histology and Embryology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw,
Poland.
(15)Institue of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus 
Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
(#)Contributed equally

BACKGROUND: Ichthyosis and neurological involvement occur in relatively few known
Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in genes relevant both for epidermis and 
neural function.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the cause of a similar phenotype of ichthyotic
keratoderma, spasticity, mild hypomyelination (on MRI) and dysmorphic features
(IKSHD) observed in two unrelated paediatric probands without family history of
disease.
METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in both patients. The functional
effect of prioritised variant in ELOVL1 (very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
elongase) was analysed by VLCFA profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
in stably transfected HEK2932 cells and in cultured patient's fibroblasts.
RESULTS: Probands shared novel heterozygous ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation (de novo 
in one family, while in the other family, father could not be tested). In
transfected cells p.Ser165Phe: (1) reduced levels of FAs C24:0-C28:0 and C26:1
with the most pronounced effect for C26:0 (P=7.8×10-6 vs HEK293 cells with wild
type (wt) construct, no difference vs naïve HEK293) and (2) increased levels of
C20:0 and C22:0 (P=6.3×10-7, P=1.2×10-5, for C20:0 and C22:0, respectively,
comparison vs HEK293 cells with wt construct; P=2.2×10-7, P=1.9×10-4,
respectively, comparison vs naïve HEK293). In skin fibroblasts, there was
decrease of C26:1 (P=0.014), C28:0 (P=0.001) and increase of C20:0 (P=0.033) in
the patient versus controls. There was a strong correlation (r=0.92, P=0.008)
between the FAs profile of patient's fibroblasts and that of p.Ser165Phe
transfected HEK293 cells. Serum levels of C20:0-C26:0 FAs were normal, but the
C24:0/C22:0 ratio was decreased.
CONCLUSION: The ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation is a likely cause of IKSHD.

© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of 
the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
otherwise expressly granted.

DOI: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-105172 
PMID: 29496980 

Conflict of interest statement: Competing interests: None declared.


53. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Feb 26. pii: S1043-6618(17)31319-1. doi:
10.1016/j.phrs.2018.02.028. [Epub ahead of print]

Gut Microbiota in Kidney Disease and Hypertension.

Antza C(1), Stabouli S(2), Kotsis V(3).

Author information: 
(1)Hypertension Center, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Papageorgiou
Hospital, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
(2)1st Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
(3)Hypertension Center, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Papageorgiou
Hospital, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:
vkotsis@auth.gr.

The human gut microbiota is being composed of more than one hundred trillion
microbial cells, including aerobic and anaerobic species as well as gram-positive
and negative species. Animal based evidence suggests that the change of normal
gut microbiota is responsible for several clinical implications including blood
pressure increase and kidney function reduction. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide,
short-chain fatty acids and inflammatory factors are originated from the gut
microbes and may induce changes in arteries, kidneys and blood pressure.
Prebiotics and probiotics change the gut microbiota and may reduce high blood
pressure and ameliorate chronic kidney disease suggesting a new treatment target 
in patients for the initial stages of hypertension concomitant with other life
style changes such as increased physical exercise and weight reduction to reduce 
cardiovascular disease complications.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.02.028 
PMID: 29496593 


54. Bone. 2018 Feb 26. pii: S8756-3282(18)30080-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.021.
[Epub ahead of print]

Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy evidence of efficacy for adrenal and 
gonadal hormone replacement therapy in anorexia nervosa.

Vajapeyam S(1), Ecklund K(1), Mulkern RV(1), Feldman HA(2), O'Donnell JM(3),
DiVasta AD(4), Rosen CJ(5), Gordon CM(6).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
(2)Institutional Centers for Clinical and Translational Research, Boston
Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
(3)Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
(4)Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital,
Boston, MA, USA.
(5)Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, ME, USA.
(6)Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital
Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:
catherine.gordon@cchmc.org.

PURPOSE: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) + estrogen/progestin therapy for
adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) has the potential to arrest bone
loss. The primary aim of this study was to test the effects of
DHEA + estrogen/progestin therapy in adolescent girls with AN on bone marrow in
the distal femur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy.
METHODS: Seventy adolescent girls with AN were enrolled in a double blind,
randomized, placebo-controlled trial at two urban hospital-based programs.
INTERVENTION: Seventy-six girls were randomly assigned to receive 12 months of
either oral micronized DHEA or placebo. DHEA was administered with conjugated
equine estrogens (0.3 mg daily) for 3 months, then an oral contraceptive (20 μg
ethinyl estradiol/ 0.1 mg levonorgestrel) for 9 months. The primary outcome
measure was bone marrow fat by MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
RESULTS: T2 of the water resonance dropped significantly less in the active vs.
placebo group over 12 months at both the medial and lateral distal femur
(p = 0.02). Body mass index (BMI) was a significant effect modifier for T1 and
for T2 of unsaturated (T2unsat) and saturated fat (T2sat) in the lateral distal
femur. Positive effects of the treatment of DHEA + estrogen/progestin were seen
primarily for girls above a BMI of about 18 kg/m2.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest treatment with oral DHEA + estrogen/progestin
arrests the age- and disease-related changes in marrow fat composition in the
lateral distal femur reported previously in this population.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.021 
PMID: 29496516 


55. Waste Manag. 2018 Feb 26. pii: S0956-053X(18)30099-0. doi:
10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.033. [Epub ahead of print]

The influence of the total solid content on the stability of dry-thermophilic
anaerobic digestion of rice straw and pig manure.

Riya S(1), Suzuki K(2), Meng L(2), Zhou S(3), Terada A(2), Hosomi M(2).

Author information: 
(1)Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and
Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:
sriya@cc.tuat.ac.jp.
(2)Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and
Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.
(3)Eco-environmental Protection Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of
Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Fengxian, Shanghai 201403, China.

Dry anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for the recycling of
agricultural waste to produce energy and fertilizer. Adding water to the
substrate enables better handling and avoid inhibition caused by high total solid
(TS) content in the reactor; however, it also increases leachate and operational 
costs. To assess the extent to which the amount of water added can be reduced, it
was examined how the TS content in the reactor influenced the production of
biogas. A semi-batch dry thermophilic anaerobic digester was fed with substrate
(rice straw and pig manure) at a constant organic loading rate, and varied the TS
contents (27%, 32%, 37%, and 42%) of the substrate by adding different amounts of
water (representing 0-36% of the total substrate). During incubation, the TS
content in the reactor gradually increased from 18% to 31%. Biogas production was
stable and high (564 ± 13-580 ± 36 N m3 t-1 VS), and there was no accumulation of
volatile fatty acids when the TS content of the reactor was between 18% and 27%. 
However, the rate decreased sharply and propionate and acetate were also produced
when the TS content of the reactor exceeded 28%. By applying a simple TS balance 
model, it was found that stable biogas production could be achieved at a
substrate TS content of 32%, at which reactor TS content reached 23% at
steady-state condition.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.033 
PMID: 29496383 


56. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Mar 1:1-8. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2018.1443995. [Epub ahead of
print]

Voglibose-mediated alterations in neurometabolomic profiles in the hypothalamus
of high-fat diet-fed mice.

Yang SJ(1), Do HJ(2), Jung Y(3), Hwang GS(3), Shin MJ(4).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Food and Nutrition , Seoul Women's University , Seoul ,
Republic of Korea.
(2)b Korean Medicine Application Center , Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine , 
Daegu , Republic of Korea.
(3)c Integrated Metabolomics Research Group, Western Seoul Center , Korea Basic
Science Institute , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
(4)d Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment:
Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School , Korea University , Seoul , Republic
of Korea.

The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose (VO) was recently reported to have a
protective effect against weight gain as well as affect various metabolic changes
related to food intake and gut-brain signaling. We hypothesized that VO prevents 
weight gain by altering neurometabolome profiles in the hypothalamus to reduce
food intake. To test this hypothesis, we assessed metabolite profiles in the
hypothalamus of standard diet- or high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice in the absence or
presence of VO. In total, 29 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups: (1)
lean control, (2) HF, and (3) HF + VO. Vehicle or VO was administered for 12
weeks. The results showed that there were alterations in levels of metabolites
across several metabolic pathways in the hypothalamus. VO treatment increased
levels of many amino acids including arginine, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, 
leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan,
tyrosine, and valine in the hypothalamus. In addition, levels of
2-hydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid in the hypothalamus were significantly increased 
after VO administration in HF diet-fed mice. Among lipid metabolites, levels of
fatty acids were higher in the hypothalamus of VO-treated mice than in that of HF
diet-fed mice. In terms of the energy status, the ATP/ADP ratio was higher in the
hypothalamus of VO-treated mice (P < 0.001), thereby indicating an energy
surplus. In conclusion, VO supplementation altered metabolite profiles in the
hypothalamus to enhance catabolism, which is possibly responsible for the
hypophagic effect of VO in HF diet-fed mice.

DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2018.1443995 
PMID: 29495953 


57. Diabetes Educ. 2018 Mar 1:145721718756057. doi: 10.1177/0145721718756057. [Epub
ahead of print]

Dietary Behaviors and Glucose Metabolism in Young Adults at Risk for Type 2
Diabetes.

Cha E(1)(2), Paul S(2), Braxter BJ(3), Umpierrez G(4), Faulkner MS(2)(5).

Author information: 
(1)College of Nursing, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.
(2)Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
(3)School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
(4)School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
(5)Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State
University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between dietary 
behaviors and glucose metabolism in high-risk young adults to increase the
precision of nutrition education to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Method Using a descriptive, cross-sectional study design, 106 overweight or obese
sedentary young adults ages 18-29 years from the Atlanta metropolitan area were
recruited to screen diabetes risk. Survey questionnaires, anthropometric
assessment, blood pressure (BP), and laboratory data were collected in a clinical
research unit. The Web-based HOMA2 calculator was used to calculate beta cell
function and insulin sensitivity. Results The final sample included 103
participants. There were similar patterns of diet (caloric intake and dietary
quality) between African Americans and non-African Americans, whereas African
Americans showed hyperinsulinemia compared with non-African Americans. When young
adults consumed a good quality diet (appropriate carbohydrate intakes; high
fiber, low saturated fat but protein rich diet), their insulin resistance was
decreased. There was a marginal interaction effect between insulin sensitivity
and beta cell function by race. Systolic BP was higher in African Americans, and 
total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were
higher in non-African Americans. Conclusion Findings are useful to develop
age-specific nutrition guidelines to prevent early onset T2D in high-risk young
adults.

DOI: 10.1177/0145721718756057 
PMID: 29495910 


58. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 27;19(3). pii: E666. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030666.

Phenotyping of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Based on the Integration of 
Metabolomes and Clinical Characteristics.

Kilk K(1)(2), Aug A(3)(4)(5), Ottas A(6)(7), Soomets U(8)(9), Altraja S(10)(11), 
Altraja A(12)(13).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational
Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia. kalle.kilk@ut.ee.
(2)Centre of Excellence for Genomics and Translational Medicine, Riia 23b, 51010 
Tartu, Estonia. kalle.kilk@ut.ee.
(3)Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational
Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
argo.aug@haigekassa.ee.
(4)Centre of Excellence for Genomics and Translational Medicine, Riia 23b, 51010 
Tartu, Estonia. argo.aug@haigekassa.ee.
(5)Estonian Health Insurance Fund, Lastekodu 48, 10144 Tallinn, Estonia.
argo.aug@haigekassa.ee.
(6)Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational
Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
aigar.ottas@ut.ee.
(7)Centre of Excellence for Genomics and Translational Medicine, Riia 23b, 51010 
Tartu, Estonia. aigar.ottas@ut.ee.
(8)Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational
Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
ursel.soomets@ut.ee.
(9)Centre of Excellence for Genomics and Translational Medicine, Riia 23b, 51010 
Tartu, Estonia. ursel.soomets@ut.ee.
(10)Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational
Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia. siiri@ebc.ee.
(11)Centre of Excellence for Genomics and Translational Medicine, Riia 23b, 51010
Tartu, Estonia. siiri@ebc.ee.
(12)Department of Pulmonology, University of Tartu, Puusepa 8, 51014 Tartu,
Estonia. alan.altraja@ut.ee.
(13)Lung Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Puusepa 8, 51014 Tartu, Estonia.
alan.altraja@ut.ee.

Apart from the refined management-oriented clinical stratification of chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the molecular pathologies behind this
highly prevalent disease have remained obscure. The aim of this study was the
characterization of patients with COPD, based on the metabolomic profiling of
peripheral blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) within the context of
defined clinical and demographic variables. Mass-spectrometry-based targeted
analysis of serum metabolites (mainly amino acids and lipid species), untargeted 
profiles of serum and EBC of patients with COPD of different clinical
characteristics (n = 25) and control individuals (n = 21) were performed. From
the combined clinical/demographic and metabolomics data, associations between
clinical/demographic and metabolic parameters were searched and a de novo
phenotyping for COPD was attempted. Adjoining the clinical parameters,
sphingomyelins were the best to differentiate COPD patients from controls.
Unsaturated fatty acid-containing lipids, ornithine metabolism and plasma protein
composition-associated signals from the untargeted analysis differentiated the
Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) categories. Hierarchical clustering did not
reveal a clinical-metabolomic stratification superior to the strata set by the
GOLD consensus. We conclude that while metabolomics approaches are good for
finding biomarkers and clarifying the mechanism of the disease, there are no
distinct co-variate independent clinical-metabolic phenotypes.

DOI: 10.3390/ijms19030666 
PMID: 29495451 

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


59. Genes (Basel). 2018 Feb 26;9(3). pii: E119. doi: 10.3390/genes9030119.

Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary
Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse
Patient Population.

Bridges KM(1), Diaz FJ(2), Wang Z(3), Ahmed I(4), Sullivan DK(5)(6), Umar
S(7)(8), Buckles DC(9), Greiner KA(10)(11), Hester CM(12)(13).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Family Medicine Research Division, University of Kansas Medical 
Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. kbridges@kumc.edu.
(2)Department of Biostatistics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City,
KS 66160, USA. fdiaz@kumc.edu.
(3)Department of Biostatistics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City,
KS 66160, USA. zwang3@kumc.edu.
(4)Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS
66160, USA. iahmed@kumc.edu.
(5)Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center,
Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. dsulliva@kumc.edu.
(6)University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
dsulliva@kumc.edu.
(7)Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS
66160, USA. sumar@kumc.edu.
(8)University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
sumar@kumc.edu.
(9)Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University
of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. dbuckles@kumc.edu.
(10)Department of Family Medicine Research Division, University of Kansas Medical
Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. agreiner@kumc.edu.
(11)University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
agreiner@kumc.edu.
(12)Department of Family Medicine Research Division, University of Kansas Medical
Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. chester@aafp.org.
(13)University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
chester@aafp.org.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men
and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African
Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, 
it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or
biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by
bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression.
The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of
inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a
diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were
analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA,
lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer
Institute's Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over 
the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening
colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of
SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of
non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy
outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the
biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening
approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities 
for African Americans.

DOI: 10.3390/genes9030119 
PMID: 29495356 

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


60. Environ Pollut. 2018 Feb 26;237:285-297. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.089. [Epub
ahead of print]

Impacts of springtime biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia on marine
organic aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin, China.

Zheng L(1), Yang X(2), Lai S(3), Ren H(4), Yue S(4), Zhang Y(3), Huang X(5), Gao 
Y(2), Sun Y(4), Wang Z(4), Fu P(6).

Author information: 
(1)School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology,
Guangzhou 510006, China; LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy 
of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.
(2)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.
(3)School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology,
Guangzhou 510006, China.
(4)LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
100029, China; College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
(5)State-owned Assets Management Office, Guilin Tourism University, Guilin
541006, China.
(6)LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
100029, China; Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China; College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: fupingqing@tju.edu.cn.

Fine particles (PM2.5) samples, collected at Weizhou Island over the Gulf of
Tonkin on a daytime and nighttime basis in the spring of 2015, were analyzed for 
primary and secondary organic tracers, together with organic carbon (OC),
elemental carbon (EC), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total
carbon (TC). Five organic compound classes, including saccharides, lignin/resin
products, fatty acids, biogenic SOA tracers and phthalic acids, were quantified
by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levoglucosan was the most
abundant organic species, indicating that the sampling site was under strong
influence of biomass burning. Based on the tracer-based methods, the
biomass-burning-derived fraction was estimated to be the dominant contributor to 
aerosol OC, accounting for 15.7% ± 11.1% and 22.2% ± 17.4% of OC in daytime and
nighttime samples, respectively. In two episodes E1 and E2, organic aerosols
characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan as well as its isomers, 
sugar compounds, lignin products, high molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids and
β-caryophyllinic acid, were attributed to the influence of intensive biomass
burning in the northern Southeast Asia (SEA). However, the discrepancies in the
ratios of levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) and OC (L/OC) as well as the δ13C values
suggest the type of biomass burning and the sources of organic aerosols in E1 and
E2 were different. Hardwood and/or C4 plants were the major burning materials in 
E1, while burning of softwood and/or C3 plants played important role in E2.
Furthermore, more complex sources and enhanced secondary contribution were found 
to play a part in organic aerosols in E2. This study highlights the significant
influence of springtime biomass burning in the northern SEA to the organic
molecular compositions of marine aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.089 
PMID: 29494922 


61. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Mar 1;14(3):e1006879. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006879.
eCollection 2018 Mar.

Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking in mosquito cells is dependent on XRN1-mediated
viral RNA degradation and influenced by viral replication rate.

Thomas S(1), Verma J(2), Woolfit M(1), O'Neill SL(1).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Vector-Borne Disease (IVBD), Monash University, Clayton, VIC,
AUSTRALIA.
(2)Infection and Immunity Program, Biomedicine Discovery Institute and the
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton,
VIC, AUSTRALIA.

Wolbachia is currently being developed as a novel tool to block the transmission 
of dengue viruses (DENV) by Aedes aegypti. A number of mechanisms have been
proposed to explain the DENV-blocking phenotype in mosquitoes, including
competition for fatty acids like cholesterol, manipulation of host miRNAs and
upregulation of innate immune pathways in the mosquito. We examined the various
stages in the DENV infection process to better understand the mechanism of
Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking (WMVB). Our results suggest that infection with
Wolbachia does not inhibit DENV binding or cell entry, but reduces virus
replication. In contrast to a previous report, we also observed a similar
reduction in replication of West Nile virus (WNV). This reduced replication is
associated with rapid viral RNA degradation in the cytoplasm. We didn't find a
role for host miRNAs in WMVB. Further analysis showed that the 3' end of the
virus subgenomic RNA was protected and accumulated over time suggesting that the 
degradation is XRN1-mediated. We also found that sub genomic flavivirus RNA
accumulation inactivated XRN1 in mosquito cells in the absence of Wolbachia and
led to enhancement of RNA degradation in its presence. Depletion of XRN1
decreased WMVB which was associated with a significant increase in DENV RNA. We
also observed that WMVB is influenced by virus MOI and rate of virus replication.
A comparatively elevated blocking was observed for slowly replicating DENV,
compared to WNV. Similar results were obtained while analysing different DENV
serotypes.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006879 
PMID: 29494679 


62. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 1;13(3):e0193553. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193553.
eCollection 2018.

Pathological hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction are linked to aberrant
endogenous unsaturated fatty acid metabolism.

Casquel De Tomasi L(1)(2), Salomé Campos DH(1), Grippa Sant'Ana P(1), Okoshi
K(1), Padovani CR(3), Masahiro Murata G(4), Nguyen S(2), Kolwicz SC Jr.(2)(5),
Cicogna AC(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Internal Medicine, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São
Paulo, Brazil.
(2)Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, Department of Anesthesiology & Pain
Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of
America.
(3)Department of Biostatistics, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, 
Brazil.
(4)Department of Biochemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo,
Brazil.
(5)Heart and Muscle Metabolism Laboratory, Health and Exercise Physiology
Department, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, United States of
America.

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy leads to derangements in lipid metabolism that
may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. Since previous studies,
using high saturated fat diets, have yielded inconclusive results, we
investigated whether provision of a high-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) diet was
sufficient to restore impaired lipid metabolism and normalize diastolic
dysfunction in the pathologically hypertrophied heart. Male, Wistar rats were
subjected to supra-valvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) or sham surgery. After 6 weeks, 
diastolic dysfunction and pathological hypertrophy was confirmed and both sham
and SVAS rats were treated with either normolipidic or HUFA diet. At 18 weeks
post-surgery, the HUFA diet failed to normalize decreased E/A ratios or attenuate
measures of cardiac hypertrophy in SVAS animals. Enzymatic activity assays and
gene expression analysis showed that both normolipidic and HUFA-fed hypertrophied
hearts had similar increases in glycolytic enzyme activity and down-regulation of
fatty acid oxidation genes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed depletion of
unsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleate and oleate, within the endogenous
lipid pools of normolipidic SVAS hearts. The HUFA diet did not restore linoleate 
or oleate in the cardiac lipid pools, but did maintain body weight and adipose
mass in SVAS animals. Overall, these results suggest that, in addition to
decreased fatty acid oxidation, aberrant unsaturated fatty acid metabolism may be
a maladaptive signature of the pathologically hypertrophied heart. The HUFA diet 
is insufficient to reverse metabolic remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, or
pathologically hypertrophy, possibly do to preferentially partitioning of
unsaturated fatty acids to adipose tissue.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193553 
PMID: 29494668 


63. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 1;13(3):e0193702. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193702.
eCollection 2018.

Cardiorespiratory, enzymatic and hormonal responses during and after walking
while fasting.

Vilaça-Alves J(1)(2), Muller F(1), Rosa C(1), Payan-Carreira R(3), Lund R(1),
Matos F(2), Garrido N(2), Saavedra FJ(1)(2), Machado Reis V(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Sport Sciences Departament, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila
Real, Portugal.
(2)Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development,
CIDESD, Portugal.
(3)Animal and Veterinary Research Center, CECAV, University of Trás-os-Montes e
Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.

The aim of the present study was to observe whether performing a low intensity
endurance exercise following an overnight fasted (FAST) or fed (FED) condition
promotes different cardiorespiratory, enzymatic and hormonal responses. Nine male
physical active subjects, (age 21.89 ± 2.52 years old, height 175.89 ± 5.16 cm,
weight 72.10 ± 4.31 kg, estimated body fat 7.25 ± 2.11%), randomly performed two 
sessions of 45 minutes' low intensity exercise (individual ventilator threshold) 
interspersed by seven days, differentiated only in whether they were provided
with a standardized meal or not. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR)
were measured continuously at the 30-min rest, the 45-min during and the 30-min
post-exercise. The testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) hormones were measured at
rest, immediately post-exercise and 15-min post-exercise. The Glucose (GLU), Free
fatty acids (FFA) and enzyme lipase activity (ELP) were measured at rest, 15-min 
and 30-min exercise, immediately, 15-min and 30-min post-exercise. Significantly 
lower values were observed in FED compared to FAST with: C (nmol/L) from pre
(428.87 ± 120.41; 454.62 ± 148.33, respectively) to immediately post-exercise
(285.10 ± 85.86; 465.66 ± 137.70, respectively) and 15-min post-exercise (248.00 
± 87.88; 454.31 ± 112.72, respectively) (p<0.05); and GLU at all times, with an
exception at 15-min post-exercise. The testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) was
significantly higher in the FED compared with FAST from pre (0.05 ± 0.02, 0.05 ± 
0.01, respectively) to 15-min post-exercise (0.08 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.02,
respectively). No other significant differences were observed between conditions.
We conclude that fasting prior to low intensity endurance exercise does not seem 
be advantageous, when it comes to fat loss, compared with the same exercise
performed after a meal.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193702 
PMID: 29494664 


64. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 1;13(3):e0193512. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193512.
eCollection 2018.

Relationship between the degree of antioxidant protection and the level of
malondialdehyde in high-performance Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in peak of
lactation.

Kapusta A(1), Kuczyńska B(1), Puppel K(1).

Author information: 
(1)Cattle Breeding Division, Animal Breeding & Production Department, Warsaw
University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Lipid peroxidation can be described as a process under which free radicals attack
carbon double bonds of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Whereas the end products 
of this process are reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). Lipid
peroxidation leads to adverse changes in the nutritional value of milk;
therefore, higher degree of antioxidant protection (DAP) ensures higher stability
of dairy products by effecting their high antioxidative potential. Therefore, the
purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the DAP and the
level of MDA in high-performance Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in peak of
lactation. Sixty-three Polish Holstein-Friesian cows were selected to the
experiment according to: parity (all in the 2nd lactation), phase of lactation
(peak of lactation), cytological quality of milk (somatic cell count < 150
thousand/ml) and without diagnosed metabolic diseases. The data obtained were
analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's post-hoc test. After
analysis of performance the cows were divided into 3 groups (twenty one cows in
each group) based on milk yield and MDA concentration. The study revealed a
significant effect of the lactation performance of cows on MDA levels in milk (P 
≤ 0.01). The highest concentration of MDA (61.137 nM/mL) was shown in milk of
cows yielding between 50.00 and 55.80 kg/day. The highest concentration of fat
was found in milk in which the MDA level ranged from 48 to 86 nM/mL. Whereas, the
inverse relationship was demonstrated in case of protein concentration. The
highest level of protein was found in cows with MDA levels in the range of 18-28 
nM/mL (P ≤ 0.01). The lowest MDA level (in the range of 18-28 nM/mL) was
associated with the highest concentration of vitamin E, β-carotene, total
antioxidant status (TAS) and DAP, measured in both milk and plasma. The obtained 
results show that lipid peroxidation leads to adverse changes in the nutritional 
value of milk; the highest DAP (7.89 x 10-3) was found in the cows with the
lowest MDA concentration in milk.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193512 
PMID: 29494660 


65. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 1;13(3):e0193301. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193301.
eCollection 2018.

Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old
Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.

Adjepong M(1), Pickens CA(1), Jain R(1), Harris WS(2), Annan RA(3), Fenton JI(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America.
(2)Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota and Omega Quant
Analytics, LLC, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States of America.
(3)Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities.
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are
adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to
determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in
Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an 
antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were 
measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth
parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor
analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were
essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio>0.02). Essential FA did not differ 
between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with
height-for-age z-score (HAZ) or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). In hemoglobin
adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with
arachidonic acid (p≤0.01), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, p≤0.05),
docosatetraenoic acid (p≤0.01) and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid (p≤0.01).
These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in
childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status
of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193301 
PMID: 29494645 


66. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 1;13(3):e0193137. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193137.
eCollection 2018.

Male grower pigs fed cereal soluble dietary fibres display biphasic glucose
response and delayed glycaemic response after an oral glucose tolerance test.

Pluschke AM(1), Williams BA(1), Zhang D(1), Anderson ST(2), Roura E(1), Gidley
MJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Centre for Nutrition 
and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Brisbane, Australia.
(2)School of Biomedical Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Brisbane,
Australia.

Acute and sustained soluble dietary fibre (SDF) consumption are both associated
with improved glucose tolerance in humans and animal models (e.g. porcine).
However, the effects on glucose tolerance in grower pigs, adapted to diets with a
combination of SDF have not been studied previously. In this experiment, cereal
SDF wheat arabinoxylan (AX) and oat β-glucan (BG) were fed individually and in
combination to determine the effect on glucose tolerance in jugular vein
catheterized grower pigs. Five groups of Large White male grower pigs were fed
highly digestible diets containing either 10% AX, 10% BG, 5% AX with 5% BG, a
model cereal whole wheat flour (WWF), or a control wheat starch diet (WS) with no
SDF. Blood was collected via jugular vein catheters over 240 minutes following a 
feed challenge and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on two separate days.
Postprandial blood samples were used to determine plasma glucose, insulin,
non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
(GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), ghrelin,
glucagon and cortisol concentrations. No dietary effects on glycaemic response
were observed following the feed challenge or the OGTT as determined by the area 
under the curve (AUC). A biphasic glucose and insulin response was detected for
all pigs following the OGTT. The current study showed male grower pigs have tight
glycaemic control and glucose tolerance regardless of diet. In addition, pigs fed
the combined SDF had a reduced GIP response and delayed insulin peak following
the feed challenge. Incretin (GLP-1 and GIP) secretion appeared asynchronous
reflecting their different enteroendocrine cell locations and response to
nutrient absorption.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193137 
PMID: 29494594 


67. Foods. 2018 Mar 1;7(3). pii: E30. doi: 10.3390/foods7030030.

Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L.
(var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

Montesano D(1), Blasi F(2), Simonetti MS(3), Santini A(4), Cossignani L(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of Food Science and Nutrition,
University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
domenico.montesano@unipg.it.
(2)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of Food Science and Nutrition,
University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
francesca.blasi@unipg.it.
(3)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of Food Science and Nutrition,
University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
maria.simonetti@unipg.it.
(4)Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, via D. Montesano 49,
80131 Napoli, Italy. asantini@unina.it.
(5)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of Food Science and Nutrition,
University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
lina.cossignani@unipg.it.

Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years
because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The
nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as
"Berrettina" (Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid
fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was
thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the
intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol 
backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main 
components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was
observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were
the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil,
with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The
main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol,
Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction,
triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs.
36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a
nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a
preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, 
foods, and nutraceuticals.

DOI: 10.3390/foods7030030 
PMID: 29494522 

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


68. Foods. 2018 Mar 1;7(3). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/foods7030029.

Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to be Concerned?

Lordan R(1), Tsoupras A(2), Mitra B(3), Zabetakis I(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, 
Ireland. ronan.lordan@ul.ie.
(2)Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, 
Ireland. alexandros.tsoupras@ul.ie.
(3)Extrx Oy, Salmelantie 43, Sotkamo 88600, Finland. bhaskar.mitra@extrx.fi.
(4)Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, 
Ireland. ioannis.zabetakis@ul.ie.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity
globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology.
The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary
saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased
cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development.
Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with
negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the
consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular
health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a
reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy
consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the
benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of
high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the
relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the
incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and
the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general,
evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but
fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive
or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content
on cardiovascular health.

DOI: 10.3390/foods7030029 
PMID: 29494487 

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


69. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Mar 1. doi:
10.1152/ajpgi.00346.2017. [Epub ahead of print]

The impact of short chain fatty acids on GLP-1 and PYY secretion from the
isolated perfused rat colon.

Christiansen CB(1), Gabe MBN(2), Svendsen B(3), Dragsted LO(2), Rosenkilde MM(4),
Holst JJ(5).

Author information: 
(1)University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
(2)University of Copenhagen.
(3)Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research,
University of Copenhagen.
(4)Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen.
(5)Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic
Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

The colonic epithelium harbors a large number of endocrine cells, but little is
known about the endocrine functions of the colon. However, the high density of
GLP-1 and PYY secreting L-cells is of great interest because of the potential
anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of GLP-1 and PYY. Short chain fatty acids 
(SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the
colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating
the colonic L-cells. We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of
colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects of the predominant SCFAs
formed: acetate, propionate and butyrate. We show that luminal and especially
vascular infusion of acetate and butyrate significantly increases colonic GLP-1
secretion, and to a minor extent also PYY secretion, but only after enhancement
of intracellular cAMP. Propionate neither affected GLP-1 nor PYY secretion
whether administered luminally or vascularly. A FFAR2 and FFAR3 specific agonist 
(CFMB/AR420626) had no effect on colonic GLP-1 output, and a FFAR3 antagonist
(AR399519) did not decrease the SCFA-induced GLP-1 response. However, the
voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker nifedipine, the KATP-channel opener diazoxide 
and the ATP synthesis inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol completely abolished the
responses. FFAR2 receptor studies confirmed low-potent partial agonism of
acetate, propionate and butyrate, compared to CFMB which is a full agonist with
around 750-fold higher potency than the SCFAs. In conclusion, SCFAs may increase 
colonic GLP-1/PYY secretion, but FFAR2/FFAR3 do not seem to be involved. Rather, 
SCFAs are metabolized and appear to function as a colonocyte energy source.

DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00346.2017 
PMID: 29494208 


70. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Mar 1:1-44. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1425978.
[Epub ahead of print]

How does high DHA fish oil affect health? A systematic review of evidence.

Ghasemi Fard S(1)(2), Wang F(3), Sinclair AJ(1)(4), Elliott G(2), Turchini GM(5).

Author information: 
(1)a School of Medicine, Deakin University , Geelong , Australia.
(2)b Nu-Mega Ingredients Pty Ltd , Altona North , Melbourne , Australia.
(3)c Department of Food Science and Nutrition , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou , 
China.
(4)e Department of Nutrition , Dietetics and Food, Monash University , Clayton , 
Australia.
(5)d School of Life and Environmental Sciences , Deakin University , Geelong ,
Australia.

The health benefits of fish oil, and its omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty
acid content, have attracted much scientific attention in the last four decades. 
Fish oils that contain higher amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3)
than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), in a distinctive ratio of 18/12, are
typically the most abundantly available and are commonly studied. Although the
two fatty acids have traditionally been considered together, as though they were 
one entity, different physiological effects of EPA and DHA have recently been
reported. New oils containing a higher quantity of DHA compared with EPA, such as
fractionated and concentrated fish oil, tuna oil, calamari oil and microalgae
oil, are increasingly becoming available on the market, and other oils, including
those extracted from genetically modified oilseed crops, soon to come. This
systematic review focuses on the effects of high DHA fish oils on various human
health conditions, such as the heart and cardiovascular system, the brain and
visual function, inflammation and immune function and growth/Body Mass Index.
Although inconclusive results were reported in several instances, and
inconsistent outcomes observed in others, current data provides substantiated
evidence in support of DHA being a beneficial bioactive compound for heart,
cardiovascular and brain function, with different, and at times complementary,
effects compared with EPA. DHA has also been reported to be effective in slowing 
the rate of cognitive decline, while its possible effects on depression disorders
are still unclear. Interestingly, gender- and age- specific divergent roles for
DHA have also been reported. This review provides a comprehensive collection of
evidence and a critical summary of the documented physiological effects of high
DHA fish oils for human health.

DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1425978 
PMID: 29494205 


71. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04770. [Epub ahead of
print]

Effects of condensed and hydrolysable tannins on rumen metabolism with emphasis
on the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids.

Costa M, Alves S, Cappucci A, Cook SR, Duarte A, Caldeira R, McAllister TA, Bessa
RJB.

The hypothesis that condensed tannins have higher inhibitory effect on ruminal
biohydrogenation than hydrolysable tannins was tested. Condensed tannin extract
from mimosa (CT) and hydrolysable tannin extract from chestnut (HT) or their
mixture (MIX) were incorporated (10%) into oil supplemented diets and fed to
rumen fistulated sheep. Fatty acid and dimethyl acetal composition of rumen
contents and bacterial biomass were determined. Selected rumen bacteria were
analysed by quantitative real time PCR. Lower (P < 0.05) rumen volatile fatty
acids concentrations were observed with CT compared to HT. Moreover, lower
concentration (P < 0.05) of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, 
Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus were observed with CT
compared to HT. The extension of biohydrogenation of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not 
differ among treatments, but was much more variable with CT and MIX than with HT.
The trans-/cis-18:1 ratio in bacterial biomass was higher (P < 0.05) with HT than
CT. Thus, mimosa condensed tannins had a higher inhibitory effect on ruminal
metabolism and biohydrogenation than chestnut hydrolysable tannins.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04770 
PMID: 29494146 


72. Food Funct. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1039/c7fo02038d. [Epub ahead of print]

ZnO nanoparticles affect intestinal function in an in vitro model.

Moreno-Olivas F(1), Tako E(2), Mahler GJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biomedical Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY
13902, USA. gmahler@binghamton.edu.
(2)Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Agricultural Research Services, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) may be present in food packaging, which would
put consumers at risk of NP ingestion. There is little information on the amount 
of ZnO NP that are present in food packaging and the effects of ZnO exposure on
intestinal function. To estimate physiologically relevant ZnO exposures, foods
that are naturally low in zinc (Zn), but are commonly packaged with ZnO NP, such 
as tuna, corn, and asparagus, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass 
spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was found that the Zn present in a serving of these
foods is approximately one hundred times higher than the recommended dietary
allowance. An in vitro model of the small intestine composed of Caco-2 and
HT29-MTX cells was used to investigate the effects of ZnO NP exposure. Cells were
exposed to physiologically realistic doses of pristine NP in culture medium and
to NP subjected to an in vitro digestion to better reflect the transformation
that the NP may undergo once they enter the human GI tract. Uptake and/or
transport of iron (Fe), Zn, glucose, and fatty acids were assessed and intestinal
alkaline phosphatase (IAP) levels were measured before and after NP exposure. The
findings show that there is a 75% decrease in Fe transport and a 30% decrease in 
glucose transport following ZnO NP exposure. These decreases were consistent with
gene expression changes for their transporters. There is also evidence that the
ZnO NP affect the microvilli of the intestinal cells, therefore reducing the
amount of surface area available to absorb nutrients. These results suggest that 
the ingestion of physiologically relevant doses of ZnO NP can alter intestinal
function in an in vitro model of the human small intestine.

DOI: 10.1039/c7fo02038d 
PMID: 29493670 


73. Protein Sci. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1002/pro.3393. [Epub ahead of print]

Crystal structure of secretory abundant heat soluble protein 4 from one of the
toughest "water bears" micro-animals Ramazzottius varieornatus.

Fukuda Y(1), Inoue T(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka
University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Though anhydrobiotic tardigrades (micro-animals also known as water bears)
possess many genes of secretory abundant heat soluble (SAHS) proteins unique to
Tardigrada, their functions are unknown. A previous crystallographic study
revealed that a SAHS protein (RvSAHS1) from one of the toughest tardigrades,
Ramazzottius varieornatus, has a β-barrel architecture similar to fatty acid
binding proteins (FABPs) and two putative ligand binding sites (LBS1 and LBS2)
where fatty acids can bind. However, some SAHS proteins such as RvSAHS4 have
different sets of amino acid residues at LBS1 and LBS2, implying that they prefer
other ligands and have different functions. Here RvSAHS4 was crystallized and
analyzed under a condition similar to that for RvSAHS1. There was no electron
density corresponding to a fatty acid at LBS1 of RvSAHS4, where a putative fatty 
acid was observed in RvSAHS1. Instead, LBS2 of RvSAHS4, which was composed of
uncharged residues, captured a putative polyethylene glycol molecule. These
results suggest that RvSAHS4 mainly uses LBS2 for the binding of uncharged
molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

© 2018 The Protein Society.

DOI: 10.1002/pro.3393 
PMID: 29493034 


74. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12878. [Epub ahead
of print]

Effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation 
on growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah 
buffalo calves.

Sharma AN(1), Kumar S(1), Tyagi AK(1).

Author information: 
(1)Animal Nutrition Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal,
India.

A study of 120 days was undertaken to ascertain the effect of
mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on
growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah
buffalo calves. Twenty Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 days old and 31 ± 2.0 kg of
body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups. Group I served as the
control (CON) in which only basal diet (concentrate mixture and green fodder) was
provided, without any supplementation. Mannan-oligosaccharides at 4 g/calf/day
were supplemented as prebiotic to Group II (PRE), whereas Group III (PRO)
received Lactobacillus acidophilus in the form of fermented milk as probiotic at 
200 ml/calf/day having 108  CFU/ml and Group IV (SYN) was supplemented with both 
MOS and Lactobacillus acidophilus as synbiotic at similar dose. Final BW (kg),
dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency and structural 
growth measurements were improved (p < .05) in the treatment groups compared to
control. Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre was higher (p < .05) in SYN
followed by PRE and PRO than control. The faecal lactobacilli and bifidobacterium
population was higher (p < .05) in all the supplemented groups with a concomitant
reduction in faecal coliform count as compared to control. Faecal ammonia,
lactate and pH were also altered favourably (p < .05) in all the supplemented
groups as compared to CON. The faecal volatile fatty acids were higher (p < .05) 
in PRE, PRO and SYN group than CON. The incorporation of MOS and
Lactobacillus acidophilus in diet either individually or in combination as
synbiotic has the potential to improve the performance and faecal characteristics
in Murrah buffalo calves; however, the observed responses among the treatment
groups were more evident in the synbiotic fed group compared to individual
supplementation of MOS and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

© 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12878 
PMID: 29493022 


75. Glia. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1002/glia.23319. [Epub ahead of print]

Aging-associated changes in hippocampal glycogen metabolism in mice. Evidence for
and against astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle.

Drulis-Fajdasz D(1), Gizak A(1), Wójtowicz T(1), Wiśniewski JR(2), Rakus D(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Molecular Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Wroclaw,
Sienkiewicza 21, Wroclaw, 50-335, Poland.
(2)Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max-Planck-Institute of
Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, Martinsried, 82152, Germany.

Lactate derived from astrocytic glycogen has been shown to support memory
formation in hippocampi of young animals, inhibiting it in old animals. Here we
show, using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, immunofluorescence, 
and qPCR that aging is associated with an increase of glycogen metabolism enzymes
concentration and shift in their localization from astrocytes to neurons. These
changes are accompanied with reorganization of hippocampal energy metabolism
which is manifested by elevated capacity of aging neurons to oxidize glucose in
glycolysis and mitochondria, and decreased ability for fatty acids utilization.
Our observations suggest that astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle may operate in 
young hippocampi, however, during aging neurons become independent on astrocytic 
lactate and the metabolic crosstalk between the brain's cells is disrupted.

© 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/glia.23319 
PMID: 29493012 


76. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12893. [Epub ahead of print]

Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory compounds exert similar effects on
P-glycoprotein in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells.

Torres-Vergara P(1)(2), Penny J(1).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of
Medicine, Biology and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
(2)Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Barrio 
Universitario, Concepción, Chile.

OBJECTIVES: The effects of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids dexamethasone (DX)
and hydrocortisone (HC), pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and
dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on expression and activity
of the ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-GP) were studied in
porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs).
METHODS: Primary PBECs were treated for 24 h with glucocorticoids, IL-1β and
long-chain PUFAs. P-GP activity was determined by measuring intracellular calcein
accumulation and P-GP expression by Western blotting. The effect of PUFAs on
membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
(FRAP).
KEY FINDINGS: Dexamethasone, HC and IL-1β significantly increased P-GP expression
and activity. The effect of IL-1β was attenuated by the IL-1 receptor antagonist 
(IL-1RA). This is the first report of the combined actions of IL-1β and IL-1RA on
P-GP expression and the first evidence of glucocorticoid-mediated P-GP
up-regulation in PBECs. Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) significantly decreased P-GP activity without
affecting expression or membrane fluidity. AA, DHA and EPA counteracted
IL-1β-mediated increases in P-GP activity, while AA and EPA, but not DHA,
counteracted glucocorticoid-mediated increase in P-GP activity.
CONCLUSIONS: While glucocorticoids and IL-1β possess opposing actions in
inflammation, they demonstrate functional consistency by increasing P-GP
expression and activity in PBECs.

© 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12893 
PMID: 29492971 


77. J Microbiol. 2018 Mar;56(3):189-198. doi: 10.1007/s12275-018-8049-8. Epub 2018
Feb 28.

Current understanding of microbiota- and dietary-therapies for treating
inflammatory bowel disease.

Eom T(1), Kim YS(2), Choi CH(3), Sadowsky MJ(4)(5)(6), Unno T(7)(8).

Author information: 
(1)Subtropical/tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju,
63243, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Gastroenterology, Wonkwang Digestive Disease Research Institute,
Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Gunpo, 15865, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine,
Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.
(4)BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55108, 
USA.
(5)Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul,
Minnesota, 55108, USA.
(6)Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 
Minnesota, 55108, USA.
(7)Subtropical/tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju,
63243, Republic of Korea. tatsu@jejunu.ac.kr.
(8)Faculty of Biotechnology, School of life sciences, SARI, Jeju National
University, Jeju, 63243, Republic of Korea. tatsu@jejunu.ac.kr.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a result of chronic inflammation caused, in
some part, by dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, mainly commensal bacteria. Gut 
dysbiosis can be caused by multiple factors, including abnormal immune responses 
which might be related to genetic susceptibility, infection, western dietary
habits, and administration of antibiotics. Consequently, the disease itself is
characterized as having multiple causes, etiologies, and severities. Recent
studies have identified >200 IBD risk loci in the host. It has been postulated
that gut microbiota interact with these risk loci resulting in dysbiosis, and
this subsequently leads to the development of IBD. Typical gut microbiota in IBD 
patients are characterized with decrease in species richness and many of the
commensal, and beneficial, fecal bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes
and an increase or bloom of Proteobacteria. However, at this time, cause and
effect relationships have not been rigorously established. While treatments of
IBD usually includes medications such as corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates,
antibiotics, immunomodulators, and anti-TNF agents, restoration of gut dysbiosis 
seems to be a safer and more sustainable approach. Bacteriotherapies (now called 
microbiota therapies) and dietary interventions are effective way to modulate gut
microbiota. In this review, we summarize factors involved in IBD and studies
attempted to treat IBD with probiotics. We also discuss the potential use of
microbiota therapies as one promising approach in treating IBD. As therapies
based on the modulation of gut microbiota becomes more common, future studies
should include individual gut microbiota differences to develop personalized
therapy for IBD.

DOI: 10.1007/s12275-018-8049-8 
PMID: 29492876 


78. J Microbiol. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1007/s12275-018-7511-y. [Epub ahead of print]

Bacillus spongiae sp. nov., isolated from sponge of Jeju Island.

Lee GE(1), Im WT(2), Park JS(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University,
Daejeon, 34430, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Biotechnology, Hankyong National University, Anseong, 17579,
Republic of Korea. wandra@hknu.ac.kr.
(3)Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University,
Daejeon, 34430, Republic of Korea. jspark@hnu.kr.

A Gram-reaction-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, endospore-forming, and
rod-shaped bacterial strain designated 135PIL107-10T was isolated from a sponge
on Jeju Island, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic
approach. Strain 135PIL107-10T grew at 20᾿7°C (optimum temperature, 25°C) and pH 
6.0᾿0.0 (optimum pH, 6.0) on marine and R2A agars. Based on 16S rRNA gene
phylogeny analysis, the novel strain formed a new branch within the genus
Bacillus of the family Bacillaceae, and formed clusters with Bacillus thaohiensis
NHI-38T (96.8%), Bacillus fengqiuensis NPK15T (96.7%), and Bacillus songklensis
CAU 1033T (96.7%). Lower sequence similarities (97.0%) were found with the type
strains of all other recognized members of the genus Bacillus (95.6᾿6.8%
similarity). The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 43.6 mol%. The predominant 
respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0
and iso-C17:1ω10c. The overall polar lipid patterns were diphosphatidylglycerol, 
phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The diagnostic diamino acid
in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The isolate
therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus spongiae sp.
nov. is proposed, with the type strain 135PIL107-10T (= KACC 19275T = LMG
30080T).

DOI: 10.1007/s12275-018-7511-y 
PMID: 29492866 


79. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 28;8(1):3823. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21960-3.

Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the FADS gene, and the risk of
gastric cancer in a Korean population.

Lee S(1)(2), Lee J(1), Choi IJ(3), Kim YW(3), Ryu KW(3), Kim YI(3), Kim J(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and
Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
(2)Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Science, Kangwon National 
University, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea.
(3)Center for Gastric Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, South Korea.
(4)Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and
Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
jskim@ncc.re.kr.

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs are reported to have
immunomodulatory effects, but few studies have examined these functions. Thus, we
examined whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are associated with the risk of
gastric cancer and further investigated whether fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2
(FADS1 and FADS2) modify this association. In a case-control study, 1,464
participants (402 cases and 1,062 controls) were enrolled. A semi-quantitative
food frequency questionnaire was utilized to measure dietary PUFA intake.
Genotyping was performed using the Axiom® Exome 319 Array. Multivariable logistic
models were established after adjusting for confounding variables. The risk of
gastric cancer was significantly decreased among participants who had the highest
tertile intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 PUFA, even after adjusting
for covariates [odds ratios (OR) = 0.72, 95% confidence intervals (95%
CIs) = 0.53-0.99]. However, no significant interaction according to FADS1
rs174546 or FADS2 rs174583 was observed. In conclusion, we observed a significant
inverse association between dietary DHA and the risk of gastric cancer but found 
that FADS1 rs174546 and FADS2 rs174583 did not modify the association between
dietary n-3 or n-6 PUFAs and gastric cancer risk.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21960-3 
PMCID: PMC5830640
PMID: 29491470 


80. Intern Med. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9124-17. [Epub ahead of
print]

The Clinical Significance of Low Serum Arachidonic Acid in Sepsis Patients with
Hypoalbuminemia.

Yamaguchi J(1), Kinoshita K(1), Ihara S(1), Furukawa M(1), Sakurai A(1).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine Department of Acute Medicine,
Nihon University School of Medicine, Japan.

Background & Objectives Fatty acids (FAs) have various roles in pro-inflammatory 
and anti-inflammatory functions. Hypoalbuminemia is often observed in sepsis
patients. An imbalance among these compounds formed from FAs caused by
hypoalbuminemia may be related to increased mortality in sepsis patients. The
purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum albumin
and FAs in sepsis and the outcome. Methods and Study Design This study was an
observational investigation. The clinical and laboratory data of sepsis patients 
were recorded and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was
calculated at admission. The serum arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA) levels
were also measured as FAs. The body mass index (BMI) was used to determine the
general nutrition status. Results Two hundred sepsis patients were enrolled
during the study period. No significant correlations were observed between the
BMI and the SOFA score or the serum albumin level at admission. The FA levels of 
the non-survivors were significantly lower, but there were no significant
differences in the EPA/AA levels of the survivors and non-survivors. A low serum 
albumin level was closely related to low AA (p<0.0001), EPA (p<0.0001), DHA
(p=0.0003), and DHLA levels (p<0.0001). A multiple logistic-regression analysis
revealed that a high SOFA score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39,
p=0.026) and low AA (adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.978-0.994, p=0.041)
were associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion A lower AA level was an important
determinant of the outcome of patients with sepsis. These findings are consistent
with the findings of previous studies, which reported that hypoalbuminemia might 
alter the AA metabolism in sepsis patients.

DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9124-17 
PMID: 29491308 


81. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.2323/jgam.2017.08.001. [Epub ahead of 
print]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid droplet associated enzyme Ypr147cp shows both TAG 
lipase and ester hydrolase activities.

M NK(1), V B S C T(1), B CS(1), J S B(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biotechnology, KL University.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ypr147cp was found localized to lipid droplets but the
physiological role of Ypr147cp remains unknown. Sequence analysis of Ypr147cp
revealed an α/β hydrolase domain along with the conserved GXSXG lipase motif.
Recombinant Ypr147cp showed both triacylglycerol lipase and ester hydrolase
activities. Knock out of YPR147C led to accumulation of TAG in ypr147cΔ when
compared to wild type (WT). In addition, transmission electron microscopic
analysis of ypr147cΔ cells revealed a greater number of lipid bodies, justifying 
the increase in TAG content, and the phenotype was rescued upon overexpression of
YPR147C in ypr147cΔ. Moreover, the lipid profiling confirmed the accumulation of 
fatty acids derived from neutral and phospholipids in ypr147cΔ cells. Based on
these results, Ypr147cp is identified as a lipid droplet associated
triacylglycerol lipase along with an ester hydrolyzing capacity.

DOI: 10.2323/jgam.2017.08.001 
PMID: 29491250 


82. J Biol Chem. 2018 Feb 28. pii: jbc.RA117.000800. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000800.
[Epub ahead of print]

Mice lacking ARV1 have reduced signs of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic
fatty liver disease.

Gallo-Ebert C(1), Francisco J(2), Liu HY(2), Draper R(3), Modi K(2), Hayward
MD(4), Jones BK(4), Buiakova O(5), McDonough V(6), Nickels JT(7).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Metabolic Disorders.
(2)Institute of Metabolic Disorders, United States.
(3)Biology, Hope College, United States.
(4)Invivotek, United States.
(5)Invivotek.
(6)Hope College, United States.
(7)Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition,
and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, United States.

MetS syndrome (MetS) is a term used to characterize individuals having at least
three of the following diseases: obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin
resistance, hypertension, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).  It is
widespread and the number of individuals with MetS is increasing.  However, the
events leading to the manifestation of MetS are not well understood.  Here, we
show that loss of mARV1 in mice results in resistance to acquiring diseases
associated with MetS.   Arv1-/- animals fed a high fat diet were resistant to
diet-induced obesity, had lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and
retained glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.  Livers showed no gross
morphological changes, contained lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and 
fatty acids, and showed little signs of NAFLD.  Knockout animals had elevated
levels of liver FXR protein and its target, SHP.  They also had decreased levels 
of CYP7a1, CYP8b1, and mature SREBP1 protein, evidence  suggesting that liver FXR
signaling was activated.  Strengthening this hypothesis was the fact that PPARa
protein was elevated, along with its target, FGF21.  Arv1-/- animals excreted
more fecal cholesterol, free fatty acids, and bile acids.  Their small intestines
had 1) changes in bile acid composition, 2) an increase in the level of the
intestinal FXR antagonist, tauromuricholic acid, and 3) showed signs of
attenuated FXR signaling.  Overall, we believe that ARV1 function is deleterious 
when consuming a high fat diet.  We further hypothesize that ARV1 is critical for
initiating events required for the progression of diseases associated with MetS
and NAFLD.

Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology, Inc.

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000800 
PMID: 29491146 


83. BMC Genomics. 2018 Mar 1;19(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-4562-8.

QTL mapping of volatile compound production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during
alcoholic fermentation.

Eder M(1), Sanchez I(1)(2), Brice C(1), Camarasa C(1), Legras JL(1), Dequin S(3).

Author information: 
(1)SPO, INRA, SupAgro, Université de Montpellier, F-34060, Montpellier, France.
(2)MISTEA, INRA, SupAgro, F-34060, Montpellier, France.
(3)SPO, INRA, SupAgro, Université de Montpellier, F-34060, Montpellier, France.
sylvie.dequin@inra.fr.

BACKGROUND: The volatile metabolites produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 
alcoholic fermentation, which are mainly esters, higher alcohols and organic
acids, play a vital role in the quality and perception of fermented beverages,
such as wine. Although the metabolic pathways and genes behind yeast fermentative
aroma formation are well described, little is known about the genetic mechanisms 
underlying variations between strains in the production of these aroma compounds.
To increase our knowledge about the links between genetic variation and volatile 
production, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using
130 F2-meiotic segregants from two S. cerevisiae wine strains. The segregants
were individually genotyped by next-generation sequencing and separately
phenotyped during wine fermentation.
RESULTS: Using different QTL mapping strategies, we were able to identify 65 QTLs
in the genome, including 55 that influence the formation of 30 volatile secondary
metabolites, 14 with an effect on sugar consumption and central carbon metabolite
production, and 7 influencing fermentation parameters. For ethyl lactate, ethyl
octanoate and propanol formation, we discovered 2 interacting QTLs each. Within 9
of the detected regions, we validated the contribution of 13 genes in the
observed phenotypic variation by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. These genes
are involved in nitrogen uptake and metabolism (AGP1, ALP1, ILV6, LEU9), central 
carbon metabolism (HXT3, MAE1), fatty acid synthesis (FAS1) and regulation (AGP2,
IXR1, NRG1, RGS2, RGT1, SIR2) and explain variations in the production of
characteristic sensorial esters (e.g., 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-metyhlpropyl
acetate and ethyl hexanoate), higher alcohols and fatty acids.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of QTLs and their interactions emphasizes the
complexity of yeast fermentative aroma formation. The validation of underlying
allelic variants increases knowledge about genetic variation impacting metabolic 
pathways that lead to the synthesis of sensorial important compounds. As a
result, this work lays the foundation for tailoring S. cerevisiae strains with
optimized volatile metabolite production for fermented beverages and other
biotechnological applications.

DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-4562-8 
PMCID: PMC5831830
PMID: 29490607 


84. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 28;13(2):e0193533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193533.
eCollection 2018.

Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Ismail SR(1), Maarof SK(2), Siedar Ali S(2), Ali A(1).

Author information: 
(1)Cardiovascular, Diabetes & Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Medical
Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
(2)Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.

BACKGROUND: The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the
rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that 
palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases
worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil
consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific 
mortality.
METHODS: We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to
June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate
searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords
related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional 
and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old). Two investigators
extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only
narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not
be pooled.
RESULTS: Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study 
and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD) with four included studies. 
Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction
(MI) (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39-5.47). Total SFA intake was reported to be not
significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to
total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant
associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was
higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 
1.09-1.62) than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16;
95%CI = 0.86-1.56). Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and
imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by
higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption) was inconsistent across
the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every
additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, CHD mortality risk 
was 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI = 21-115) in developing countries and 17 deaths
per 100,000 (95%CI = 5.3-29) in high-income countries, whereas stroke was
associated with 19 deaths per 100,000 (95%CI = -12-49) and 5.1 deaths per 100,000
(95% CI: -1.2-11) respectively. The evidence for the outcomes of this review were
all graded as very low. The findings of this review should be interpreted with
some caution, owing to the lack of a pooled effect estimate of the association,
significant bias in selection criteria and confounding factors, inclusion of
other food items together with palm oil, and the possible out-dated trend in the 
ecological study.
CONCLUSION: In view of the abundance of palm oil in the market, quantifying its
true association with CVD outcomes is challenging. The present review could not
establish strong evidence for or against palm oil consumption relating to
cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality.
Further studies are needed to establish the association of palm oil with CVD. A
healthy overall diet should still be prioritised for good cardiometabolic health.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193533 
PMID: 29489910 


85. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 28;13(2):e0192649. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192649.
eCollection 2018.

Assessing national nutrition security: The UK reliance on imports to meet
population energy and nutrient recommendations.

Macdiarmid JI(1), Clark H(2), Whybrow S(1), de Ruiter H(3)(4), McNeill G(2).

Author information: 
(1)The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
(2)Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United
Kingdom.
(3)Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen,
Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
(4)Information and Computational Sciences Group, The James Hutton Institute,
Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Nutrition security describes the adequacy of the food supply to meet not only
energy but also macronutrient and micronutrient requirements for the population. 
The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess trends in national
nutrition security and the contribution of imports to nutrition security, using
the UK as a case study. Food supply data from FAO food balance sheets and
national food composition tables were used to estimate the nutrient content of
domestically produced food, imported food and exported food. Nutrition security
was defined as the total nutrient supply (domestic production, minus exports,
plus imports) to meet population-level nutrient requirements. The results showed 
that the UK was nutrition secure over the period 1961-2011 for energy,
macronutrients and key micronutrients, with the exception of total carbohydrates 
and fibre, which may be due to the loss of fibre incurred by processing cereals
into refined products. The supply of protein exceeded population requirements and
could be met with domestic production alone. Even excluding all meat there was
sufficient protein for population requirements. The supply of total fat,
saturated fat and sugar considerably exceeded the current dietary recommendation.
As regards nutrition security in 2010, the UK was reliant on imported foods to
meet energy, fibre, total carbohydrate, iron, zinc and vitamin A requirements.
This analysis demonstrates the importance of including nutrients other than
energy to determine the adequacy of the food supply. The methodology also
provides an alternative perspective on food security and self-sufficiency by
assessing the dependency on imports to meet population level nutritional
requirements.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192649 
PMID: 29489830 


86. J Complement Integr Med. 2018 Feb 28. pii:
/j/jcim.ahead-of-print/jcim-2018-0010/jcim-2018-0010.xml. doi:
10.1515/jcim-2018-0010. [Epub ahead of print]

Is fish oil supplementation effective on maternal serum FBS, oral glucose
tolerance test, hemoglobin and hematocrit in low risk pregnant women? A
triple-blind randomized controlled trial.

Vahedi L(1), Ostadrahimi A(2), Edalati-Fard F(3), Aslani H(4), Farshbaf-Khalili
A(5).

Author information: 
(1)Research Center for Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases, Tabriz University of 
Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(2)Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
Iran.
(3)Alzahra educational and treatment center, Tabriz University of Medical
Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(4)Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(5)Aging Research Institute, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research
Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background Fish oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids including
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which were considered 
as essential fatty acids. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the
effects of fish oil supplementation on maternal serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), 
oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct).
Methods In this randomized triple-blind clinical trial, 150 pregnant women were
allocated into two groups randomly. In the intervention group, women received one
fish oil capsule daily (1,000 mg consisted of 120 mg DHA and 180 mg EPA), and
control group received placebo from the end of twentieth week of pregnancy until 
delivery (140 capsules). FBS, 2-hour 75 g OGTT, Hb, and Hct were measured at 6-10
and 26-30 weeks of pregnancy. Analysis was based on intervention to treat.
Results At the weeks 26-30, mean FBS in the intervention and control groups were 
76.92 (9.8) and 75.64 (8.2) mg/dl, respectively [adjusted mean difference (aMD)
(95% CI):1.46 (-2.13 to 5.05)]. Also, there was no significant difference between
two groups in 2-hour OGTT [aMD (95% CI): -4.69 (-13.75 to 4.52)]. Mean (SD) Hb
was 11.8 (1.1) versus 11.8 (0.7) g/dl in the intervention and control groups,
respectively [aMD (95% CI): 0.001 (-0.328 to 0.330)], mean (SD) Hct were 36.12%
(2.8%) and 35.84% (2.3%), respectively [aMD (95% CI): 0.25 (-0.65 to 1.14)].
Conclusions Based on the findings of present study, fish oil supplementation has 
no significant effect on Hb, Hct, FBS and 2-hour OGTT of pregnant women.

DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2018-0010 
PMID: 29489457 


87. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018 Feb 28:1-8. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.18489. [Epub ahead of
print]

Sonographic-MRI Correlation After Percutaneous Sampling of Targeted Breast
Ultrasound Lesions: Initial Experiences With Limited-Sequence Unenhanced MRI for 
Postprocedural Clip Localization.

Lee AY(1), Nguyen VT(1), Arasu VA(1), Greenwood HI(1), Ray KM(1), Joe BN(1),
Price ER(1).

Author information: 
(1)1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San
Francisco, 1600 Divisadero St, Rm C250, Box 1667, San Francisco, CA 94115.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of correlation
of sonographic and MRI findings after percutaneous sampling of presumed
ultrasound correlates to suspicious lesions detected on breast MRI and to
describe our initial experiences with limited-sequence MRI for postprocedural
clip verification.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1, 2014, and March 31, 2016, a total of
1947 contrast-enhanced breast MRI examinations were performed, and 245 targeted
ultrasound examinations were conducted to identify correlates to suspicious MRI
findings. We retrospectively identified all lesions that underwent
ultrasound-guided sampling of a presumed sonographic correlate and for which a
subsequent postprocedural limited-sequence unenhanced MR image for clip
localization was available. This consisted of a T1-weighted non-fat-saturated and
a T2-weighted fat-saturated sequence. Frequencies of sonographic-MRI correlation 
were quantified.
RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 35 patients with 38 presumed correlates
that underwent ultrasound-guided sampling with postprocedural MRI for clip
verification. The mean time from percutaneous sampling to postprocedural MRI
examination was 1 day. Ten presumed sonographic correlates (26%) were found to
localize to a site distinct from the lesion originally identified on MRI. One of 
these discordant cases revealed malignancy on subsequent MRI-guided biopsy,
whereas the presumed sonographic correlate was found to be benign. No patient or 
lesion characteristics were associated with significantly different frequencies
of correlation.
CONCLUSION: In our initial experiences with MRI performed for postprocedural clip
verification, 26% of presumed correlates to suspicious lesions detected on MRI
were not the actual correlate, and 10% of these discordant cases ultimately
revealed malignancy. Radiologists should take caution presuming that lesions
identified on ultrasound actually represent the suspicious lesions detected on
MRI. MRI for clip verification may be useful if ultrasound-guided sampling is
pursued.

DOI: 10.2214/AJR.17.18489 
PMID: 29489404 


88. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002671. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Thalassotalea insulae sp. nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment.

Park S(1), Choi J(1), Won SM(1), Yoon JH(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University,
Jangan-gu, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, 
designated JDTF-40T, was isolated from a tidal flat in Jindo, an island of the
Republic of South Korea. Strain JDTF-40T grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30 °C
and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree
based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JDTF-40T fell within the
cluster comprising the type strains of Thalassotalea species. Strain JDTF-40T
exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 93.8-95.7 % to the type
strains of Thalassotalea species. Strain JDTF-40T contained Q-8 as the
predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and
C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain JDTF-40T were 
phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one 
unidentified glycolipid and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of
strain JDTF-40T was 41.3 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with 
the phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain JDTF-40T is distinct
from recognized species of the genus Thalassotalea. On the basis of the data
presented here, strain JDTF-40T is considered to represent a novel species of the
genus Thalassotalea, for which the name Thalassotalea insulae sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is JDTF-40T (=KACC 19433T=KCTC 62186T=NBRC 113040T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002671 
PMID: 29488866 


89. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002617. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Reclassification of Mameliella phaeodactyli, Mameliella atlantica, Ponticoccus
lacteus and Alkalimicrobium pacificum as later heterotypic synonyms of Mameliella
alba and an emended description of Mameliella alba.

Liu Y(1), Zhang X(1), Lai Q(1), Shao Z(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources; Key Laboratory
of Marine Genetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA; Collaborative 
Innovation Center for Exploitation and Utilization of Marine Biological
Resources; Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of Fujian Province, Xiamen 
361005, PR China.

The aim of the study was to reclarify the taxonomic status of four species,
Mameliella phaeodactyli, Mameliella atlantica, Ponticoccus lacteus and
Alkalimicrobium pacificum, by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. A
combination of physiological properties of the four type strains, KD53T, L6M1-5T,
JL351T and F15T, was consistent with those of the closest type strain JLT354-WT
of Mameliella alba. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the five type strains shared
100 % identity. The close relationship between the five strains was underpinned
by the results of chemotaxonomic characteristics, including the fatty acids,
quinone and polar lipids. The pairwise digital DNA-DNA hybridization values among
the five strains were well above 70 %, considered the threshold value for species
definition. In this case a further statement of Rule 24a applies, in which
priority of names is determined by the date of the original publication. Hence,
we propose that that Mameliella phaeodactyli, Mameliella atlantica, Ponticoccus
lacteus and Alkalimicrobium pacificum should be regarded as later heterotypic
synonyms of Mameliella alba.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002617 
PMID: 29488862 


90. J Basic Microbiol. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201700594. [Epub ahead of
print]

Analysis of growth and lipid production characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris in 
artificially constructed consortia with symbiotic bacteria.

Xue L(1)(2), Shang H(1)(2), Ma P(1)(2), Wang X(1)(2), He X(1)(2), Niu J(1)(2), Wu
J(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University,
Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
(2)Key Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Microbial Resources and Engineering,
Gansu Province,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

The aim was to study the effect of artificially constructed consortia of
microalgae-bacterial symbionts on growth and lipid production by Chlorella
vulgaris (C. vulgaris), as well as the inter-relationship between microalgae and 
bacterial in a photoautotrophic system. The results showed that compared to an
axenic culture of C. vulgaris, H1 co-culture system (axenic C.
vulgaris-Stenotrophomona smaltophilia) had the strongest effect on the C.
vulgaris growth. The biomass, specific growth rate and maximum productivity of C.
vulgaris were increased by 21.9, 20.4, and 18%, respectively. The bacteria in
co-culture system had a significant effect on the accumulation of lipid and fatty
acid components of C. vulgaris: the content of lipid was increased by 8.2-33.83%,
and the components of the saturated fatty acids and oleic acids also had an
obvious improvement. The results indicate that the microalgae-bacterial
co-culture system can improve microalgal biomass and the quality of biodiesel.

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201700594 
PMID: 29488634 


91. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1625-1. [Epub ahead of print]

The urinary phenolic acid profile varies between younger and older adults after a
polyphenol-rich meal despite limited differences in in vitro colonic catabolism.

Alkhaldy A(1)(2), Edwards CA(1), Combet E(3).

Author information: 
(1)Human Nutrition, School of Medicine Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical 
Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, New Lister Building, Glasgow
Royal Infirmary, Alexandra Parade, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK.
(2)Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King
Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
(3)Human Nutrition, School of Medicine Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical 
Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, New Lister Building, Glasgow
Royal Infirmary, Alexandra Parade, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK.
Emilie.combetaspray@glasgow.ac.uk.

PURPOSE: To investigate whether age influences colonic polyphenol metabolism.
METHODS: Healthy participants, younger (n = 8; 23-43 years) and older (n = 13;
51-76 years), followed a 3-day low-polyphenol diet (LPD) and a 3-day
high-polyphenol diet (HPD). Urinary phenolic acids (PA), short chain fatty acids 
(SCFA), pH and gas were monitored, alongside selected colonic bacteria. Human
faecal in vitro fermentations of rutin with or without raftiline were used to
evaluate the gut microbiota capacity in a subset of both groups.
RESULTS: Total urinary PA were higher in the older group after HPD compared to
the younger group (1.5-fold; p = 0.04), with no difference between groups in
terms of a change between diets (Δ high-low diet). While 17 PA were detected in
all younger participants after HPD, a narrower range (n = 8 to 16 PA) was
detected in most (n = 9/13) older participants, with lower level of benzoic acid 
(19-fold; p = 0.03), vanillic acid (4.5-fold; p = 0.04) but higher hippuric acid 
(2.7-fold; p = 0.03). Faecal SCFA concentration did not change after HPD within
group, with similar differential excretion (Δ high-low diet) between groups.
There were no differences between groups for faecal pH, total, faecal bacteria
including Flavonifractor plautii, bifidobacteria, and bacteroides. In human in
vitro faecal fermentations, seven PAs were detected in both groups after 24 h of 
rutin fermentation, with no quantitative and modest qualitative differences
between groups. Total SCFA in faecal fermentation did not differ between groups, 
except for butyric acid (twofold higher in the older group; p = 0.009) when rutin
was fermented with raftiline over 24 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Urinary phenolic acids were less diverse in older participants
despite limited difference in functional capacity of in vitro faecal
fermentations.

DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1625-1 
PMID: 29488010 


92. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):1104-1115. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-3026-5.
Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Crystallization of low saturated lipid blends of palm and canola oils with
sorbitan monostearate and fully hydrogenated palm oil.

Barbosa KM(1), Cardoso LP(2), Ribeiro APB(1), Kieckbusch TG(3), Buscato MHM(3).

Author information: 
(1)1School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo
Brazil.
(2)2"Gleb Wataghin" Institute of Physics, University of Campinas, Campinas, São
Paulo Brazil.
(3)3School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Albert Einstein
Avenue, 500, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-852
Brazil.

Several scientific investigations have focused on providing new strategies for
supporting the development of low saturated and zero trans lipid materials, as
healthier fat alternatives for food application. This work evaluated the
consistency, crystallization behavior, microstructure and polymorphism of six
blends composed of palm and canola oils at different concentrations (100:0,
80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100, in w/w%) added with 5.0% of fully
hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO) or with a mixture of 2.5% of FHPO and 2.5% of
sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The results were compared with the non-structured
blends (standard samples). Through microstructure images, the formation of a more
homogeneous and denser packed crystal network was observed for samples added with
both crystallization modifiers (FHPO/SMS) compared to the corresponding standard 
samples, after stabilization at 25 °C during 3 h. In particular, enhanced
crystallization modifications were observed for the 40:60 blend, in which the
crystal form β' emerged after the addition of FHPO/SMS. Moreover, the 40:60 blend
structured with FHPO/SMS showed increased consistency (from 30 to 658 gF/cm2) and
induced onset crystallization in a higher temperature (from 13.1 to 23.9 °C)
compared with the non-structured one, due to the specific crystallization effects
provided by both added structurants.

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3026-5 
PMCID: PMC5821670 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29487453 


93. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):992-1002. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-3012-y. Epub
2018 Feb 5.

Antioxidant activity, fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of
Gouda cheese fortified with mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel fat.

Khan IT(1), Nadeem M(1), Imran M(2), Ajmal M(1), Ali S(1).

Author information: 
(1)1Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Lahore, Pakistan.
(2)2Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home Economics, Faculty of Science 
and Technology, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College
University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Effect of mango kernel fat (MKF) on antioxidant characteristics and lipolysis of 
Gouda cheese was investigated. Milk fat (3.5%) was partially replaced with MKF
i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Cheese prepared from
100% milk fat served as control. Cheese samples were ripened for 90 days at
6 ± 1 °C and analysed at 0, 45 and 90 days of ripening. Total phenolic contents
of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 14 ± 0.35, 129 ± 0.75, 188 ± 2.52, 267 ± 10.61
and 391 ± 8.46 mg GAE/g. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4
were 0.22 ± 0.03, 1.47 ± 0.09, 3.62 ± 0.15, 5.88 ± 0.35, 8.29 ± 0.63 mg quercetin
equivalent/ml. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of control and experimental 
samples increased throughout the ripening period. DPPH free radicals scavenging
activity of 90 days old control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 16.38 ± 0.0.26e,
30.47 ± 0.64d, 68.62 ± 0.91c, 73.29 ± 0.85b, 92.61 ± 1.44a %. HPLC
characterization revealed the existence of mangiferin, caffeic acid, catechin,
quercetin and chlorogenic acid in MKF fortified Gouda cheese. Fortification of
MKF increased the concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in cheese. The
concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in control were 24.55 ± 0.95, 1.76 ± 0.09
and 0.31 ± 0.02%. While, the concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in T4 were
30.11 ± 1.34, 2.79 ± 2.79 and 0.92 ± 0.11%. MKF fortified Gouda cheese had better
oxidative stability and sensory characteristics. These results evidenced that
antioxidant capacity, unsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stability of Gouda
cheese can be improved with MKF.

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3012-y 
PMCID: PMC5821656 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29487441 


94. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):964-976. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-3004-y. Epub 
2018 Feb 6.

Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low
alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile
profiles.

Zhang G(1), Chen W(1), Chen W(1), Chen H(1).

Author information: 
(1)College of Food Science and Technology, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228
Hainan China.

Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is 
usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol
coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the
quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were 
estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the
kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents
were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that
tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in
LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile
composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were
significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover,
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),
2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion
reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values
increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement 
of total phenolic content.

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3004-y 
PMCID: PMC5821652 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29487438 

Conflict of interest statement: Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors
report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the
content and writing of the paper.


95. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):944-955. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-3002-0. Epub 
2018 Jan 25.

Nutritional quality of different grades of adult male chinese mitten crab,
Eriocheir sinensis.

Wang Q(#)(1)(2)(3), Wu X(#)(2)(3), Long X(2)(3), Zhu W(2)(3), Ma T(4), Cheng
Y(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)1College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University,
Changchun, 130118 China.
(2)2Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of
Agriculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306 China.
(3)4Collaborative Innovation Center of Aquatic Animal Breeding Certificated by
Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai,
201306 China.
(4)Shanghai Bright Special Aquaculture Limited Company, Shanghai, 202178 China.
(#)Contributed equally

This study mainly investigated the composition of adult male Chinese mitten crab 
(Eriocheir sinensis) from four grades/sizes (Grade I: 200-249 g; Grade II:
175-199 g; Grade III: 150-174 g; Grade IV: ≤ 150 g). The results showed that the 
grade III crabs had the largest gonadsomatic index (GSI), which was significantly
higher than the grade I and grade II crabs, no significant difference was found
with the grade IV crab. Significant differences in moisture and total lipid
contents were observed among various edible parts from different grades of male
Eriocheir sinensis. In particular, grade II crabs had the highest total lipid and
dry matter content for hepatopancreas. A balanced amino acids composition and a
high essential amino acids score (EAAS) were found in the muscle and gonads of
grade III crabs. The levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6
PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the hepatopancreas, as well as the
contents of PUFA, highly-unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), n-3 PUFA, arachidonic
acid (ARA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the gonads were significantly
increased in the grade II crabs. Taken together, it can generally be concluded
that adult male Eriocheir sinensis of 150-200 g (Grade II-III) weight have the
highest nutritional quality even though they are not the largest crabs.

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3002-0 
PMCID: PMC5821650 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29487436 


96. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):858-867. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2888-x. Epub 
2018 Jan 27.

Animal fat replacement by vegetable oils in formulations of breads with flour
mixes.

Osuna MB(1), Romero AM(1), Avallone CM(1), Judis MA(1), Bertola NC(2).

Author information: 
(1)1Laboratorio de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas y
Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral, Comandante Fernández N°755,
Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña, Provincia Chaco Argentina.
(2)2Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos (CIDCA). 
CONICET- CIC- Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 
y 116, 1900 la Plata, Provincia Buenos Aires Argentina.

The improvement of fatty acids (FA) profile of bread made with bovine fat (BF)
and a mixture of flours completely replacing fat with canola oil (CO), or olive
oil (OO) was evaluated. Technological and sensory characteristics and overall
acceptability of the fortified breads were also studied. The results showed a
decrease in saturated FA and a relative increase in monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated FA compared to bread made with BF. Regarding CO, this caused the 
higher increase in n3 FA. This effect was maximized in bread made from the
mixture of wheat flour (WF) + flaxseed flour (FF) + soybean flour (SF). OO caused
a rise of n9 and n6 FA, mainly in bread made with WF + FF + wheat bran (WB). The 
breads with WF + FF + SF + CO and WF + FF + WB + OO presented higher specific
volume, softer crumb and colour similar to those from base formulations.
Furthermore, they had a very good sensory acceptance.

DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2888-x 
PMCID: PMC5821639 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29487427 


97. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 27;8(1):3685. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22094-2.

Xiexin Tang improves the symptom of type 2 diabetic rats by modulation of the gut
microbiota.

Wei X(1), Tao J(1), Xiao S(1), Jiang S(2), Shang E(1), Zhu Z(1), Qian D(1), Duan 
J(3).

Author information: 
(1)Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources
Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road,
Nanjing, 210023, PR China.
(2)Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources
Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road,
Nanjing, 210023, PR China. jiangshu2020@126.com.
(3)Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources
Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road,
Nanjing, 210023, PR China. dja@njutcm.edu.cn.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic metabolic disease which severely
impairs peoples' quality of life, currently attracted worldwide concerns. There
are growing evidences that gut microbiota can exert a great impact on the
development of T2DM. Xiexin Tang (XXT), a traditional Chinese medicine
prescription, has been clinically used to treat diabetes for thousands of years. 
However, few researches are investigated on the modulation of gut microbiota
community by XXT which will be very helpful to unravel how it works. In this
study, bacterial communities were analyzed based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene
sequencing. Results indicated that XXT could notably shape the gut microbiota.
T2DM rats treated with XXT exhibited obvious changes in the composition of the
gut microbiota, especially for some short chain fatty acids producing and
anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Adlercreutzia, Alloprevotella, Barnesiella,
[Eubacterium] Ventriosum group, Blautia, Lachnospiraceae UCG-001, Papillibacter
and Prevotellaceae NK3B31 group. Additionally, XXT could also significantly
ameliorate hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammation in T2DM
rats. Moreover, the correlation analysis illustrated that the key microbiota had 
a close relationship with the T2DM related indexes. The results probably provided
useful information for further investigation on its active mechanism and clinical
application.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22094-2 
PMCID: PMC5829262
PMID: 29487347 


98. MBio. 2018 Feb 27;9(1). pii: e00211-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00211-18.

Salmonella Reprograms Nucleotide Metabolism in Its Adaptation to Nitrosative
Stress.

Fitzsimmons LF(1), Liu L(1), Kim JS(1), Jones-Carson J(1), Vázquez-Torres
A(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Immunology and
Microbiology, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
(2)University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Immunology and
Microbiology, Aurora, Colorado, USA Andres.Vazquez-Torres@ucdenver.edu.
(3)Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, Colorado, USA.

The adaptations that protect pathogenic microorganisms against the cytotoxicity
of nitric oxide (NO) engendered in the immune response are incompletely
understood. We show here that salmonellae experiencing nitrosative stress suffer 
dramatic losses of the nucleoside triphosphates ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP while
simultaneously generating a massive burst of the alarmone nucleotide guanosine
tetraphosphate. RelA proteins associated with ribosomes overwhelmingly synthesize
guanosine tetraphosphate in response to NO as a feedback mechanism to transient
branched-chain amino acid auxotrophies. Guanosine tetraphosphate activates the
transcription of valine biosynthetic genes, thereby reestablishing branched-chain
amino acid biosynthesis that enables the translation of the NO-consuming
flavohemoglobin Hmp. Guanosine tetraphosphate synthesized by RelA protects
salmonellae from the metabolic stress inflicted by reactive nitrogen species
generated in the mammalian host response. This research illustrates the
importance of nucleotide metabolism in the adaptation of salmonellae to the
nutritional stress imposed by NO released in the innate host response.IMPORTANCE 
Nitric oxide triggers dramatic drops in nucleoside triphosphates, the building
blocks that power DNA replication; RNA transcription; translation; cell division;
and the biosynthesis of fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, and peptidoglycan.
Concomitantly, this diatomic gas stimulates a burst of guanosine tetraphosphate. 
Global changes in nucleotide metabolism may contribute to the potent
bacteriostatic activity of nitric oxide. In addition to inhibiting numerous
growth-dependent processes, guanosine tetraphosphate positively regulates the
transcription of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis genes, thereby
facilitating the translation of antinitrosative defenses that mediate recovery
from nitrosative stress.

DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00211-18 
PMCID: PMC5829828
PMID: 29487237 


99. J Vet Sci. 2018 Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Ultrasonographic ovarian dynamic, plasma progesterone and non-esterified fatty
acids in lame postpartum dairy cows.

Melendez P(1), Gomez V(2), Bothe H(3), Rodriguez F(3), Velez J(3), Lopez H(4),
Bartolome J(5), Archbald L(2).

Author information: 
(1)College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
(2)College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
(3)Aurora Organic Dairy Farm, Plateville, CO, USA.
(4)ABS Global, Inc. DeForest, WI, USA.
(5)Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, LP,
Argentina.

The objective of this study was to compare ovulation rate, number of large
ovarian follicles, plasma progesterone (P4) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)
concentrations between lame (n=10) and non-lame (n=10) lactating Holstein cows.
The study was conducted in an organic dairy farm and cows were evaluated by
ultrasonography and blood sampling every 3 days from 30 days postpartum during a 
period of 34 days. Cows which became lame during the first 30 days postpartum
that experienced a lower ovulation rate were determined by the presence of a
corpus luteum (50% for lame cows and 100% for non-lame cows, P ≤ 0.05). The
number of large ovarian follicles in the ovaries was 5 for lame cows and 7 for
non-lame cows (P=0.09). In addition, lame cows showed lower (P ≤ 0.05)
concentrations of plasma P4 compared to non-lame cows. Furthermore, NEFA
concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05) in lame cows compared to non-lame cows. It
is concluded that lameness in postpartum dairy cows was associated with failure
of ovulation, lower P4 concentrations and lower levels of NEFA.


PMID: 29486532 


100. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1002/rcm.8096. [Epub ahead of
print]

Collision cross section (CCS) measurement by ion cyclotron resonance mass
spectrometry with short-time Fourier transform.

Hu M(1)(2), Zhang L(1), He S(1), Xu C(1), Shi Q(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum,
Beijing, 102249, China.
(2)CNOOC Research Institute of Refining and Petrochemicals, Beijing, 102200,
China.

RATIONALE: Collision cross section (CCS) is an important shape parameter which is
often used in molecular structure investigation. In Fourier transform ion
cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), CCS affects ion signal damping
shape due to the effect of ion-neutral collision. It is potential to obtain ion
CCS value from FT-ICR MS with the help of proper ion-collision model.
METHODS: We have developed a rapid method to obtain the ion damping profile and
CCS for mixtures by only one FT-ICR MS measurement. The method utilizes
short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to process FT-ICR MS time domain signal. The 
STFT processed result is a three-dimensional spectrum which has an additional
time axis in addition to the conventional mass-to-charge ratio and intensity
domains. The damping profile of each ion can be recognized from the 3D spectrum.
RESULTS: After extracting decay profile of specified ion, all the three
ion-neutral collision models were tested in curve fitting. Hard-sphere model was 
proven to be suitable for our experimental setup. A linear relationship was
observed between CCS value and hard-sphere model parameters. Therefore, the CCS
values of all the peaks were obtained through the addition of internal model
compounds and linear calibration.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the CCS of
fatty acids and polyalanines in a petroleum gas oil matrix. This technique can be
used for simultaneous measurement of cross sections for many ions in congested
spectra.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1002/rcm.8096 
PMID: 29486526 


101. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00311.2017.
[Epub ahead of print]

Nrf2 deletion from adipocytes, but not hepatocytes, potentiates systemic
metabolic dysfunction after long-term high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

Chartoumpekis DV(1), Palliyaguru DL, Wakabayashi N(2), Fazzari M, Khoo NK,
Schopfer FJ, Sipula I(3), Yagishita Y, Michalopoulos GK(4), O'Doherty RM(3),
Kensler TW(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh,
United States.
(2)University of Pittsburgh.
(3)Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, United States.
(4)Chair, Dept. of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
(5)Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, United States.

Nrf2 is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression but evidence of
its crosstalk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. 
Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially
protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and
humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protected from diet-induced obesity 
and insulin resistance in mice. To further investigate the effect of the
disruption of Nrf2 on obesity in a tissue-specific manner, we focused on
adipocytes and hepatocytes with targeted deletion of Nrf2. To this end, mice with
cell-specific deletion of Nrf2 in adipocytes (ANKO) or hepatocytes (HeNKO) were
fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months and showed similar increases in body weight 
and body fat content. ANKO mice showed a partially deteriorated glucose
tolerance, higher fasting glucose levels and higher levels of cholesterol, and
non-esterified fatty acids compared to their control counterparts. The HeNKO mice
though, had lower insulin levels and trended towards improved insulin sensitivity
without having any difference in liver triglyceride accumulation. This study
compared for the first time two conditional Nrf2 knock-out models in adipocytes
and in hepatocytes during HFD-induced obesity. None of these models could
completely recapitulate the unexpected protection against obesity observed in the
whole body Nrf2 knock-out mice but this study points out the differential roles
that Nrf2 may play, beyond cytoprotection, in different target tissues and rather
suggests systemic activation of the Nrf2 pathway as an effective means of
prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00311.2017 
PMID: 29486138 


102. FASEB J. 2018 Feb 27:fj201701378RR. doi: 10.1096/fj.201701378RR. [Epub ahead of
print]

Metabolic and molecular framework for the enhancement of endurance by
intermittent food deprivation.

Marosi K(1), Moehl K(1), Navas-Enamorado I(2), Mitchell SJ(3), Zhang Y(4),
Lehrmann E(4), Aon MA(5), Cortassa S(5), Becker KG(4), Mattson MP(1)(6).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes 
of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
(2)Translational Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of
Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
(3)Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of
Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
(4)Gene Expression and Genomics Unit Core Facility, National Institute on Aging, 
National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
(5)Laboratory of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National
Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
(6)Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform
at a high level in the food-deprived state when fatty acids and their ketone
metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because controlled food
deprivation in laboratory animals and intermittent energy restriction in humans
is a potent physiologic stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine
the impact of intermittent food deprivation during endurance training on
performance and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Male mice were randomly assigned to either ad libitum feeding or alternate-day
food deprivation (ADF) groups, and half of the mice in each diet group were
trained daily on a treadmill for 1 mo. A run to exhaustion endurance test
performed at the end of the training period revealed superior performance in the 
mice maintained on ADF during training compared to mice fed ad libitum during
training. Maximal O2 consumption was increased similarly by treadmill training in
mice on ADF or ad libitum diets, whereas respiratory exchange ratio was reduced
in ADF mice on food-deprivation days and during running. Analyses of gene
expression in liver and soleus tissues, and metabolomics analysis of blood
suggest that the metabolic switch invoked by ADF and potentiated by exercise
strongly modulates molecular pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis,
metabolism, and cellular plasticity. Our findings demonstrate that ADF engages
metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that result in increased metabolic
efficiency and endurance capacity.-Marosi, K., Moehl, K., Navas-Enamorado, I.,
Mitchell, S. J., Zhang, Y., Lehrmann, E., Aon, M. A., Cortassa, S., Becker, K.
G., Mattson, M. P. Metabolic and molecular framework for the enhancement of
endurance by intermittent food deprivation.

DOI: 10.1096/fj.201701378RR 
PMID: 29485903 


103. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002668. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Glycomyces anabasis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from
roots of Anabasis aphylla L.

Zhang YG(1), Wang HF(2)(1), Alkhalifah DHM(3), Xiao M(4), Zhou XK(5), Liu YH(1), 
Hozzein WN(6), Li WJ(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)1​Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürűmqi 830011,
PR China.
(2)2​College of Life Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, PR
China.
(3)3​Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman
University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
(4)4​State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory
of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou
510275, PR China.
(5)5​State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in
Yunnan, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China.
(6)6​Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, 
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain EGI 6500139T, was isolated 
from the surface-sterilized roots of Anabasis aphylla L., collected from
Xinjiang, northwest PR China, and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic
characterization. Strain EGI 6500139T formed sparse aerial mycelium with rod-like
spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid
as the cell-wall diamino acid, glucose as major sugar, and mannose, galactose,
xylose and ribose as minor sugars. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol,
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one
unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified
polar lipids. The major fatty acids identified were anteiso-C17 : 0,
anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinones
detected were MK-11 and MK-11(H2). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain
EGI 6500139T was 70.4 mol%. Strain EGI 6500139T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene 
sequence similarity to Glycomyces lacisalsi XHU 5089T (96.3 %). Phylogenetic
analysis showed that strain EGI 6500139T fell within the clade of the genus
Glycomyces, and formed a clade with G. lacisalsi XHU 5089T and G. albus CCTCC AA 
2013004T. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain EGI
6500139T represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the name
Glycomyces anabasis sp. nov. (type strain EGI 6500139T=JCM 30088T=KCTC 29495T) is
proposed.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002668 
PMID: 29485399 


104. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002666. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Herbaspirillum robiniae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Robinia
pseudoacacia in a lead-zinc mine.

Fan MC(1), Guo YQ(1), Zhang LP(1), Zhu YM(1), Chen WM(1), Lin YB(1), Wei GH(1).

Author information: 
(1)College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Agricultural and
Environmental Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid
Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China.

A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain HZ10T, was isolated from root
nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in a lead-zinc mine in Mianxian County,
Shaanxi Province, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, 
slightly curved- and rod-shaped, methyl red-negative, catalase-positive, and did 
not produce H2S. Strain HZ10T grew at 4-45 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), pH 5-9
(optimum, pH 7-8) and 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as 
C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 3
(C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), and the quinone type was Q-8. The major polar
lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and
phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.9 mol% based 
on the whole genome sequence. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis,
the closest phylogenetic relative to strain HZ10T is Herbaspirillum
chlorophenolicum CPW301T (98.72 % sequence identity). Genome relatedness of the
type strains H. chlorophenolicum CPW301T, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67T and
Herbaspirillum aquaticum IEH 4430T, was quantified by using the average
nucleotide identity (86.9-88.0 %) and a genome-to-genome distance analysis
(26.6 %-29.3 %), with both strongly supporting the notion that strain HZ10T
belongs to the genus Herbaspirillum as a novel species. Based on the results from
phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, strain HZ10T represents 
a novel Herbaspirillum species, for which the name Herbaspirillumrobiniae sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is HZ10T (=JCM 31754T=CCTCC AB 2014352T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002666 
PMID: 29485397 


105. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002664. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Flavobacterium cyanobacteriorum sp. nov., isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates
in a eutrophic lake.

Cai H(1), Zeng Y(2), Wang Y(3), Cui H(4), Jiang H(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of
Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, PR China.
(2)2​Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Environmental
Science, Aarhus University, Denmark, Denmark.
(3)3​Key Laboratory of Microbial Engineering at the Institute of Biology, Henan
Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, PR China.
(4)4​School of Food & Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, PR
China.

A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, rod-shaped and
yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain TH021T, was isolated from
cyanobacterial aggregates in a eutrophic lake, Taihu Lake, China. Optimal growth 
occurred at pH 7.0 (range: 5.0-10.0), 28 °C (range, 4-32 °C) and 0 % (w/v) NaCl
(range, 0-1.0 %) in Reasoner's 2A broth. No growth was observed at 37 °C. The
cells were found to be positive for oxidase and catalase activities. The major
respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were
identified as iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. The major polar lipid was
phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences 
revealed that the isolate was affiliated with the genus Flavobacterium, with the 
highest sequence similarity found to Flavobacterium hauense BX12T (94.92 %),
followed by Flavobacterium suzhouense XIN-1T (94.85 %), Flavobacterium arcticum
SM1502T (94.79 %) and Flavobacterium beibuense F44-8T (94.30 %). The genomic
G+C content of strain TH021T was 41.9 mol% based on total genome calculations.
Average nucleotide identities and digital DNA-DNA hybridizations values for
complete genomes ranged from 69.4 to 72.8 and 18.0 to 23.8 % between strain
TH021T and strains within the genus Flavobacterium. The phenotypic,
chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, and genome analysis suggested that
strain TH021T represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for
which the name Flavobacteriumcyanobacteriorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is TH021T (=LMG 29720T=CGMCC 1.16325T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002664 
PMID: 29485392 


106. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05343. [Epub ahead of
print]

Volatile Compounds Related to 'Stone Fruit' Aroma Attributes in Viognier and
Chardonnay Wines.

Siebert TE(1)(2), Barker A(1), Pearson W(1), Barter SR(1), de Barros Lopes MA(2),
Darriet P(3)(4), Herderich MJ(1), Francis IL(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)The Australian Wine Research Institute , P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond (Adelaide) 
SA 5064, Australia.
(2)School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia , G.P.O 
Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
(3)Unité de Recherche Œnologie EA 4577, ISVV, University of Bordeaux , Villenave 
d'Ornon cedex 33882, France.
(4)USC Œnologie, ISVV, INRA , Villenave d'Ornon cedex 33882, France.

A 'stone fruit' aroma is important in many white wine varieties and styles, but
little is known about the chemical basis of this wine aroma attribute. A set of
Viognier and Chardonnay wines that featured 'stone fruit' aroma attributes were
selected by a panel of wine experts. The selected wines were characterized by
sensory descriptive analysis and detailed volatile chemical composition analyses.
This comprehensive data also allowed Viognier wine to be profiled for the first
time. By partial least-squares regression, several esters and fatty acids and
benzaldehyde were indicated as contributing to the 'peach' attribute; however, a 
reconstitution sensory study was unsuccessful in mimicking this attribute. A
mixture of γ-lactones, monoterpenes, and aldehydes were positively correlated to 
the 'apricot' aroma, which were generally higher in the Viognier wines.
Reconstitution studies confirmed that the monoterpenes linalool, geraniol, and
nerol were the most important compounds for the mixture being perceived as having
an 'apricot' aroma.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05343 
PMID: 29485286 


107. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12927. [Epub
ahead of print]

Quantitative proteomics reveals decreased expression of major urinary proteins
(MUPs) in the liver of apoE/eNOS-DKO mice.

Stachowicz A(1), Olszanecki R(1), Suski M(1), Wiśniewska A(1), Kuś K(1), Białas
M(2), Jawień J(1), Korbut R(1).

Author information: 
(1)Chair of Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531,
Krakow, Poland.
(2)Chair of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531,
Krakow, Poland.

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) - derived nitric oxide (NO) plays an
important role not only in endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also in lipid
and glucose homeostasis in the liver and exerts beneficial effects on
mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Thus, the aim of our study was to used 
iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the changes in protein
expression in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions isolated from the liver
of the double (apolipoprotein E (apoE) and eNOS) knockout (apoE/eNOS-DKO) mice as
compared to apoE KO mice (apoE-/- ) - an animal model of atherosclerosis and
hepatic steatosis. Collectively, the deficiency of eNOS resulted in increased
expression of proteins related to gluconeogenesis, fatty acids and cholesterol
biosynthesis as well as the decreased expression of proteins participated in
triglyceride breakdown, cholesterol transport, protein transcription &
translation and processing in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, one of the
most down-regulated proteins were major urinary proteins (MUPs), which are
abundantly expressed in the liver and were shown to be involved in the regulation
of lipid and glucose metabolism. The exact functional consequences of the
revealed alterations require further investigation. This article is protected by 
copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1111/1440-1681.12927 
PMID: 29485188 


108. J Biosci. 2018 Mar;43(1):149-154.

Triacylglycerol: nourishing molecule in endurance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mali PC(1), Meena LS.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 322 219, India.

The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) to accumulate
lipid-rich molecules as an energy source obtained from host cell debris remains
interesting. Additionally, the potential of M. tuberculosis to survive under
different stress conditions leading to its dormant state in pathogenesis remains 
elusive. The exact mechanism by which these lipid bodies generated in M.
tuberculosis infection and utilized by bacilli inside infected macrophage for its
survival is still not understood. In this, during bacillary infection, many
metabolic pathways are involved that influence the survival of M. tuberculosis
for their own support. However, the exact energy source derived from infecting
host cells remain elusive. Therefore, this study highlights several alternative
energy sources in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acids, i.e. oleic
acids accumulation, which are essential in dormancy-like state under M.
tuberculosis infection. The prominent stage in tuberculosis (TB) infection is
re-establishment of M. tuberculosis under stress conditions and deployment of a
confined strategy to utilize these biomolecules for its persistence survival. So,
growing in our understanding of these pathways will help us in accelerating
therapies, which could reduce TB prevalence world widely.


PMID: 29485123 


109. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0836-y. [Epub
ahead of print]

Enhancing denitrification with waste sludge carbon source: the substrate
metabolism process and mechanisms.

Guo L(1)(2), Guo Y(3), Sun M(3), Gao M(3), Zhao Y(3), She Z(3).

Author information: 
(1)College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China,
Qingdao, 266100, China. geletu@ouc.edu.cn.
(2)Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental and Ecology, Ministry of Education,
Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China. geletu@ouc.edu.cn.
(3)College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China,
Qingdao, 266100, China.

Using waste sludge internal carbon source for nitrogen removal in wastewater has 
drawn much attention, due to its economic advantages and sludge reduction. In
this study, the performance of enhanced denitrification with waste sludge thermal
hydrolysate and fermentation liquid as carbon sources at different SCOD/N
(soluble chemical oxygen demand/NO3--N) was investigated. The optimum SCOD/N was 
8 for sludge thermal hydrolysate and 7 for fermentation liquid, with NO3--N
removal efficiency of 92.3 and 98.9%, respectively, and no NO2--N accumulation.
To further understand the fate of sludge carbon source during denitrification,
the changes of SCOD, proteins, carbohydrates, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs)
were analyzed, and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix
(EEM) spectroscopy with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis was
introduced. The utilization of SCOD was consistent with NO3--N reduction, and the
utilization efficiency of different organic matter was as follows:
VFAs > proteins > carbohydrates. The soluble organic-like materials (region IV)
were the most readily utilized organic matter according to three-dimensional
fluorescence EEM spectroscopy. Regarding denitrification mechanisms, the
denitrification rate (VDN), denitrification potential (PDN), heterotroph anoxic
yield (YH), and the most readily biodegradable COD (SS) were also investigated.

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0836-y 
PMID: 29484622 


110. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10482-018-1041-9. [Epub ahead
of print]

Paracoccus pueri sp. nov., isolated from Pu'er tea.

Wang YS(1), Yan ZF(1), Lin P(1), Gao W(1), Yi TH(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life
Science, Kyung Hee University Global Campus, 1732 Deokyoungdae-ro, Giheung-gu,
Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life
Science, Kyung Hee University Global Campus, 1732 Deokyoungdae-ro, Giheung-gu,
Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea. drhoo@khu.ac.kr.

A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, motile by flagella bacterial
strain (THG-N2.35T), was isolated from Pu'er tea. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C
(optimum 28 °C), at pH 4-7 (optimum 7) and at 0-5% NaCl (optimum 1%). Based on
16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the near phylogenetic neighbours of strain
THG-N2.35T were identified as Paracoccus hibisci KACC 18632T (99.0%), Paracoccus 
tibetensis CGMCC 1.8925T (98.7%), Paracoccus beibuensis CGMCC 1.7295T (98.2%),
Paracoccus aestuarii KCTC 22049T (98.2%), Paracoccus rhizosphaerae LMG 26205T
(98.1%), Paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens ATCC 21588T (97.1%), Paracoccus marcusii
DSM 11574T (97.0%). Levels of similarity between strain THG-N2.35T and other
Paracoccus species were lower than 97.0%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between
strain THG-N2.35T and P. hibisci KACC 18632T, P. tibetensis CGMCC 1.8925T, P.
beibuensis CGMCC 1.7295T, P. aestuarii KCTC 22049T, P. rhizosphaerae LMG 26205T, 
P. zeaxanthinifaciens ATCC 21588T, P.marcusii DSM 11574T were 47.5% (42.3%,
reciprocal analysis), 36.1% (32.3%), 24.7% (22.1%), 19.2% (16.3%), 11.3% (8.8%), 
11.1% (10.8%), 6.1% (5.8%), respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain
THG-N2.35T was 62.3 mol%. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol
and phosphatidylcholine. The quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major fatty
acids were C10:0 3OH, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 ω7ϲ. On the basis of the
phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and
DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain THG-N2.35T represent a novel species of the
genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus pueri sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is THG-N2.35T (= KACC 18934T = CCTCC AB 2016177T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-018-1041-9 
PMID: 29484518 


111. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 26;8(1):3592. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22004-6.

Antibiotic growth promoters virginiamycin and bacitracin methylene disalicylate
alter the chicken intestinal metabolome.

Gadde UD(1), Oh S(1), Lillehoj HS(2), Lillehoj EP(3).

Author information: 
(1)Animal Bioscience and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural
Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of
Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.
(2)Animal Bioscience and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural
Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of
Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA. Hyun.Lillehoj@ars.usda.gov.
(3)Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine,
Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Although dietary antibiotic growth promoters have long been used to increase
growth performance in commercial food animal production, the biochemical details 
associated with these effects remain poorly defined. A metabolomics approach was 
used to characterize and identify the biochemical compounds present in the
intestine of broiler chickens fed a standard, unsupplemented diet or a diet
supplemented with the antibiotic growth promoters, virginiamycin or bacitracin
methylene disalicylate. Compared with unsupplemented controls, the levels of 218 
biochemicals were altered (156 increased, 62 decreased) in chickens given the
virginiamycin-supplemented diet, while 119 were altered (96 increased, 23
decreased) with the bacitracin-supplemented diet. When compared between
antibiotic-supplemented groups, 79 chemicals were altered (43 increased, 36
decreased) in virginiamycin- vs. bacitracin-supplemented chickens. The changes in
the levels of intestinal biochemicals provided a distinctive biochemical
signature unique to each antibiotic-supplemented group. These biochemical
signatures were characterized by increases in the levels of metabolites of amino 
acids (e.g. 5-hydroxylysine, 2-aminoadipate, 5-hydroxyindoleaceate,
7-hydroxyindole sulfate), fatty acids (e.g. oleate/vaccenate, eicosapentaenoate, 
16-hydroxypalmitate, stearate), nucleosides (e.g. inosine, N6-methyladenosine),
and vitamins (e.g. nicotinamide). These results provide the framework for future 
studies to identify natural chemical compounds to improve poultry growth
performance without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22004-6 
PMCID: PMC5827016
PMID: 29483631 


112. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Feb 26. pii: 201714341. doi:
10.1073/pnas.1714341115. [Epub ahead of print]

Transitory microbial habitat in the hyperarid Atacama Desert.

Schulze-Makuch D(1)(2), Wagner D(3)(4), Kounaves SP(5)(6), Mangelsdorf K(7),
Devine KG(8), de Vera JP(9), Schmitt-Kopplin P(10)(11), Grossart HP(12)(13),
Parro V(14), Kaupenjohann M(15), Galy A(16), Schneider B(17)(3), Airo A(17),
Frösler J(18), Davila AF(19), Arens FL(20), Cáceres L(21), Cornejo FS(21),
Carrizo D(14), Dartnell L(22), DiRuggiero J(23), Flury M(24), Ganzert L(12),
Gessner MO(12)(25), Grathwohl P(26), Guan L(27), Heinz J(17), Hess M(28), Keppler
F(29), Maus D(17), McKay CP(19), Meckenstock RU(18), Montgomery W(6), Oberlin
EA(5), Probst AJ(18), Sáenz JS(27), Sattler T(29), Schirmack J(17), Sephton
MA(6), Schloter M(27)(30), Uhl J(11), Valenzuela B(21), Vestergaard G(27), Wörmer
L(31), Zamorano P(21).

Author information: 
(1)Center of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin,
Germany; schulze-makuch@tu-berlin.de.
(2)School of the Environment, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.
(3)Section Geomicrobiology, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473
Potsdam, Germany.
(4)Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, 14476
Potsdam, Germany.
(5)Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02153.
(6)Department of Earth Science & Engineering, Imperial College London, London
SW72AZ, United Kingdom.
(7)Section Organic Geochemistry, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences,
14473 Potsdam, Germany.
(8)School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London N7 8BD,
United Kingdom.
(9)Astrobiological Laboratories, Management and Infrastructure, Institute for
Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, 12489 Berlin, Germany.
(10)Analytical Food Chemistry, Technical University München, 85354
Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.
(11)Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764
Oberschleissheim, Germany.
(12)Department of Experimental Limnology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology
and Inland Fisheries, 16775 Stechlin, Germany.
(13)Institute of Biochemistry & Biology, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam,
Germany.
(14)Molecular Evolution Department, Centro de Astrobiología, Instituto Nacional
de Técnica Aeroespacial-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
(INTA-CSIC), 28850 Madrid, Spain.
(15)Fachgebiet Bodenkunde, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany.
(16)Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques, CNRS, Université de
Lorraine, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
(17)Center of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, 10623
Berlin, Germany.
(18)Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany.
(19)Planetary Systems Branch (Code SST), NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett
Field, CA 94035.
(20)Institute for Geological Sciences, Freie University Berlin, 12249 Berlin,
Germany.
(21)Laboratorio de Microorganismos Extremófilos, University of Antofagasta,
Antofagasta 02800, Chile.
(22)Department of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6UW,
United Kingdom.
(23)Department of Biology, The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218.
(24)Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 
99164.
(25)Department of Ecology, Technical University Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany.
(26)Center for Applied Geosciences, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen,
Germany.
(27)Comparative Microbiome Analysis, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764
Oberschleissheim, Germany.
(28)Systems Microbiology & Natural Products Laboratory, University of California,
Davis, CA 95616.
(29)Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg,
Germany.
(30)Soil Science, Technical University München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan,
Germany.
(31)Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), University of Bremen, 28359
Bremen, Germany.

Traces of life are nearly ubiquitous on Earth. However, a central unresolved
question is whether these traces always indicate an active microbial community or
whether, in extreme environments, such as hyperarid deserts, they instead reflect
just dormant or dead cells. Although microbial biomass and diversity decrease
with increasing aridity in the Atacama Desert, we provide multiple lines of
evidence for the presence of an at times metabolically active, microbial
community in one of the driest places on Earth. We base this observation on four 
major lines of evidence: (i) a physico-chemical characterization of the soil
habitability after an exceptional rain event, (ii) identified biomolecules
indicative of potentially active cells [e.g., presence of ATP, phospholipid fatty
acids (PLFAs), metabolites, and enzymatic activity], (iii) measurements of in
situ replication rates of genomes of uncultivated bacteria reconstructed from
selected samples, and (iv) microbial community patterns specific to soil
parameters and depths. We infer that the microbial populations have undergone
selection and adaptation in response to their specific soil microenvironment and 
in particular to the degree of aridity. Collectively, our results highlight that 
even the hyperarid Atacama Desert can provide a habitable environment for
microorganisms that allows them to become metabolically active following an
episodic increase in moisture and that once it decreases, so does the activity of
the microbiota. These results have implications for the prospect of life on other
planets such as Mars, which has transitioned from an earlier wetter environment
to today's extreme hyperaridity.

Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714341115 
PMID: 29483268 

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


113. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018 Mar;123:57-73. doi:
10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.01.002. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Diet and supplements in cancer prevention and treatment: Clinical evidences and
future perspectives.

Vernieri C(1), Nichetti F(2), Raimondi A(2), Pusceddu S(2), Platania M(2),
Berrino F(3), de Braud F(4).

Author information: 
(1)Medical Oncology and Hematology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian, 1, 20133, Milan, Italy; Fondazione Istituto FIRC 
di Oncologia Molecolare (IFOM), Via Adamello 16, 20139, Milan, Italy. Electronic 
address: claudio.vernieri@istitutotumori.mi.it.
(2)Medical Oncology and Hematology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian, 1, 20133, Milan, Italy.
(3)Preventive and Predictive Medicine Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian, 1, 20133, Milan, Italy.
(4)Medical Oncology and Hematology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian, 1, 20133, Milan, Italy; Universita' degli Studi
di Milano, 20122, Milan, Italy.

In recent years, calorie-restricted dietary regimens and compounds such as
vitamins, curcumin, green tea extracts and omega-3 fatty acids have attracted
attention for their potential anticancer effects. While definitive conclusions
cannot be drawn in this field, many patients adopt complementary antitumor
therapies aiming to improve efficacy or reduce toxicity of chemotherapy, with
uncertain benefits and the risk of additional toxicities or antagonistic
interactions with standard therapies. In this manuscript, we review the different
levels of available evidence to suggest or discourage specific dietary changes or
supplement use in the context of cancer prevention, reduction of tumor
recurrences and survival prolongation in advanced cancers. Preventing or treating
obesity, as well as adhering to healthy dietary patterns, should be recommended
to both the general population and cancer survivors because they are convincingly
associated with reduced risk of primary or second cancers and, in some cases,
with reduced cancer recurrences. On the contrary, the role of specific
interventions or supplements in patients with advanced malignancies is much more 
uncertain and actually a highly debated topic. With some exceptions, such as
melatonin, the use of most complementary therapies cannot be encouraged, or
should be discouraged, because of the lack of sufficient safety and efficacy
data.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.01.002 
PMID: 29482780 


114. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05924. [Epub ahead of
print]

Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanins Isolated from Alpine Bearberry
(Arctostaphylos alpina) and Lipophilic Properties, Thermostability, and
Antioxidant Capacity of the Derivatives.

Yang W(1), Kortesniemi M(1), Yang B(1), Zheng J(2).

Author information: 
(1)Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of
Turku , FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
(2)Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University , Guangzhou,
Guangdong 510632, People's Republic of China.

Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (cy-gal) isolated from alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos 
alpine L.) was enzymatically acylated with saturated fatty acids of different
chain lengths with Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin
(Novozyme 435). The acylation reaction was optimized by considering the reaction 
medium, acyl donor, substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature, and reaction
time. The highest conversion yield of 73% was obtained by reacting cy-gal with
lauric acid (molar ratio of 1:10) in tert-butanol at 60 °C for 72 h. A novel
compound was synthesized, which was identified as
cyanidin-3-O-(6″-dodecanoyl)galactoside by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic
resonance. Introducing lauric acid into cy-gal significantly improved both the
lipophilicity and thermostability and substantially preserved the
ultraviolet-visible absorbance and antioxidant properties. The research provides 
important insight in expanding the application of natural anthocyanins in the
cosmetic and food industries.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05924 
PMID: 29482326 


115. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1002/anie.201801592. [Epub ahead of 
print]

The Use of Dual-Functional Small Molecules in Generating an Efficient Cytochrome 
P450BM3 Peroxygenase.

Ma N(1), Chen Z(1), Chen J(2), Chen J(1), Wang C(1), Zhou H(1), Yao L(1), Shoji
O(3), Watanabe Y(3), Cong Z(4).

Author information: 
(1)CHINA.
(2)CHRISTMAS ISLAND.
(3)JAPAN.
(4)Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Bioenergy, 189 Songling Road, 266101, Qingdao, CHINA.

We report a unique strategy for the development of a H2O2-dependent cytochrome
P450BM3 system, which catalyzes the monooxygenation of non-native substrates with
the assistance of dual-functional small molecules (DFSMs), such as
N-(ω-imidazolyl fatty acyl)-L-amino acids. The acyl amino acid group of DFSM is
responsible for bounding to enzyme as an anchoring group, while the imidazolyl
group plays the role of general acid-base catalyst in the activation of H2O2.
This system afforded the best peroxygenase activity for the epoxidation of
styrene, sulfoxidation of thioanisole, and hydroxylation of ethylbenzene among
those P450-H2O2 system previously reported. This work provides the first example 
of the activation of the normally H2O2-inert P450s through the introduction of an
exogenous small molecule. This approach improves the potential use of P450s in
organic synthesis as it avoids the expensive consumption of the reduced
nicotinamide cofactor NAD(P)H and its dependent electron transport system. This
introduces a promising approach for exploiting enzyme activity and function based
on direct chemical intervention in the catalytic process.

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/anie.201801592 
PMID: 29481719 


116. FASEB J. 2018 Feb 26:fj201701084RR. doi: 10.1096/fj.201701084RR. [Epub ahead of
print]

Therapeutic modulation of the bile acid pool by Cyp8b1 knockdown protects against
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

Chevre R(1), Trigueros-Motos L(1), Castaño D(1), Chua T(1), Corlianò M(1),
Patankar JV(2), Sng L(1), Sim L(1), Juin TL(1), Carissimo G(3), Ng LFP(3)(4)(5), 
Yi CNJ(1), Eliathamby CC(1), Groen AK(6)(7), Hayden MR(1)(2), Singaraja RR(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology, 
and Research, Singapore.
(2)Department of Medical Genetics, Centre for Molecular Medicine and
Therapeutics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
(3)Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research
(A*STAR), Singapore.
(4)Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
(5)Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, 
United Kingdom.
(6)Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical
Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; and.
(7)Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of
Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Bile acids (BAs) are surfactant molecules that regulate the intestinal absorption
of lipids. Thus, the modulation of BAs represents a potential therapy for
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic
accumulation of fat and is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Cyp8b1 is a 
critical modulator of the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool. As a therapeutic
proof of concept, we aimed to determine the impact of Cyp8b1 inhibition in vivo
on BA pool composition and as protection against NAFLD. Inhibition of Cyp8b1
expression in mice led to a remodeling of the BA pool, which altered its
signaling properties and decreased intestinal fat absorption. In a model of
cholesterol-induced NAFLD, Cyp8b1 knockdown significantly decreased steatosis and
hepatic lipid content, which has been associated with an increase in fecal lipid 
and BA excretion. Moreover, inhibition of Cyp8b1 not only decreased hepatic lipid
accumulation, but also resulted in the clearance of previously accumulated
hepatic cholesterol, which led to a regression in hepatic steatosis. Taken
together, our data demonstrate that Cyp8b1 inhibition is a viable therapeutic
target of crucial interest for metabolic diseases, such as NAFLD.-Chevre, R.,
Trigueros-Motos, L., Castaño, D., Chua, T., Corlianò, M., Patankar, J. V., Sng,
L., Sim, L., Juin, T. L., Carissimo, G., Ng, L. F. P., Yi, C. N. J., Eliathamby, 
C. C., Groen, A. K., Hayden, M. R., Singaraja, R. R. Therapeutic modulation of
the bile acid pool by Cyp8b1 knockdown protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver 
disease in mice.

DOI: 10.1096/fj.201701084RR 
PMID: 29481310 


117. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002655. [Epub ahead 
of print]

Vitellibacter todarodis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract of a squid
(Todarodes pacificus).

Kim HC(1), Kim YO(2), Park S(3), Nam BH(2), Kim DG(2), Park JM(3), Yoon JH(3).

Author information: 
(1)1​Genetics and Breeding Research Center, National Institute of Fisheries
Science (NIFS), Geoje 53334, Republic of Korea.
(2)2​Biotechnology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science
(NIFS), Gijang, Busan 46083, Republic of Korea.
(3)3​Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University,
Jangan-gu, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial
strain, designated MYP2-2T, was isolated from the intestinal tract of a squid
(Todarodes pacificus) collected from the East Sea, South Korea, and subjected to 
a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain MYP2-2T grew optimally at 30-35 °C and in
the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 
16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MYP2-2T belonged to the genus
Vitellibacter. Strain MYP2-2T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of
95.4-96.6 % to the type strains of Vitellibacter species and of less than 94.5 % 
to the type strains of other recognized species examined. Strain MYP2-2T
contained menaquinone MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinone and iso-C15 : 0
and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids detected in
strain MYP2-2T were phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified lipid. The DNA 
G+C content of strain MYP2-2T was 41.6 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, 
together with its phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain MYP2-2T is
separated from recognized species of the genus Vitellibacter. On the basis of the
data presented, strain MYP2-2T is considered to represent a novel species of the 
genus Vitellibacter, for which the name Vitellibacter todarodis sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is MYP2-2T (=KCTC 62141T=NBRC 113025T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002655 
PMID: 29480794 


118. Curr Microbiol. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s00284-018-1464-6. [Epub ahead of
print]

Cellulosimicrobium Arenosum sp. nov., Isolated from Marine Sediment Sand.

Oh M(1), Kim JH(1), Yoon JH(2), Schumann P(3), Kim W(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Microbiology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul,
06974, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 
16419, Republic of Korea.
(3)Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, 
Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124, Brunswick, Germany.
(4)Department of Microbiology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul,
06974, Republic of Korea. kimwy@cau.ac.kr.

A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, yellow pigmented, non-motile, aerobic, 
short rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated CAU 1455T, was isolated from marine
sediment sand. Strain CAU 1455T grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 7.5 in the
presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences
showed that strain CAU 1455T was affiliated to the genus Cellulosimicrobium and
was most closely related to Cellulosimicrobium terreum DS-61T (similarity 97.9%).
The strain possessed MK-9 (H4) as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15:0
as the major cellular fatty acids. Peptidoglycan type was A4a (L-Lys-D-Glu2). The
DNA G+C content was 74.3 mol% and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between CAU
1455T and C. terreum DS-61T was 27.8%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and
genetic data, strain CAU 1455T represents a novel species of the genus
Cellulosimicrobium, for which the name Cellulosimicrobium arenosum sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is CAU 1455T (= KCTC 49039T = NBRC 113062T).

DOI: 10.1007/s00284-018-1464-6 
PMID: 29480418 


119. Liver Int. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/liv.13730. [Epub ahead of print]

Osteoporosis in chronic liver disease.

Guañabens N(1), Parés A(2).

Author information: 
(1)Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit, Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Clínic,
CIBERhed, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(2)Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERehd University of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain.

Osteoporosis is a frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease,
especially in end-stages and in chronic cholestasis, in addition to nonalcoholic 
fatty liver disease, hemochromatosis and alcoholism. Mechanisms underlying
osteoporosis are poorly understood, but osteoporosis mainly results from low bone
formation. In this setting, sclerostin, a key regulator of the Wnt/ß-catenin
signalling pathway which regulates bone formation, in addition to the effects of 
the retained substances of cholestasis such as bilirubin and bile acids on
osteoblastic cells, may influence the decreased bone formation in chronic
cholestasis. Similarly, the damaging effects of iron and alcohol on osteoblastic 
cells may partially explain bone disease in hemochromatosis and alcoholism. A
role for proinflamatory cytokines has been proposed in different conditions.
Increased bone resorption may occur in cholestatic women with advanced disease.
Low vitamin D, poor nutrition and hypogonadism, may be contributing factors to
the full picture of bone disorders in chronic liver disease. This article is
protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1111/liv.13730 
PMID: 29479832 


120. Small. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1002/smll.201704077. [Epub ahead of print]

Fatty Acid/Phospholipid Blended Membranes: A Potential Intermediate State in
Protocellular Evolution.

Jin L(1)(2), Kamat NP(1)(3), Jena S(4), Szostak JW(1).

Author information: 
(1)Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Center
for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital,
Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
(2)Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, 02215,
USA.
(3)Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL,
60208, USA.
(4)Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Prior to the evolution of membrane proteins, intrinsic membrane stability and
permeability to polar solutes are essential features of a primitive cell
membrane. These features are difficult to achieve simultaneously in model
protocells made of either pure fatty acid or phospholipid membranes, raising the 
intriguing question of how the transition from fatty acid to phospholipid
membranes might have occurred while continuously supporting encapsulated
reactions required for genomic replication. Here, the properties of a blended
membrane system composed of both oleic acid (OA), a monoacyl fatty acid, and
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), a diacyl phospholipid
are described. This hybrid vesicle system exhibits high stability to divalent
cations (Mg2+ ), while simultaneously maintaining its permeability to small
charged molecules such as nucleotides and divalent ions such as Mg2+ . This
combination of features facilitates key reactions expected to occur during a
transition from primitive to modern cells, including nonenzymatic RNA
replication, and is also compatible with highly evolved functions such as the
ribosomal translation of a protein. The observations support the hypothesis that 
the early transition from fatty acid to phospholipid membranes could be
accomplished through intermediate states in which membranes are composed of
amphiphile mixtures, and do not require protein transporters.

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/smll.201704077 
PMID: 29479815 


121. Bipolar Disord. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12633. [Epub ahead of print]

Cardiometabolic risks and omega-3 index in recent-onset bipolar I disorder.

Wulsin LR(1), Blom TJ(1), Durling M(1), Welge JA(1), DelBello MP(1), Adler CM(1),
McNamara RK(1), Strakowski SM(1).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Bipolar Disorders Research, Department of Psychiatry and
Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine,
Cincinnati, OH, USA.

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to characterize cardiometabolic
risk factors in a cohort of bipolar disorder patients with limited exposure to
psychotropic medications, and to evaluate their associations with mood symptoms
and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) blood levels.
METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk assessments were compared in individuals with
bipolar I disorder experiencing a first manic or mixed episode or an early
depressive episode (n=117) and healthy subjects (n=56). Patients were medication 
free at assessment and had no or limited exposure to mood-stabilizer or
antipsychotic medications prior to the current admission. Associations among
cardiometabolic parameters and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S),
manic (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS]), and depressive (Hamilton Depression
Rating Scale [HDRS]) symptom ratings were evaluated within the bipolar group.
RESULTS: Following adjustment for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and
parental education), significantly higher fasting triglyceride levels were
observed in the bipolar group compared to the healthy group (121.7 mg/dL vs
87.0 mg/dL; P<.01). There were no clear trends for other metabolic indicators,
including blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose. Nineteen percent 
of the bipolar group and 6% of the healthy group met the criteria for metabolic
syndrome (P=.23). The omega-3 index was lower in the bipolar group (3.4% vs 3.9%;
P<.01). Within the bipolar group, no associations were found between the
cardiometabolic parameters and CGI-S, YMRS, and HDRS symptom ratings.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent-onset medication-free bipolar disorder is associated with
higher triglyceride levels. These findings are suggestive of early metabolic
dysregulation prior to long-term psychotropic medication exposure. Lower omega-3 
PUFA levels in individuals with bipolar I disorder represent a potential
therapeutic target for additional investigation.

© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/bdi.12633 
PMID: 29479787 


122. J Dairy Res. 2018 Feb 26:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S0022029918000043. [Epub ahead of
print]

Mustard and cumin seeds improve feed utilisation, milk production and milk fatty 
acids of Damascus goats.

Morsy TA(1), Kholif AE(1), Matloup OH(1), Abu Elella A(2), Anele UY(3), Caton
JS(4).

Author information: 
(1)Dairy Science Department,National Research Centre,33 Bohouth St. Dokki,
Giza,Egypt.
(2)Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center,Dokki,
Giza,Egypt.
(3)North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University,Greensboro, NC
27411,USA.
(4)Animal Sciences Department,North Dakota State University,PO Box 6050, Fargo,
ND 58108-6050,USA.

The experiments reported in this Research Paper aimed to study the effects of
mustard and cumin seeds inclusion on feed utilisation, milk production,
composition, and profile of milk fatty acids in lactating Damascus goats. The
study was a completely randomised design with repeated measurements in time using
fifteen goats (6 ± 2 d of lactation) divided into 3 treatments (5 goats per
treatment). Goats were offered a control diet of berseem clover and concentrates 
(1 : 1 dry matter (DM) basis) or the control diet supplemented with either 10 g/d
of dried mustard seeds (mustard treatment) or 10 g/d of cumin seeds (cumin
treatment) for 12 weeks. Treatments had no effect (P > 0·05) on feed intake, but 
enhanced (P < 0·05) digestibility of DM, organic matter, non-structural
carbohydrates, and fibre fractions. Digestibility was greater (P < 0·001) with
cumin treatment compared with mustard treatment. Mustard and cumin seeds had
greater (P < 0·05) ruminal total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, and
molar proportion of propionate, with greater (P < 0·001) SCFA production for
cumin vs. mustard treatment. Mustard and cumin seeds increased (P < 0·05)
concentrations of serum total proteins, globulin, and glucose and lowered (P <
0·05) serum cholesterol concentration. Mustard and cumin seeds inclusion elevated
milk production (P = 0·007), while cumin increased milk contents (P < 0·05) of
fat and lactose. Cumin treatment lowered (P < 0·05) milk saturated fatty acids
(SFA) and had greater total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and total conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA) contents. Overall, supplementing diets of Damascus goats with
mustard or cumin seeds at 10 g/daily enhanced feed digestion, ruminal
fermentation, milk yield (actual production by 6·8 and 11·1%, and energy
corrected milk yield by 10·1 and 15·4%, respectively) and positively modified
milk fatty acid profile with a 3·9% decrease in milk individual and total SFA,
and an increase in individual and total UFA by about 9·7%, and total CLA by about
23·1%.

DOI: 10.1017/S0022029918000043 
PMID: 29478424 


123. J Phys Chem B. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b00348. [Epub ahead of print]

Simulations of Pure Ceramide and Ternary Lipid Mixtures as Simple Interior
Stratum Corneum Models.

Wang E(1), Klauda JB(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and ‡Biophysics Graduate
Program, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

The barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) is intimately related to the
structure of the lipid matrix, which is composed of ceramides (Cer), cholesterol 
(Chol), and free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, the all-atom CHARMM36 (C36)
force field is used to simulate bilayers of N-palmitoylsphingosine (Cer16),
N-lignoceroylsphingosine (Cer24), Chol, and lignoceric acid (LA) as simple models
of the SC. Equimolar mixtures of Cer, Chol, and LA are replicated from experiment
for comparison and validation of the C36 force field, and the effects of lipid
diversity and temperature are studied. The presence of Chol and LA have effects
on nearly all membrane properties including surface area per lipid, area
compressibility moduli, chain order, Chol tilt, bilayer thickness,
interdigitation, hydrogen bonding, and lipid clustering, while temperature has a 
more moderate effect. In systems containing Cer16, there is a profound difference
in interdigitation between pure Cer and mixed systems, while systems containing
Cer24 are relatively unaffected. Increasing temperature has the potential to
shift hydrogen bonding pairs rather than uniformly decrease bonding, which can
lead to greater Cer-Cer bonding at higher temperatures. Comparison with deuterium
order parameter experiments demonstrates good agreement, which supports further
use of this class of lipids and fatty acids for development of more complex SC
models.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b00348 
PMID: 29466860 


124. Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05355. [Epub ahead of
print]

Enhanced Methane Production from Food Waste Using Cysteine To Increase
Biotransformation of l-Monosaccharide, Volatile Fatty Acids, and Biohydrogen.

Liu H(1), Chen Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of
Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University , 1239 Siping Road,
Shanghai 200092, China.

The enhancement of two-stage anaerobic digestion of polysaccharide-enriched food 
waste by the addition of cysteine-an oxygen scavenger, electron mediator, and
nitrogen source-to the acidification stage was reported. It was found that in the
acidification stage the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), which mainly 
consisted of acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was increased by 49.3% at a
cysteine dosage of 50 mg/L. Although some cysteine was biodegraded in the
acidification stage, the VFA derived from cysteine was negligible. In the
methanogenesis stage, the biotransformations of both VFA and biohydrogen to
methane were enhanced, and the methane yield was improved by 43.9%. The
mechanisms study showed that both d-glucose and l-glucose (the model
monosaccharides) were detectable in the hydrolysis product, and the addition of
cysteine remarkably increased the acidification of l-glucose, especially acetic
acid and hydrogen generation, due to key enzymes involved in l-glucose metabolism
being enhanced. Cysteine also improved the activity of homoacetogens by 34.8% and
hydrogenotrophic methanogens by 54%, which might be due to the electron transfer 
process being accelerated. This study provided an alternative method to improve
anaerobic digestion performance and energy recovery from food waste.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05355 
PMID: 29465997 


125. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018 Mar;26(3):570-577. doi: 10.1002/oby.22120.

CD Obesity-Prone Rats, but not Obesity-Resistant Rats, Robustly Ferment Resistant
Starch Without Increased Weight or Fat Accretion.

Obanda D(1), Page R(1), Guice J(1), Raggio AM(1), Husseneder C(2), Marx B(3),
Stout RW(4), Welsh DA(5), Taylor CM(6), Luo M(6), Blanchard EE(6), Bendiks Z(7), 
Coulon D(1), Keenan MJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural
Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
(2)Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
(3)Department of Experimental Statistics, Louisiana State University, Baton
Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
(4)Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
(5)Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Louisiana State University
Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
(6)Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State
University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA.
(7)Department of Food Science, University of California, Davis, Davis,
California, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats 
to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and
microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS).
METHODS: After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats
were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1:
HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet
supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS). Energy intake,
body weight, fermentation variables, and microbiota composition were determined.
RESULTS: In OP rats, RS elicited robust fermentation (increased cecal contents,
short-chain fatty acids, and serum glucagon-like peptide 1). Total bacteria,
species of the Bacteroidales family S24-7, and the archaean Methanobrevibacter
smithii increased. The robust fermentation did not elicit higher weight or fat
accretion when compared with that of control rats fed the same isocaloric diets
(HF-LF ± RS). In OR rats, body weight and fat accretion were also not different
between HF-LF ± RS diets, but RS elicited minimal changes in fermentation and
microbiota composition.
CONCLUSIONS: Robust fermentation did not contribute to greater weight.
Fermentation levels and changes in microbiota composition in response to dietary 
RS differed by obesity phenotype.

© 2018 The Obesity Society.

DOI: 10.1002/oby.22120 
PMCID: PMC5826621 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29464911 


126. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.7b01092. [Epub ahead of print]

Identification of Protein Targets of 12/15-Lipoxygenase-Derived Lipid
Electrophiles in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages Using Omega-Alkynyl Fatty Acid.

Isobe Y(1), Kawashima Y, Ishihara T(1), Watanabe K(1), Ohara O, Arita M(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University , 1-7-29,
Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
(2)Division of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Keio University Faculty of
Pharmacy , 1-5-30, Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0011, Japan.

The 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) enzyme introduces peroxyl groups, in a
position-specific manner, into polyunsaturated fatty acids to form various kinds 
of bioactive lipid metabolites, including lipid-derived electrophiles (LDE). The 
resident peritoneal macrophage is the site of highest 12/15-LOX expression in the
mouse. However, the role of the enzyme in the regulation of resident macrophages 
is not fully understood. Here, we describe a chemoproteomic method to identify
the targets of enzymatically generated LDE. By treating mouse peritoneal
macrophages with omega-alkynyl arachidonic acid (aAA), we identified a series of 
proteins adducted by LDE generated through a 12/15-LOX catalyzed reaction.
Pathway analysis revealed a dramatic enrichment of proteins involved in energy
metabolism and found that glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration were
significantly affected by the expression of 12/15-LOX. Our findings thus
highlight the utility of chemoproteomics using aAA for identifying intracellular 
targets of enzymatically generated LDE.

DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.7b01092 
PMID: 29461797 


127. J Oleo Sci. 2018 Mar 1;67(3):327-333. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17181. Epub 2018 Feb
19.

Activation of Macrophages in vitro by Phospholipids from Brain of Katsuwonus
pelamis (Skipjack Tuna).

Lu H(1), Zhang L(1), Zhao H(1), Li J(1), You H(1), Jiang L(1), Hu J(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)College of Food Science and Engineering, Dalian Ocean University.
(2)Fujian Province Key Laboratory for the Department of Bioactive Material from
Marine Algae.

The biological activities of phospholipids (PLs) have attracted people's
attention, especially marine phospholipids with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids DHA and EPA. In this study, we investigated the immunity activation of
macrophages in vitro by phospholipids from skipjack brain. The phospholipids were
extracted with hexane and ethanol ultrasonication instead of the traditional
method of methanol and chloroform. The content of phospholipids from Skipjack
brain was 19.59 g/kg by the method (the ratio of hexane and ethanol 2:1, 40 min, 
35°C, 1:9 of the ratio of material to solvent, ultrasonic power 300W, ultrasonic 
extraction 2 times). The RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated by the
phospholipids from the Skipjack, by which the volume, viability and phagocytosis 
of macrophages were increased. The concentration of NO and the activity of SOD of
the cells were also enhanced. The gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and TNF-α
mRNA assayed by RT-PCR were up-regulated. Phospholipids from brain of Skipjack
Tuna could activate macrophages immunity which displayed to induce
pro-inflammatroy cytokines mRNA expression.

DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17181 
PMID: 29459514 


128. J Oleo Sci. 2018 Mar 1;67(3):307-313. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17097. Epub 2018 Feb
19.

Effects of Fatty Acid Addition to Oil-in-water Emulsions Stabilized with Sucrose 
Fatty Acid Ester.

Watanabe T(1), Kawai T(1), Nonomura Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and
Engineering, Yamagata University.

Adding fatty acids to an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion changes the stability of the
emulsion. In this study, we prepared a series of O/W emulsions consisting of oil 
(triolein/fatty acid mixture), water and a range of surfactants (sucrose fatty
acid esters) with varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) in order to
determine the effects of alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation of the
fatty acid molecules on the stability of the emulsions. As a result, sucrose
fatty acid esters with HLB = 5-7 were suitable for obtaining O/W emulsions. In
addition, the creaming phenomenon was inhibited for 30 days or more when fatty
acids having a linear saturated alkyl chain with 14 or more carbon atoms were
added. These findings are useful for designing stable O/W emulsions for food and 
cosmetic products.

DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17097 
PMID: 29459510 


129. J Oleo Sci. 2018 Mar 1;67(3):273-281. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17209. Epub 2018 Feb
19.

Study of Trans Fatty Acid Formation in Oil by Heating Using Model Compounds.

Gotoh N(1), Kagiono S(1), Yoshinaga K(1), Mizobe H(2), Nagai T(2), Yoshida A(1), 
Beppu F(2), Nagao K(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science 
and Technology.
(2)Tsukishima Foods Industry Co. Ltd.
(3)Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, Saga University.

The intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods changes the ratio of low density 
lipoprotein (LDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in blood, which
causes cardiovascular disease. TFAs are formed by trans isomerization of
unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The most recognized formation mechanisms of TFAs 
are hydrogenation of liquid oil to form partially hydrogenated oil (PHO,) and
biohydrogenation of UFAs to form TFA in ruminants. Heating oil also forms TFAs;
however, the mechanism of formation, and the TFA isomers formed have not been
well investigated. In this study, the trans isomerization mechanism of
unsaturated fatty acid formation by heating was examined using the model
compounds oleic acid, trioleate, linoleic acid, and trilinoleate for liquid plant
oil. The formation of TFAs was found to be suppressed by the addition of an
antioxidant and argon gas. Furthermore, the quantity of formed TFAs correlated
with the quantity of formed polymer in trioleate heated with air and oxygen.
These results suggest that radical reactions form TFAs from UFAs by heating.
Furthermore, trans isomerization by heating oleic acid and linoleic acid did not 
change the original double bond positions. Therefore, the distribution of TFA
isomers formed was very simple. In contrast, the mixtures of TFA isomers formed
from PHO and ruminant UFAs are complicated because migration of double bonds
occurs during hydrogenation and biohydrogenation. These findings suggest that
trans isomerization by heating is executed by a completely different mechanism
than in hydrogenation and biohydrogenation.

DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17209 
PMID: 29459509 


130. J Oleo Sci. 2018 Mar 1;67(3):345-353. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17204. Epub 2018 Feb
19.

Hepatic Regeneration and Reno-Protection by Fish oil, Nigella sativa Oil and
Combined Fish Oil/Nigella sativa Volatiles in CCl4 Treated Rats.

Al-Okbi SY(1), Mohamed DA(1), Hamed TE(1), Edris AE(2), Fouda K(1).

Author information: 
(1)Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, National Research Centre.
(2)Aroma and Flavor Chemistry Department, National Research Centre.

The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of fish oil, crude 
Nigella sative oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil as
hepato-regenerative and renal protective supplements. The oils were administered 
as emulsions to rat model with liver injury induced by CCl4. Plasma activities of
transaminases (AST and ALT) were evaluated as liver function indicators, while
plasma creatinine and urea and creatinine clearance were determined as markers of
kidney function. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite (NO) and tumor necrosis
factor-α (TNF-α) were estimated to assess the exposure to oxidative stress and
subsequent inflammation. Liver fat was extracted and their fatty acids´ methyl
esters were determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that plasma
activities of AST and ALT were significantly higher in CCl4 control group
compared to control healthy group. Plasma levels of creatinine and urea increased
significantly in CCl4 control, while creatinine clearance was reduced
significantly in the same group. All rat treated groups given the three oil
emulsions showed improvement in liver function pointing to the initiation of
liver regeneration. The combination of fish oil/Nigella sative volatiles showed
the most promising regenerative activity. Oxidative stress and inflammation which
were increased significantly in CCl4 control group showed improvement on
administration of the three different oil emulsions. Fatty acids methyl ester of 
liver fat revealed that rats treated with fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil
presented the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (45.52% ± 0.81) while
fish oil showed the highest saturated fatty acids (53.28% ± 1.68). Conclusion;
Oral administration of oil emulsions of native fish oil, Nigella sative crude oil
and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil reduced liver and kidney injury
in rat model of CCl4 through exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
Fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil emulsion was the most promising
hepato-regenerative and reno-protective formula among the different groups.

DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17204 
PMID: 29459508 


131. J Oleo Sci. 2018 Mar 1;67(3):321-326. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess17198. Epub 2018 Feb
19.

Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Using Mixed Enzyme in a Packed Bed Reactor.

Ryu J(1), Choi N(2), Kim H(1), Kim BH(3), Kim HR(4), Kim IH(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University.
(2)Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Science, Graduate School, KOREA
University.
(3)Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University.
(4)School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University.

Fatty acid methyl esters were synthesized from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) 
and methanol in a packed bed reactor via lipase-catalyzed esterification. The
PFAD consisted of 91 wt% of free fatty acids, 2 wt% monoacylglycerides, 3 wt%
diacylglycerides, and 4 wt% triacylglycerides. t-Butanol was employed as a
reaction medium and a mixed enzyme consisting of Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces 
lanuginosus and Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica was employed as the
biocatalyst. The effect of mixed enzyme was investigated and the optimum blending
ratio (w/w) of Novozym 435 to Lipozyme TL IM was 5:95. Using the mixed enzyme,
the optimum molar ratio (PFAD to methanol) and temperature were determined to be 
1:6 and 30°C, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum yield of 
ca. 96% was achieved.

DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17198 
PMID: 29459507 


132. Microbiol Res. 2018 Mar;207:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.001. Epub 2017 Nov
6.

A critical role for very long-chain fatty acid elongases in oleic acid-mediated
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytotoxicity.

Wang Q(1), Du X(1), Ma K(2), Shi P(3), Liu W(4), Sun J(5), Peng M(5), Huang Z(6).

Author information: 
(1)Key Lab of Eco-Textile (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Chemical
Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University,2999 Renmin Road, Shanghai
201620, China.
(2)Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence, Shanghai Research Institute
of Criminal Science and Technology,Zhongshan North No. 1 Road, Shanghai 200083,
China.
(3)State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of
Science and Technology,130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China.
(4)Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence, Shanghai Research Institute
of Criminal Science and Technology,Zhongshan North No. 1 Road, Shanghai 200083,
China. Electronic address: wbliu1981@163.com.
(5)Qinghai Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Biological Resources,
Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xiguan
Avenue 59, Xining, 11 Qinghai Province 810001, China.
(6)Key Lab of Eco-Textile (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Chemical
Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University,2999 Renmin Road, Shanghai
201620, China; Qinghai Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Biological
Resources, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, the Chinese Academy of
Sciences,Xiguan Avenue 59, Xining, 11 Qinghai Province 810001, China. Electronic 
address: zhiweih@dhu.edu.cn.

Elongases FEN1/ELO2 and SUR4/ELO3 are important enzymes involved in the
elongation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to very long-chain fatty acids
(VLCFAs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanism of the involvement 
of these elongases in lipotoxicity is unclear. In the present study, we
investigated the role of VLCFA elongases in oleic acid-mediated yeast
cytotoxicity. The spot test showed that yeast strains with the deletion of ELO2
or ELO3 were strikingly sensitive to oleic acid, while there was no change on the
growth of strain with deleted ELO1 which was involved in the elongation of C14
fatty acid (FA) to C16 FA. By using GC-MS, the unsaturation index was increased
in elo2△ and elo3△ mutants after treatment with oleic acid (OLA). However, the
proportion of VLCFAs was increased in response to OLA in the wild-type strain.
The growth inhibition of elo2△ and elo3△ could be partially rescued by two
commonly used antioxidant agents N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Ascorbic acid (VC). 
The further study showed that exposure to excess OLA led to an increase in the
levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS), and a decline in the quantity of reduced glutathione (GSH) in
both the wild type and mutant strains. However, the antioxidant enzyme activities
of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased in the wild type 
and elo1△ strains, while they were significantly decreased in the mutants of
elo2△ and elo3△ after treated with excess OLA. Thus, oxidative damage mainly
contributed to the cell death induced by OLA in ole2△ and ole3△. Taken together, 
although disruption of ELO2 or ELO3 did not affect the cellular lipid
unsaturation, they altered the distribution and propotion of cellular VLCFAs,
leading to the cell membrane impairment, which augmented the ability of OLA to
permeabilize the plasma membrane. The data suggest that the very long-chain fatty
acids elongases ELO2 and ELO3 play important roles in lipotoxic cell death
induced by OLA through maintaining a balanced FA composition in plasma membrane.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.001 
PMID: 29458843 


133. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):860-864. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002598.
Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Saccharopolyspora deserti sp. nov., a novel halotolerant actinobacterium isolated
from a desert.

Yang ZW(1), Salam N(1), Asem MD(1), Fang BZ(1), Lan L(1), Xiao M(1), Wadaan
MAM(2), Hozzein WN(2)(3), Li WJ(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)1​State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory
of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou
510275, PR China.
(2)2​Bioproducts Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Science, King
Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
(3)3​Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef
University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.
(4)4​Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürümqi 830011,
PR China.

Strain SYSU D8010T was isolated from a desert sand sample collected in Saudi
Arabia. The taxonomic position of the isolate was investigated by the polyphasic 
taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to be Gram-positive and aerobic. The
strain was able to grow at 14-40 °C, pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of up to 22 %
(w/v) NaCl. Strain SYSU D8010T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as cell-wall
diamino acid, and arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose as the
whole-cell sugars. The primary polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and
phosphatidylinositolmannosides. Menaquinone MK-9(H4) was detected as the
respiratory quinone; and anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and
iso-C17 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids. Pairwise comparison of the 16S rRNA
gene sequences indicated that strain SYSU D8010T had a sequence similarity of
97.8 % to Saccharopolyspora halophila YIM 90500T. The genomic DNA G+C content of 
strain SYSU D8010T was determined to be 69.9 mol%. Based on the analyses of the
phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain SYSU D8010T was
determined to represent a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which
the name Saccharopolyspora deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the
species is SYSU D8010T (=KCTC 39989T=CPCC 204620T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002598 
PMID: 29458666 


134. Microbiology. 2018 Mar;164(3):251-259. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000604. Epub 2018 Jan
22.

Loving the poison: the methylcitrate cycle and bacterial pathogenesis.

Dolan SK(1), Wijaya A(1), Geddis SM(2), Spring DR(2), Silva-Rocha R(3), Welch
M(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, UK.
(2)2​Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK.
(3)3​Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

Propionate is an abundant catabolite in nature and represents a rich potential
source of carbon for the organisms that can utilize it. However, propionate and
propionate-derived catabolites are also toxic to cells, so propionate catabolism 
can alternatively be viewed as a detoxification mechanism. In this review, we
summarize recent progress made in understanding how prokaryotes catabolize
propionic acid, how these pathways are regulated and how they might be exploited 
to develop novel antibacterial interventions.

DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.000604 
PMID: 29458664 


135. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):930-935. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002614.
Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Spirosoma horti sp. nov., isolated from apple orchard soil.

Li W(1), Ten LN(1), Lee SY(1), Kang IK(2), Jung HY(3)(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566,
Republic of Korea.
(2)2​Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu
41566, Republic of Korea.
(3)3​Institute of Plant Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566,
Republic of Korea.

A Gram-negative, motile by gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated
S7-3-19T, was isolated from apple orchard soil in Gyeongsangnam-do Province,
Republic of Korea, and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic
approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that
strain S7-3-19T belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related
to Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T (96.38 %), Spirosoma fluviale MSd3T (96.38 %),
Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14T (96.35 %) and Spirosoma radiotolerans DG5AT
(96.24 %). Chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the classification of strain 
S7-3-19T within the genus Spirosoma. Summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c;
46.7 %) and C16 : 1ω5c (23.8 %) were the major fatty acids.
Phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified
phospholipid and two unidentified lipids were the major polar lipids. Menaquinone
with seven isoprene units was the predominant respiratory quinone. The
G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain S7-3-19T was 48.6 mol%. On the basis of 
its phenotypic properties, genotypic distinctiveness and chemotaxonomic features,
strain S7-3-19T represents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the 
name Spirosomahorti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S7-3-19T (=KCTC
52728T=JCM 32131T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002614 
PMID: 29458662 


136. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):936-941. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002613.
Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Paenibacillus translucens sp. nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment.

Kim YS(1), Cha CJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Systems Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546,
Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-variable, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and spore-forming bacterial
strain, designated CJ11T, was isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample from
Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea. Strain CJ11T grew optimally on R2A at 30 °C and pH
7.0. Sequencing results of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain CJ11T possesses
two copies of the 16S rRNA gene varying at five nucleotide positions.
Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CJ11T
belonged to the genus Paenibacillus within the family Paenibacillaceae and was
most closely related to Paenibacillus lacus KCTC 33691T
(99.36-99.15 % similarity). DNA-DNA relatedness levels of strain CJ11T was 41.7 %
(reciprocal, 57.8 %) to P. lacus KCTC 33691T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA 
was 51.0 mol%. Strain CJ11Tcontained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall
peptidoglycan. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The major cellular
fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The predominant polar 
lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids, an unidentified
glycolipid and several unidentified lipids. On the basis of the polyphasic
taxonomic study, strain CJ11T represents a novel species in the genus
Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillustranslucens sp. nov. is proposed. 
The type strain is CJ11T (=KACC 19304T=JCM 32080T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002613 
PMID: 29458566 


137. Microbiology. 2018 Mar;164(3):369-382. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000605. Epub 2018 Feb
1.

Streptomyces coelicolor strains lacking polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase and
protein O-mannosyl transferase are hyper-susceptible to multiple antibiotics.

Howlett R(1), Read N(1), Varghese A(2), Kershaw C(3), Hancock Y(3)(4), Smith
MCM(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK.
(2)2​Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
(3)3​Department of Physics, University of York, York, UK.
(4)4​York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis, University of York, York, UK.

Polyprenol phosphate mannose (PPM) is a lipid-linked sugar donor used by
extra-cytoplasmic glycosyl tranferases in bacteria. PPM is synthesiszed by
polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase, Ppm1, and in most Actinobacteria is used
as the sugar donor for protein O-mannosyl transferase, Pmt, in protein
glycosylation. Ppm1 and Pmt have homologues in yeasts and humans, where they are 
required for protein O-mannosylation. Actinobacteria also use PPM for lipoglycan 
biosynthesis. Here we show that ppm1 mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor have
increased susceptibility to a number of antibiotics that target cell wall
biosynthesis. The pmt mutants also have mildly increased antibiotic
susceptibilities, in particular to β-lactams and vancomycin. Despite normal
induction of the vancomycin gene cluster, vanSRJKHAX, the pmt and ppm1 mutants
remained highly vancomycin sensitive indicating that the mechanism of resistance 
is blocked post-transcriptionally. Differential RNA expression analysis indicated
that catabolic pathways were downregulated and anabolic ones upregulated in the
ppm1 mutant compared to the parent or complemented strains. Of note was the
increase in expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in the ppm1- mutant. A
change in lipid composition was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy, which showed 
that the ppm1- mutant had a greater relative proportion of unsaturated fatty
acids compared to the parent or the complemented mutant. Taken together, these
data suggest that an inability to synthesize PPM (ppm1) and loss of the
glycoproteome (pmt- mutant) can detrimentally affect membrane or cell envelope
functions leading to loss of intrinsic and, in the case of vancomycin, acquired
antibiotic resistance.

DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.000605 
PMID: 29458553 


138. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):886-891. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002604.
Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Pedobacter agrisoli sp. nov., isolated from farmland soil.

Cui MD(1), Wang X(2), Jiang WK(1), Hu G(1)(3), Yang ZG(1), Sun GJ(1), Zhu SJ(1), 
Zhou YD(1), Hong Q(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of
Agriculture, College of life sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 
Jiangsu 210095, PR China.
(2)2​College of Resource and Environment, Anhui Science and Technology
University, Anhui 233100, PR China.
(3)3​Laboratory Centre of Life Science, College of Life Science, Nanjing
Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped
bacterium, designated YHM-9T, was isolated from soil in Yangquan, Shanxi
Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed
that strain YHM-9T belonged to the genus Pedobacter and shared the highest
similarity (97.4 %) to the type strain Pedobacter lignilitoris W-WS13T. Strain
YHM-9T exhibited low DNA-DNA relatedness with P. lignilitoris W-WS13T
(21.7±1.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were
iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and iso-C17 : 0
3-OH. The respiratory quinone was MK-7, the major polyamine was
sym-homospermidine and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine.
Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic
characteristics, strain YHM-9T was recognized as a representative of a novel
species within the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacteragrisoli sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is YHM-9T (=JCM 32093T=CCTCC AB 2017125T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002604 
PMID: 29458546 


139. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):829-834. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002594.
Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Description of Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov.,
isolated from hydrothermal sediments.

Sun QL(1)(2), Yu C(1)(3), Luan ZD(4), Lian C(4), Hu YH(1)(2), Sun L(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, PR China.
(2)2​Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory
for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, PR China.
(3)3​University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
(4)4​Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, PR China.

Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains
Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T, were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin
in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5T
and Ma50-6T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 %
identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains
Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5T and
Ma50-6T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents
of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%,
respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and 
iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was
menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological
analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T represent two novel species
of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain
Ma50-5T=KCTC 33881T=CCTCC AB 2017020T) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type
strain Ma50-6T=KCTC 33882T=CCTCC AB 2017019T), respectively, are proposed.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002594 
PMID: 29458542 


140. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):819-823. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002590.
Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Terrimonas soli sp. nov., isolated from farmland soil.

Jiang WK(1), Lu MY(1), Cui MD(1), Wang X(2), Wang H(1), Yang ZG(1), Zhu SJ(1),
Zhou YD(1), Hu G(1)(3), Hong Q(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of
Agriculture, College of life sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing
210095, PR China.
(2)2​College of Resource and Environment, Anhui Science and Technology
University, Anhui 233100, PR China.
(3)3​Laboratory Centre of Life Science, College of Life Science, Nanjing
Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium that
produced yellow viscous colonies, designated FL-8T, was isolated from farmland
soil in Chuzhou, Anhui province, PR China. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities
between strain FL-8T and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with
validly published names ranged from 94.6 to 96.1 %. Strain FL-8T contained
iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the predominant fatty acids.
The predominant polar lipid of strain FL-8T was phosphatidylethanolamine. The
sole respiratory quinone of strain FL-8T was MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was
44.8 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data,
strain FL-8T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas, 
for which the name Terrimonassoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FL-8T 
(=CCTCC AB 2017059T=JCM 32095T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002590 
PMID: 29458527 


141. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):788-794. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002584.
Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Actinotalea solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and emended
description of the genus Actinotalea.

Yan ZF(1), Lin P(1), Li CT(2), Kook M(3), Yi TH(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Oriental Medicinal Material and Processing, College of Life
Science, Kyung Hee University Global Campus, 1732 Deokyoungdae-ro, Giheung-gu,
Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea.
(2)2​Engineering Research Center of Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Ministry of
Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, PR China.
(3)3​Department of Food Nutrition, Baewha Women's University, Seoul 03039,
Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile and short-rod-shaped actinobacterium, 
designated THG-T121T, was isolated from forest soil. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C 
(optimum 28-30 °C), at pH 6-8 (optimum 7) and at 0-4 % NaCl (optimum 1 %). Based 
on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain
THG-T121T were identified as Actinotalea ferrariae KCTC 29134T (97.9 %),
Actinotalea fermentans KCTC 3251T (97.3 %), Cellulomonas carbonis KCTC 19824T
(97.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among strain THG-T121T and other
recognized species were lower than 97.0 %. The polar lipids were
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two
phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unidentified phospholipid, three
unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. The isoprenoid quinone was
menaquinone (MK-10(H4)). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0,
anteiso-C15 : 1 A, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The
whole-cell sugars of strain THG-T121T were rhamnose, ribose, mannose and glucose.
The peptidoglycan type of strain THG-T121T is A4β, containing l-Orn-D-Ser-L-Asp. 
The DNA G+C content of strain THG-T121T was 72.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization
values between strain THG-T121T and A. ferrariae KCTC 29134T, A. fermentans KCTC 
3251T and C. carbonis KCTC 19824T were 30.2 % (27.3 %, reciprocal analysis),
28.4 %, (17.3 %) and 16.9 %, (9.3 %), respectively. On the basis of the
phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and
DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain THG-T121T represents a novel species of the
genus Actinotalea, for which the name Actinotaleasolisilvae sp. nov. is proposed.
The type strain is THG-T121T (=KACC 19191T=CGMCC 4.7389T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002584 
PMID: 29458505 


142. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):942-946. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002615.
Epub 2018 Feb 5.

A novel genus of the class Actinobacteria, Longivirga aurantiaca gen. nov., sp.
nov., isolated from lake sediment.

Qu JH(1), Zhang LJ(1), Fu YH(1), Li XD(1), Li HF(1), Tian HL(1).

Author information: 
(1)College of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou
450001, Henan Province, PR China.

A novel actinobacterial strain, designated X5T, was isolated from the sediment of
Taihu Lake in China and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization.
The strain formed orange-red colonies comprising aerobic, Gram-stain-negative,
rod-shaped cells on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene
sequences revealed that the organism was closely related to the genus Sporichthya
and consistently formed a distinct clade along with the members of this genus.
The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Sporichthya polymorpha NBRC 12702T with
93.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were
iso-C16 : 0 (18.7 %), C18 : 1ω9c (18.6 %) and C17 : 1ω8c (14.0 %). The genomic
DNA G+C content was 74.4 mol%. The organism contained menaquinone MK-8(H2),
MK-9(H4) and an unidentified menaquinone. Polar lipids were composed of
phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified lipid, two unidentified phospholipids and
two unidentified aminolipids. The whole-cell sugars contained ribose, xylose,
mannose, glucose and galactose. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained
ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the physiological, biochemical and
chemotaxonomic data, the organism is proposed to represent a novel genus and
species, for which the name Longivirga aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is X5T (=CGMCC 4.7317T=NBRC 112237T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002615 
PMID: 29458497 


143. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):924-929. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002611.
Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Uliginosibacterium sediminicola sp. nov., isolated from freshwater sediment.

Hwang WM(1), Kim SM(1), Kang K(1), Ahn TY(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Dankook University,
Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea.

Strain M1-21T is a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and short-rod-shaped
bacterium, motile by means of a single polar flagellum; it was isolated from
freshwater sediment in Korea. It grew at 10-40 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 6.0-8.0
(optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-0.75 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal growth occurred in the
absence of NaCl) on R2A agar, and it accumulated poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules 
inside the cells. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain M1-21T
showed highest sequence similarity with Uliginosibacterium gangwonense (94.7 %)
and Uliginosibacterium paludis (94.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA
gene sequences revealed that strain M1-21T belongs to the genus
Uliginosibacterium. The DNA G+C content of strain M1-21T was 61.9 mol%. The
predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids (>10 % of
the total) were C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), and 
the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and
phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain M1-21T showed distinct phenotypic
characteristics that differentiated it from species of the genus
Uliginosibacterium. Based on these results, strain M1-21T represents a novel
species of the genus Uliginosibacterium, for which the name Uliginosibacterium
sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M1-21T (=KACC 19271T=JCM
32000T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002611 
PMID: 29458494 


144. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):905-910. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002608.
Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Acinetobacter piscicola sp. nov., isolated from diseased farmed Murray cod
(Maccullochella peelii peelii).

Liu Y(1)(2), Rao Q(1)(2), Tu J(1)(2), Zhang J(3), Huang M(1)(2), Hu B(3), Lin
Q(1)(2), Luo T(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)1​Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products,
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, PR China.
(2)2​Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement for Agriculture,
Fuzhou 350003, PR China.
(3)3​Fujian Key Laboratory of Special Aquatic Formula Feed, Fuzhou 350308, PR
China.

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain LW15T, which was isolated from the
external lesions of diseased farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii)
from an intensive culture pond. Cells of strain LW15T were Gram-negative,
facultative-anaerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped.
Growth was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0-2 % (w/v) (optimum, 0 %), 4-32 °C
(optimum, 25-28 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on
16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LW15T was affiliated to the genus
Acinetobacter, showing the highest similarity to Acinetobacter guillouiae CIP
63.46T (97.7 %) and other Acinetobacter species with validly published names
(93.5-97.6 %). Whole-genome sequencing and phylogeny reconstruction based on a
core set of 1061 Acinetobacter genes indicated that strain LW15T was most closely
related to the clade formed by A. guillouiae CIP 63.46T and Acinetobacter
bereziniae CIP 70.12T and distantly related to any of the described species of
genus Acinetobacter. Furthermore, strain LW15T could be distinguished from all
known Acinetobacter species by its ability to assimilate β-alanine and
l-arginine, but not d-glucose. The principal fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0
and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was Q-9. Polar lipids of
strain LW15T comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four phospholipids, aminolipid and
two unknown lipids. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LW15T
represents a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name
Acinetobacterpiscicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LW15T (=MCCC
1K03337T=CICC 24241T=KCTC 62134T=JCM 32101T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002608 
PMID: 29458492 


145. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):876-880. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002601.
Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Halioglobus lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment.

Shi MJ(1)(2), Wang C(1)(2), Wang XT(1)(2), Du ZJ(2)(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​State key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan
250100, PR China.
(2)2​College of Marine Science, Shandong University, Weihai 264209, PR China.

A novel Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated and rod-shaped
bacterium, designated HF004T, was isolated from a marine sediment sample
collected from the coast of Weihai, China. The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH
7.5-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on the 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis, strain HF004T was a member of the genus Halioglobus, appearing
to be closely related to Halioglobus pacificus (96.1 %) and Halioglobus japonicus
(95.6 %). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (i.e. C16 : 1ω7c and/or
iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C17 : 1ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c. The major polar lipids were
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The
predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 57.2 mol%. Cells
of strain HF004T were rod-shaped and formed circular, mucous and beige-pigmented 
colonies on marine agar after incubation for 72 h at 28 °C. On the basis of
phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strain HF004T is presented as a 
novel species, for which the name Halioglobus lutimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain is HF004T (=KCTC 42395T=MCCC 1H00127T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002601 
PMID: 29458490 


146. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):911-916. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002610.
Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from
Antarctic penguin faeces.

Choi JY(1), Kim JH(1), Lee PC(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Molecular Science and Technology and Department of Applied
Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Ajou University, Woncheon-dong,
Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea.

Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated
WV39T, isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39T were
Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39T was closely related to
Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium
noncentrifugens NBRC 108844T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008T
(94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH
and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c).
Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was
zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA
relatedness of strain WV39T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours
was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739T, 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008T and 
25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844T. The DNA G+C content of strain WV39T
was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data,
strain WV39T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus
Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is WV39T (=KCTC 42908T=CECT 9085T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002610 
PMID: 29458488 


147. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):957-961. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002629.
Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Defluviimonas pyrenivorans sp. nov., a novel bacterium capable of degrading
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Zhang S(1), Sun C(1), Xie J(1), Wei H(1), Hu Z(1), Wang H(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology, College of Science, Shantou University, Shantou 515063,
PR China.

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium capable of
degrading the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene was isolated from sediment
of Pearl River and designated PrR001. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed
that this strain was affiliated within the genus Defluviimonas in the family
Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and showed great similarity
with the type strain Defluviimonas indica 20V17T (96.3 % similarity). The DNA
G+C content of strain PrR001T was 68.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids
comprised summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C18 : 0
3OH, and C18 : 0. The sole respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10. The main
polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine,
phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, an
unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified phospholipids. Based on
physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain PrR001T is
suggested as a novel species in the genus Defluviimonas, for which the name
Defluviimonas pyrenivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Defluviimonas
pyrenivorans is PrR001T (=CICC 24263T=KCTC 62192T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002629 
PMID: 29458487 


148. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):892-898. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002606.
Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Aquimarina algiphila sp. nov., a chitin degrading bacterium isolated from the red
alga Tichocarpus crinitus.

Nedashkovskaya OI(1), Kim SG(2), Stenkova AM(1), Kukhlevskiy AD(3)(4), Zhukova
NV(3)(4), Mikhailov VV(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)1​G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far-Eastern
Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt 100 Let Vladivostoku 159,
690022, Vladivostok, Russia.
(2)2​Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource Center, Korea
Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 181 Ipsin-gil, Jeongeup-si,
Jeonbuk 56212, Republic of Korea.
(3)3​National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Science,
Palchevskogo 17, Vladivostok 690041, Russia.
(4)4​Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova St. 8, 690950, Vladivostok,
Russia.

A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and
yellow-orange pigmented flavobacterium, designated strain 9Alg 151T, was isolated
from the Pacific red alga Tichocarpus crinitus. Phylogenetic analysis based on
16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain fell into the genus
Aquimarina of the family Flavobacteriaceae with a 16S rRNA gene sequence
similarity range of 94.2-98.2 % to the recognized species of the genus. Strain
9Alg 151T grew in the presence of 0.5-5 % NaCl and at 5-34 °C, and hydrolysed
aesculin, agar, gelatin, starch, Tween 40, DNA and chitin. The predominant fatty 
acids were iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH,
iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω8c and summed feature 3. The polar lipid profile
comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and three
unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The genomic DNA
G+C content was 32.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and
chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain 9Alg 151T represents a
novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina algiphila
sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9Alg 151T (=KCTC 23622T=KMM 6462T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002606 
PMID: 29458485 


149. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):917-923. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002609.
Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Flavisolibacter metallilatus sp. nov., isolated from an automotive air
conditioning system and emended description of the genus Flavisolibacter.

Kim DU(1), Lee H(1), Lee S(1), Kim SG(2)(3), Park AY(3), Ahn JH(4), Ka JO(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic
of Korea.
(2)2​University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-850, Republic 
of Korea.
(3)3​Biological Resource Center/ Korean Collection for Type Culture (KCTC), Korea
Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 181 Ipsingil, Jeongeup-si,
Jeollabuk-do 56212, Republic of Korea.
(4)4​Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Institute of Agricultural
Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, 55365,
Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and pale yellow-pigmented 
bacterium, designated strain TX0661T, was isolated from an automotive air
conditioning system collected in the Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence
analysis showed that the strain TX0661T was grouped with members of the genus
Flavisolibacter and the strain had 98.2-95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence
similarities to the species of the genus Flavisolibacter. DNA-DNA relatedness
between TX0661T and Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818T and
Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli KCTC 12657T was less than 30 %. The low levels of
DNA-DNA relatedness identified strain TX0661T as a novel species in the genus
Flavisolibacter. The strain grew at 28-37 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0-7.0
(optimum, pH 6.5) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v, optimum, 0.5 %) NaCl. It
contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and
iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as major fatty acids and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone.
The polar lipid profile revealed that the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine,
aminoglycophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids.
The DNA G+C content of the strain was 49.1 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic
and chemotaxonomic data, strain TX0661T represents a novel species in the genus
Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibactermetallilatus sp. nov. (=KACC
19145T=KCTC 52779T=NBRC 111784T) is proposed.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002609 
PMID: 29458484 


150. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):899-904. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002607.
Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Dokdonia flava sp. nov., isolated from the seaweed Zostera marina.

Choi S(1), Kang JW(1), Yoon JH(2), Seong CN(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Biology, College of Life Science and Natural Resources,
Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Republic of Korea.
(2)2​Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon
16419, Republic of Korea.

A non-motile, proteorhodopsin-containing, yellow and rod-shaped bacterial strain,
designated ZODW10T, was isolated from the seaweed Zostera marina collected from
the West Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and
non-motile. The isolate required sea salts for growth. A carotenoid pigment was
produced. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain
ZODW10T forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing members of
the genus Dokdonia with Dokdoniadiaphoros CIP 108745T (96.7 % sequence
similarity) as its nearest neighbour. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0,
iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. Strain ZODW10T contained menaquinone 6 (MK-6)
and phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified
polar lipid as the only isoprenoid quinone and the major polar lipids,
respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ZODW10T was 36 mol%. On the basis of 
the present polyphasic characterization, it is suggested that the isolate
represents a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia
flava sp. nov. (type strain, ZODW10T=KCTC 52953T=JCM 32293T) is proposed.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002607 
PMID: 29458481 


151. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):865-870. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002600.
Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Chryseobacterium glaciei sp. nov., isolated from the surface of a glacier in the 
Indian trans-Himalayas.

Pal M(1), Kumari M(2), Kiran S(1), Salwan R(1), Mayilraj S(2), Chhibber S(3),
Gulati A(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur (HP)-176 061,
India.
(2)2​Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank (MTCC), CSIR-Institute of
Microbial Technology, Chandigarh 160 036, India.
(3)3​Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India.

A novel bacterial strain, IHBB 10212T, of the genus Chryseobacterium was isolated
from a glacier near the Kunzum Pass located in the Lahaul-Spiti in the
North-Western Himalayas of India. The cells were Gram-negative, aerobic,
non-sporulating, single rods, lacked flagella, and formed yellow to orange
pigmented colonies. The strain utilized maltose, trehalose, sucrose, gentibiose, 
glucose, mannose, fructose, mannitol, arabitol and salicin for growth.
Flexirubin-type pigments were produced by strain IHBB 10212T. The 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis showed relatedness of strain IHBB 10212T to Chryseobacterium
polytrichastri DSM 26899T (97.43 %), Chryseobacterium greenlandense CIP 110007T
(97.29 %) and Chryseobacterium aquaticum KCTC 12483T (96.80 %). Iso-C15 : 0 and
summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) constituted the major cellular fatty
acids. The polar lipids present were six unidentified aminolipids, one
unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified lipids. MK-6 was identified as
the major quinone. The DNA G+C content was 34.08  mol%. Digital DNA-DNA
hybridization of strain IHBB 10212T with C. polytrichastri, C. greenlandense and 
C. aquaticum showed values far below the prescribed thresholds of 95 % for
average nucleotide identity and 70 % for the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator
for species delineation. Based on its differences from validly published
Chryseobacterium species, strain IHBB 10212T is identified as a new species, for 
which the proposed name is Chryseobacterium glaciei sp. nov., with IHBB 10212T as
the type strain (=MTCC 12457T=JCM 31156T=KACC 19170T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002600 
PMID: 29458480 


152. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):764-768. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002581.
Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Euzebyella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae,
isolated from green algae.

Kwon YM(1), Kim KW(1), Kim JYH(1), Choi TY(2), Yang SH(3), Oh CH(3), Kwon KK(3), 
Kim SJ(4)(3)(5).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Applied Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of
Korea, 75, Jangsan-ro 101beon-gil, Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, 33662,
Republic of Korea.
(2)2​Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity
Institute of Korea, 75, Jangsan-ro 101beon-gil, Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, 
33662, Republic of Korea.
(3)3​Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and
Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan 15627, Republic of Korea.
(4)5​National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon 33662, Republic of
Korea.
(5)4​Department of Marine Biotechnology, Korea University of Science and
Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, gliding, rod-shaped and
aerobic bacterium, designated MEBiC 12267T, was isolated from green algae of Jeju
Island. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain MEBiC 12267T was
affiliated to the genus Euzebyella of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed the
highest similarity to Euzebyella marina KCTC 42440T (98.5 %). The DNA-DNA
relatedness value of strain MEBiC 12267T with E. marina KCTC 42440T was 25 %.
Growth was observed at 10-37 °C (optimum, 30-33 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum,
8.0-8.5) and with 0.5-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5-3.5 %). The predominant
cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The
major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Polar lipids included
phosphatidylethanolamine, seven unidentified lipids and two unidentified
aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 40.7 mol%. On the basis of the data from the
polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that the strain MEBiC 12267T
represents a novel species within the genus Euzebyella, for which the name
Euzebyella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of E. algicola is MEBiC
12267T (=KCCM 43264T=JCM 32170T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002581 
PMID: 29458477 


153. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):769-775. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002580.
Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Ornithinibacillus salinisoli sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated
from a saline-alkali soil.

Gan L(1), Zhang H(1), Long X(1), Tian J(1), Wang Z(1), Zhang Y(2), Dai Y(3), Tian
Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education
and College of Light Industry, Textile & Food Engineering, Sichuan University,
Chengdu 610065, PR China.
(2)2​Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China.
(3)3​Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental
Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, PR China.

A taxonomic study was performed on strain LCB256T, which was isolated from a
saline-alkali soil sample taken from northwestern China. Cells of strain LCB256T 
were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped and grew at 3-17 % (w/v) NaCl
(optimum 10-15 %), 10-52 °C (optimum 25-30 °C) and pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum 8.0).
Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain
LCB256T was most closely related to the two genera of Ornithinibacillus and
Oceanobacillus, showing highest sequence similarity to Oceanobacillus limi KCTC
13823T (97.8 %) and Ornithinibacillus bavariensis WSBC 24001T (97.2 %). The
peptidoglycan amino acid type was found to be A4β and the major respiratory
quinone was determined to be MK-7. The polar lipid profile of strain LCB256T
contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified
phospholipid and two unidentified aminolipids. The dominant cellular fatty acids 
were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of genomic DNA was
39.3 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain LCB256T and
Ornithinibacillus halophilus KCTC 13822T and Oceanobacillus limi KCTC 13823T were
46.2 and 34.8 %, respectively. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel 
species of the genus Ornithinibacillus, Ornithinibacillussalinisoli sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is LCB256T (=CGMCC 1.15809T=KCTC 33862T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002580 
PMID: 29458475 


154. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):782-787. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002578.
Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Roseomonas fluminis sp. nov. isolated from sediment of a shallow stream.

Ko Y(1), Yim J(2), Hwang WM(1), Kang K(1), Ahn TY(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Dankook University,
Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea.
(2)2​College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616,
USA.

An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and
ovoid-shaped bacterium, designated D3T, was isolated from shallow stream
sediments in Sinan-gun, South Korea. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum 35 °C),
at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), and at an optimum NaCl concentration of 0.5 %
(w/v). The major cellular fatty acids (>7 % of the total) were C16 : 0, C18 : 0
2-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 8
(C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The predominant quinone was ubiquinone-10, and
the G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain D3T was 73.1 mol%. The major
polyamine was spermidine. The major polar lipids of the isolate were
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and
phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences
indicated that strain D3T clustered with Roseomonas aquatica TR53T within the
genus Roseomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain D3T showed the highest
sequence similarity to R. aquatica TR53T (95.9 %), followed by Roseomonas rosea
173-96T (95.7 %) and Roseomonas aerilata 5420S-30T (95.0 %). Based on the
phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterization, strain D3T
represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas
fluminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D3T (=KACC 19269T=JCM 31968T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002578 
PMID: 29458474 


155. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):745-750. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002579.
Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Epidermidibacterium keratini gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family
Sporichthyaceae, isolated from keratin epidermis.

Lee DG(1), Trujillo ME(1), Kang S(1), Nam JJ(1), Kim YJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)COSMAX R&I center, Republic of Korea.

A novel actinobacterial strain, designated EPI-7T, was isolated on R2A agar from 
human skin (keratinocytes) and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic 
approach. Strain EPI-7T showed a Gram-positive reaction, was non-motile,
non-spore-forming, and cells had a rod-shape. Colonies were round, convex and
pale yellow. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that
the novel isolate formed a cluster with several uncultured bacterial clones and
with cultured members of the genera Modestobacter and Sporichthya. The 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarities with respect to the type strains of recognized species
from the above genera and other phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 92.6 to
93.4 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.9 mol%. The only isoprenoid
quinone was MK-9(H4), and the major fatty acids detected were C17 : 1ω8c,
C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3. The major polar lipids were found to
be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three unidentified
phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified amino 
lipids and three unidentified lipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained
meso-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Whole-cell sugars present
included rhamnose, glucose and galactose. The combination of the genotypic and
phenotypic data allowed differentiation of strain EPI-7T from its closest
phylogenetic neighbours and provided evidence that strain EPI-7T represents a
novel genus and species in the family Sporichthyaceae. The name
Epidermidibacterium keratini gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain
being EPI-7T (=KCCM 90264T=JCM 31644T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002579 
PMID: 29458473 


156. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):835-843. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002592.
Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Proposal of Litorimonas haliclonae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge of the
genus Haliclona.

Schellenberg J(1), Busse HJ(2), Hardt M(3), Schubert P(4), Wilke T(4), Kämpfer
P(1), Glaeser SP(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen,
D-35392 Giessen, Germany.
(2)2​Institut für Mikrobiologie, Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien, A-1210
Wien, Austria.
(3)3​Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg - Imaging Unit, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
(4)4​Institut für Tierökologie und Spezielle Zoologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität 
Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

A bright-orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium,
strain MAA42T, was isolated from a marine sponge of the genus Haliclona, which is
in long-time culture in a marine aquarium system at the Justus Liebig University 
Giessen, Germany. The strain grew at 4-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 
0.5-9.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3.5 %) and at pH 4.5-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5). Strain 
MAA42T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.1 %) with the
type strain of Litorimonas taeanensis. Sequence similarities to all other closely
related type strains were below 97 %. DNA-DNA hybridization of strain MAA42T with
L. taeanensis DSM 22008T resulted in values of 4.7 % (reciprocal 17.7 %). Major
cellular fatty acids of strain MAA42T were C18 : 1ω7c (66.2 %), C18 : 1 2-OH
(17.4 %), and C18 : 0 (14.1 %). Spermidine was predominant in the polyamine
pattern, and ubiquinone Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipid
profile contained the major compounds phosphatidylglycerol,
monoglycosyldiglyceride, three unidentified phospholipids, and one unidentified
glycolipid. Glucuronopyranosyldiglyceride was present as a minor compound. The
diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The
genomic DNA G+C content was 52.8 mol%. Based on the genotypic, chemotaxonomic,
and phenotypic analyses, strain MAA42T represents a novel species of the genus
Litorimonas, for which the name Litorimonas haliclonae is proposed. The type
strain is MAA42T (=CCM 8709T=CIP 111178T=LMG 29765T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002592 
PMID: 29458471 


157. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):795-800. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002586.
Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Flavobacterium ovatum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from an Antarctic
intertidal sandy beach.

Ren Q(1), Yu M(2)(1), Li Y(1), Zhang Y(1), Shi X(1)(2), Wu Y(1), Su Y(1), Wang
Y(1), Wang X(1), Zhang XH(1)(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)1​College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, 
PR China.
(2)2​Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National
Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, PR China.
(3)3​Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China,
Qingdao 266003, PR China.

A rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacterium with
no flexirubin-type pigment, designated as W201ET, was isolated from an intertidal
sandy beach in Antarctica. The organism formed faintly yellow, round colonies on 
marine agar 2216E. The strain required sea salts for growth and grew optimally in
the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl at pH 7.0, 20 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on
16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain W201ET belonged to the genus
Flavobacterium and showed the highest sequence similarity to Flavobacterium
algicola NBRC 102673T (96.5 %). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6, 
and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH
and summed feature 3 (which comprises C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The polar
lipids of strain W201ET comprised one phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified 
aminolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain
W201ET was 34.1 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic analyses, this isolate was
considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which
the name Flavobacterium ovatum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W201ET
(=KCTC 52693T=MCCC 1K03251T=CGMCC 1.16053T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002586 
PMID: 29458470 


158. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):730-735. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002571.
Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Sandarakinorhabdus cyanobacteriorum sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from
cyanobacterial aggregates in a eutrophic lake.

Cai H(1), Cui H(2), Zeng Y(3)(4), An M(5), Jiang H(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of
Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, PR China.
(2)2​School of Food & Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, PR
China.
(3)3​Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies,
Aarhus University, Denmark.
(4)4​Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde 4000,
Denmark.
(5)5​Key Laboratory of Microbial Engineering at the Institute of Biology, Henan
Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, PR China.

A bacterial strain, designated TH057T, was isolated from cyanobacterial
aggregates in a eutrophic lake in China. Cells were observed to be slightly
curved, rod-shaped, capsule-forming and stained Gram-negative. Optimal growth was
obtained at pH 7.0 (range: pH 5-9) and 30 °C (range: 20-37 °C) in R2A broth.
According to the absorption spectrum, carotenoids (455 and 490 nm) and
light-harvesting complex LHI (857 nm) were present in the cells. The cells were
found to be positive for oxidase and catalase activities. The major respiratory
quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The major fatty acids were identified as C17 : 1ω6c,
C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω6c/C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids 
were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified glycolipid and two sphingoglycolipids. Strain 
TH057T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sandarakinorhabdus
limnophila so42T (96.8 %), followed by Polymorphobacter fuscus D40PT (95.8 %).
The genomic G+C content of strain TH057T was 66.1 mol% based on total genome
calculations. The average nucleotide identity and the digital DNA-DNA
hybridization value for the complete genomes were 81.0 and 23.0 % between strain 
TH057T and Sandarakinorhabdus limnophila so42T. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic
and phylogenetic properties, and genome analysis suggested that strain TH057T
represents a novel species within the genus Sandarakinorhabdus, for which the
name Sandarakinorhabduscyanobacteriorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 
TH057T (=CGMCC 1.15803T=LMG 30294T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002571 
PMID: 29458469 


159. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):751-757. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002577.
Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Chitinophaga humicola sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil.

Chaudhary DK(1), Kim J(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Kyonggi University,
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16227, Republic of Korea.

A yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped
bacterium, designated strain Ktm-2T, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil.
Strain Ktm-2T was able to grow at 15 to 40 °C, pH 4.5-10.0 and 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl
concentration. This strain was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic
approach. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain Ktm-2T represented
a member of the genus Chitinophaga and shared highest sequence similarity with
Chitinophaga barathri YLT18T (98.1 %), Chitinophaga cymbidii R156-2T (96.4 %) and
Chitinophaga niabensis JS13-10T (96.3 %). The only respiratory quinone was
menaqunone-7, the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the
predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The
DNA G+C content was 52.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Ktm-2T and 
C. barathri YLT18T was 22.0 %, which falls below the threshold value of 70 % for 
the strain to be considered a novel species. The morphological, physiological,
chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguished this strain from
its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, strain Ktm-2T represents a novel
species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophagahumicola sp.
nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ktm-2T (=KEMB 9005-693T=KACC 19388T=JCM
32158T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002577 
PMID: 29458467 


160. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):698-702. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002523.
Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Xylanibacillus composti gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from compost.

Kukolya J(1), Bata-Vidács I(1), Luzics S(1), Tóth E(2), Kéki Z(2), Schumann P(3),
Táncsics A(4), Nagy I(5)(6), Olasz F(7), Tóth Á(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Department of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Agro-Environmental
Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, H-1022 
Budapest, Herman Ottó u. 15, Hungary.
(2)2​Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest,
Pázmány P. stny. 1/C, Hungary.
(3)3​Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell
Cultures, Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
(4)4​Regional University Center of Excellence in Environmental Industry, Szent
István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Károly Róbert u. 1, Hungary.
(5)5​SeqOmics Biotechnology Ltd., H-6782 Mórahalom, Vállalkozók ú. 7, Hungary.
(6)6​Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of 
Sciences, H-6726 Szeged, Temesvári krt. 62, Hungary.
(7)7​Department of Microbiology, National Agricultural Research and Innovation
Centre Research, Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, H-2100 Gödölloő,
Szent-Györgyi Albert u. 4, Hungary.

A novel Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, designated as K13T, was isolated
from compost and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its
taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain
showed highest similarity (93.8 %) to Paenibacillus nanensis MX2-3T. Cells of
strain K13T were aerobic, motile rods. The major fatty acids were anteiso C15 : 0
(34.4 %), iso C16 : 0 (17.3 %) and C16 : 0 (10.0 %). The major menaquinone was
MK-7, the polar lipid profile included diphosphatidylglycerol,
phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and an
aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 52.3 %. Based on phenotypic, including
chemotaxonomic characteristics and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, it
was concluded that strain K13T represents a novel genus, for which the name
Xylanibacillus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type species of the genus is 
Xylanibacillus composti, the type strain of which is strain K13T (=DSM
29793T=NCAIM B.02605T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002523 
PMID: 29458465 


161. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):703-708. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002538.
Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov., from honeybee Apis cerana bee bread.

Wang C(1)(2)(3), Huang Y(1)(3), Li L(2), Guo J(4), Wu Z(2), Deng Y(1)(3), Dai
L(1)(3), Ma S(3)(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041, PR China.
(2)2​College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University,
Chengdu 610065, PR China.
(3)3​Key Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy,
Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041, PR China.
(4)4​Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and
Technology, Kunming 650500, PR China.

A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile,
non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus,
designated strain Bb 2-3T, was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected
from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth 
occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l-1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were
C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected.
Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol 
were detected. The peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys-d-Asp was determined. Strain Bb
2-3T was closely related to Lactobacillus bombicola DSM 28793T, Lactobacillus
apis LMG 26964T and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis DSM 26265T, with 97.8, 97.6
and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. A comparison of two
housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain Bb 2-3T was well
separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. The
average nucleotide identity between strain Bb 2-3T and the type strains of
closely related species was lower than the 95-96 % threshold value for
delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of
strain Bb 2-3T was 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and
phylogenetic analyses, strain Bb 2-3T is proposed to represent a novel species of
the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus panisapium
sp. nov. The type strain is Bb 2-3T (=DSM 102188T=ACCC 19955T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002538 
PMID: 29458462 


162. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):758-763. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002576.
Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Arenibacter catalasegens sp. nov., isolated from marine surface sediment, and
emended description of the genus Arenibacter.

Li AZ(1), Lin LZ(1), Zhang MX(1), Lv Y(1), Zhu HH(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong
Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application,
Guangdong Microbial Culture Collection Center (GDMCC), Guangdong Institute of
Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, PR China.

A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated
as P308H10T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern Indian Ocean.
Growth occurred at 4-36 °C (optimum 20-25 °C), pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum 7.5-8.0) and
in the presence of 1-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based 
on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P308H10T lies within the clade of
members of the genus Arenibacter and is closely related to
Arenibacterhampyeongensis HP12T (98.0 %), Arenibacterechinorum KMM 6032T
(98.4 %), Arenibacterpalladensis LMG 21972T (97.9 %), Arenibactertroitsensis KMM 
3674T (97.9 %) and 'Arenibacter algicola' TG409 (98.1 %). The average nucleotide 
identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P308H10T and the
five reference strains were 85.9-80.6 % and 30.2-23.6 %, respectively. The major 
fatty acids (>10 %) of strain P308H10T were summed feature 3, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH,
iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids comprised
phosphatidylethanolamine, five unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified
lipids. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The genomic DNA
G+C content was 38.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and
chemotaxonomic data presented, strain P308H10T represents a novel species of the 
genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter catalasegens sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is P308H10T (=GDMCC 1.1230T=KCTC 52983T). An emended
description of the genus Arenibacter is also proposed.

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002576 
PMID: 29458460 


163. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):736-744. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002573.
Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Tritonibacter horizontis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the Rhodobacteraceae,
isolated from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Klotz F(1)(2), Brinkhoff T(1), Freese HM(3), Wietz M(1), Teske A(4), Simon M(1), 
Giebel HA(1).

Author information: 
(1)1​Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of
Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany.
(2)†​Present address: Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 78464
Konstanz, Germany.
(3)2​Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell
Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany.
(4)3​Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
NC, USA.

A heterotrophic, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, sodium-requiring and motile
bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated surface water of the Gulf of Mexico 
during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Strain O3.65T showed highest 16S rRNA
gene sequence similarity to Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107T and Phaeobacter
inhibens T5T, both with 98.3 %, respectively. Based on complete genome analysis, 
highest similarity was observed to species of the genus Ruegeria. Strain O3.65T
exhibited a broad salinity, temperature and pH range of 0.5-10 % NaCl, 4-45 °C
and 5.5-9.0, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain O3.65T was 61.5 mol%.
The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10), the most dominant
fatty acids (>1 %) comprised 18 : 1ω7c and 18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl, 10 : 0 3OH,
12 : 1 3OH, 14 : 1 3OH/3-oxo-14 : 0, 16 : 0, 16 : 0 2OH, 18 : 1 2OH and 12 : 1.
The polar lipid pattern indicated presence of phosphatidylcholine,
phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified phospholipids 
and seven unidentified lipids. On Difco marine broth agar, strain O3.65T formed
smooth, shiny white to beige and convex colonies with regular edges.
Phylogenetic, phylogenomic and phenotypic differences revealed that strain O3.65T
represents a new species of a novel genus within the family Rhodobacteraceae, for
which we propose the name Tritonibacter horizontis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type
strain of the type species is O3.65T (=DSM 101689T=LMG 29740T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002573 
PMID: 29458459 


164. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):721-729. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002569.
Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Nannocystis konarekensis sp. nov., a novel myxobacterium from an Iranian desert.

Mohr KI(1), Moradi A(2), Glaeser SP(3), Kämpfer P(3), Gemperlein K(4)(5), Nübel
U(6)(7), Schumann P(8), Müller R(4)(5), Wink J(9).

Author information: 
(1)1​Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), 38124
Braunschweig, Germany.
(2)2​Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti 
University, Tehran, Iran.
(3)3​Department of Applied Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, 35392
Gießen, Germany.
(4)4​Department of Microbial Natural Products, Helmholtz Institute for
Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
(HZI), Saarland University, Campus C2 3, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
(5)5​Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Campus C2
3, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
(6)6​Microbial Genome Research, Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of
Microrganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany.
(7)7​German Center of Infection Research (DZIF), Braunschweig, Germany.
(8)8​Department Central Services, Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of
Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany.
(9)9​Microbial Strain Collection, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), 
38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

An orange-coloured myxobacterium, MNa11734T, was isolated from desert in Iran.
MNa11734T had rod-shaped vegetative cells, moved by gliding and was
bacteriolytic. No real fruiting body formation could be observed, but
sporangioles were produced on water agar. The strain was mesophilic, strictly
aerobic and chemoheterotrophic. 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed that MNa11734T
belonged to the family Nannocystaceae, genus Nannocystis and was closely related 
to Nannocystis pusilla Na p29T (DSM 14622T) and Nannocystis exedens Na e1T (DSM
71T), with 97.8 and 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively.
Laboratory-measured DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 9.5/15.7 % (reciprocal)
similarity between the novel strain and N. pusilla Na p29T, and 14.1/20.4 %
between the strain and N. exedens Na e1T, whereas DNA-DNA hybridization estimates
derived from draft genome sequences were 21.8-23.0 % and 22.2-23.7 %,
respectively, depending on the calculation method. The G+C content of DNA from
Nannocystis konarekensis MNa11734T was 73.3 mol%, for N. pusilla Nap29T it was
71.8 mol% and for N. exedens Nae1T it was 72.2 mol%. The major fatty acids of the
new strain were C16 : 1 (56.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 (14.4 %), C14 : 0 (8.2 %), C16 : 0 
(6.6 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (5.9 %). Strain MNa11734T exhibited phylogenetic and
physiological similarities to the two other species of Nannocystis, i.e. N.
pusilla and N. exedens, but the differences were sufficient enough to represent a
novel species, for which the name Nannocystiskonarekensis sp. nov. is proposed.
The type strain is MNa11734T (=DSM 104509T=NCCB 100618T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002569 
PMID: 29458458 


165. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Mar;68(3):709-714. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002559.
Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Brevundimonas humi sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from forest soil.

Dahal RH(1), Kim J(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Kyonggi University,
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16227, Republic of Korea.

During a study of bacterial diversity of soil, a novel strain, CA-15T, was
isolated from Kyonggi University forest soil. Cells were aerobic,
Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive and 
catalase- negative. Tyrosine was not oxidized but produced red pigmentation on an
agar palte. Strain CA-15T hydrolysed Tween 60 and DNA. It grew at 15-35 °C
(optimum, 25-30 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, 7.0-9.0) and at 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl
concentration. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence
indicated that strain CA-15T formed a lineage within the family Caulobacteraceae 
of the class Alphaproteobacteria that was distinct from various species of the
genus Brevundimonas. Brevundimonas bullata DSM 7126T was the closest member of
strain CA-15T on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.48 %). Q-10
was only an isoprenoid quinone detected for strain CA-15T. The major polar lipids
were 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-αd-glucopyranuronosyl]glycerol,
1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[αd-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol,
1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-αd-glucopyranuronosylglycerol,
1,2-diacyl-3-O-[6'-phosphatidyl-αd-glucopyranosyl]glycerol and
phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8
(C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl and C17 : 1ω8c. The
DNA G+C content of strain CA-15T was 63.6 mol%. The polyphasic characterization
indicated that strain CA-15T represents a novel species in the genus
Brevundimonas, for which the name Brevundimonas humi sp. nov. is proposed. The
type strain of Brevundimonas humi is CA-15T (=KEMB 9005-528T=KACC 19106T=NBRC
112677T).

DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002559 
PMID: 29458457 


166. Mol Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar;8(3):413-416. doi: 10.3892/mco.2018.1557. Epub 2018 Jan 
16.

L-Carnitine supplementation reduces the general fatigue of cancer patients during
chemotherapy.

Matsui H(1), Einama T(1)(2)(3), Shichi S(1), Kanazawa R(1), Shibuya K(1), Suzuki 
T(1), Matsuzawa F(1), Hashimoto T(1), Homma S(2), Yamamoto J(3), Taketomi A(2),
Abe H(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Surgery, Hokkaido Social Work Association Obihiro Hospital,
Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-0805, Japan.
(2)Department of Gastroenterological Surgery I, Hokkaido University Graduate
School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638, Japan.
(3)Department of Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama
359-8513, Japan.

L-Carnitine (LC) plays an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids, and LC
deficiency is associated with a feeling of weakness or general fatigue. Cancer
patients receiving chemotherapy often develop LC deficiency, which is considered 
to be a factor contributing to general fatigue. The aim of the present study was 
to evaluate the efficacy of LC supplementation as a treatment for general fatigue
in cancer patients during chemotherapy. A total of 11 cancer patients who were
suffering from general fatigue during chemotherapy in our hospital between
September 2014 and December 2015 were examined (6 cases involved adjuvant
chemotherapy and 5 cases involved chemotherapy for unresectable or recurrent
disease). The patients were administered 1,500 mg/day of levocarnitine per os,
and the change in mean daily fatigue from the baseline to 8 weeks was assessed
using the Brief Fatigue Inventory. The change in the plasma levels of albumin and
the lymphocyte counts from the baseline to 8 weeks were also assessed. LC
supplementation reduced general fatigue in all cases. Moreover, LC
supplementation maintained the plasma levels of albumin and lymphocyte counts
during chemotherapy, and enabled patients to continue chemotherapy sequentially
without dose reduction. Therefore, LC supplementation improved general fatigue in
all the examined cancer patients during chemotherapy. This treatment may make
improve the tolerability of chemotherapy in cancer patients by reducing general
fatigue and improving the nutritional status.

DOI: 10.3892/mco.2018.1557 
PMCID: PMC5795559
PMID: 29456846 


167. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Mar;102(6):2583-2593. doi:
10.1007/s00253-018-8832-9. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Immediate response mechanisms of Gram-negative solvent-tolerant bacteria to cope 
with environmental stress: cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids and
outer membrane vesicle secretion.

Eberlein C(1), Baumgarten T(2), Starke S(1), Heipieper HJ(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental 
Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.
(2)Center for Biomembrane Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics,
Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 16C, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden.
(3)Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental 
Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany. hermann.heipieper@ufz.de.

Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive
and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms
include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy
status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are
dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and 
cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial
short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence
of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic
organic solvents. Thus far, two main short-term responses are known. On the one
hand, a fast isomerization of cis into trans unsaturated fatty leads to a quick
rigidification of the cell membrane, a mechanism known in some genera of
Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, a fast, effective, and ubiquitously
present countermeasure is the release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the 
cell surface leading to a rapid increase in cell surface hydrophobicity and
finally to the formation of cell aggregates and biofilms. These immediate
response mechanisms just allow the bacteria to stay physiologically active and to
employ long-term responses to assure viability upon changing environmental
conditions. Here, we provide insight into the two aforementioned rapid adaptive
mechanisms affecting ultimately the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria.

DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8832-9 
PMID: 29450619 


168. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018 Feb 28;20(9):6469-6479. doi: 10.1039/c7cp06841g.

Phase equilibrium and physical properties of biobased ionic liquid mixtures.

Toledo Hijo AAC (1), Maximo GJ , Cunha RL , Fonseca FHS , Cardoso LP , Pereira
JFB , Costa MC , Batista EAC , Meirelles AJA .

Author information: 
(1)School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, R. Monteiro Lobato 80,
13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. arieltoledohijo@gmail.com
maximo@unicamp.br tomze@unicamp.br.

Protic ionic liquid crystals (PILCs) obtained from natural sources are promising 
compounds due to their peculiar properties and sustainable appeal. However,
obtaining PILCs with higher thermal and mechanical stabilities for product and
process design is in demand and studies on such approaches using this new IL
generation are still scarce. In this context, this work discloses an alternative 
way for tuning the physicochemical properties of ILCs by mixing PILs. New binary 
mixtures of PILs derived from fatty acids and 2-hydroxy ethylamines have been
synthesized here and investigated through the characterization of the
solid-solid-[liquid crystal]-liquid thermodynamic equilibrium and their
rheological and critical micellar concentration profiles. The mixtures presented 
a marked nonideal melting profile with the formation of solid solutions. This
work revealed an improvement of the PILCs' properties based on a significant
increase in the ILC temperature domain and the obtainment of more stable
mesophases at high temperatures when compared to pure PILs. In addition, mixtures
of PILs also showed significant changes in their non-Newtonian and viscosity
profile up to 100 s-1, as well as mechanical stability over a wide temperature
range. The enhancement of the physicochemical properties of PILs here disclosed
by such an approach leads to more new possibilities of their industrial
application at high temperatures.

DOI: 10.1039/c7cp06841g 
PMID: 29445821 


169. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 Mar 1;94(3). doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiy021.

Genomic and physiological characterization and description of Marinobacter
gelidimuriae sp. nov., a psychrophilic, moderate halophile from Blood Falls, an
antarctic subglacial brine.

Chua MJ(1), Campen RL(1), Wahl L(2), Grzymski JJ(3), Mikucki JA(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996,
USA.
(2)Department of Environmental Studies, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755,
USA.
(3)Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV,
89512, USA.

Antarctic subice environments are diverse, underexplored microbial habitats.
Here, we describe the ecophysiology and annotated genome of a Marinobacter strain
isolated from a cold, saline, iron-rich subglacial outflow of the Taylor Glacier,
Antarctica. This strain (BF04_CF4) grows fastest at neutral pH (range 6-10), is
psychrophilic (range: 0°C-20°C), moderately halophilic (range: 0.8%-15% NaCl) and
hosts genes encoding potential low temperature and high salt adaptations. The
predicted proteome suggests it utilizes fewer charged amino acids than a
mesophilic Marinobacter strain. BF04_CF4 has increased concentrations of membrane
unsaturated fatty acids including palmitoleic (33%) and oleic (27.5%) acids that 
may help maintain cell membrane fluidity at low temperatures. The genome encodes 
proteins for compatible solute biosynthesis and transport, which are known to be 
important for growth in saline environments. Physiological verification of
predicted metabolic functions demonstrate BF04_CF4 is capable of denitrification 
and may facilitate iron oxidation. Our data indicate that strain BF04_CF4
represents a new Marinobacter species, Marinobacter gelidimuriae sp. nov., that
appears well suited for the subglacial environment it was isolated from.
Marinobacter species have been isolated from other cold, saline environments in
the McMurdo Dry Valleys and permanently cold environments globally suggesting
that this lineage is cosmopolitan and ecologically relevant in icy brines.

DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiy021 
PMID: 29444218 


170. Mov Disord. 2018 Mar;33(3):398-401. doi: 10.1002/mds.27304. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

A controversy on the role of short-chain fatty acids in the pathogenesis of
Parkinson's disease.

Mulak A(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wroclaw Medical University,
Wroclaw, Poland.

DOI: 10.1002/mds.27304 
PMID: 29436731 


171. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:989-995. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.079. Epub 2017
Dec 2.

Chemical composition and inhibitory activities on dipeptidyl peptidase IV and
pancreatic lipase of two underutilized species from the Brazilian Savannah:
Oxalis cordata A.St.-Hil. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

Oliveira VB(1), Araújo RLB(2), Eidenberger T(3), Brandão MGL(4).

Author information: 
(1)CEPLAMT, Museu de História Natural e Jardim Botânico, Universidade Federal de 
Minas Gerais, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Alimentos,
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.
(2)Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Alimentos, Faculdade de Farmácia,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Laboratório de Bromatologia,
Departamento de Alimentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Brazil.
(3)University of Applied Science Upper Austria, Campus Wels, Stelzhamerstr. 23,
4600 Wels, Austria.
(4)CEPLAMT, Museu de História Natural e Jardim Botânico, Universidade Federal de 
Minas Gerais, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Alimentos,
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic
address: mbrandao@ufmg.br.

Brazil has the greatest vegetal biodiversity in the world, but products derived
from native species are not optimally utilized. Oxalis cordata and Xylopia
aromatica are two underutilized species whose leaves and fruits, respectively,
have been used as food in the 19th century. In this study, we used chemical and
in vitro assays to evaluate the potential of these species as functional foods.
The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and DPP-IV were evaluated using the 
crude extracts and fractions ethyl acetate, butanol and water of these two
species. For polyphenols determination, samples were prepared with different
solvents and these were analysed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.
Finally, fatty acids profile was determinated by gas chromatography. The crude
extract (IC50=0.84mg/ml), ethyl acetate extract (IC50=0.88mg/ml) an aqueous
fraction (IC50=0.63mg/ml) of C. cordata were inhibitory on pancreatic lipase but 
inactive against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Extracts from X. aromatica
were inactive against the lipase pancreatic enzyme, but a butanolic fraction
inhibited DPP-IV (IC50=0.71±0.05mg/ml). The phenolic acids orientin/isorientin,
chlorogenic acid (0.32g/100g) and the flavonoid derivatives rutin (0.27g/100g),
quercetin and luteolin were observed in all products. Additionally, fatty acid
quantification showed that oleic (7.5g/100g) and linoleic acid (6.5g/100g) were
predominant in X. aromatica fruit. This study confirms the potential for the use 
of both plants as functional foods due to their nutritional value, biological
activity and important phytochemical content.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.079 
PMID: 29433298 


172. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:863-872. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.020. Epub 2017
Dec 9.

Potential application of lipid organogels for food industry.

Chaves KF(1), Barrera-Arellano D(2), Ribeiro APB(2).

Author information: 
(1)Fats and Oils Laboratory, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, 
13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: chaves_kamila@yahoo.com.br.
(2)Fats and Oils Laboratory, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, 
13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to 
progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more
information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually
replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of
equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats,
causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids 
in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that 
is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat
content in food available to the population. In this context, organogels have
been indicated as a viable alternative to obtain semi-solid fats with reduced
content of saturated fatty acids and compatible properties for food application. 
The objective of this review was to present the studies that address the lipid
organogels as an alternative for food application.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.020 
PMID: 29433283 


173. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:812-820. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.012. Epub 2017
Dec 9.

Composition of black soldier fly prepupae and systematic approaches for
extraction and fractionation of proteins, lipids and chitin.

Caligiani A(1), Marseglia A(2), Leni G(3), Baldassarre S(2), Maistrello L(4),
Dossena A(1), Sforza S(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; SITEIA.PARMA, 
Parma, Italy.
(2)SITEIA.PARMA, Parma, Italy.
(3)Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
(4)Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio
Emilia, Italy; BIOGEST-SITEIA, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
(5)Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; SITEIA.PARMA, 
Parma, Italy. Electronic address: stefano.sforza@unipr.it.

Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) constitutes an economic way to convert
residual biomasses into a valuable source of biomolecules, such as proteins,
lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the
feasibility of applying different extraction protocols, either chemical
extractions or enzymatic assisted extraction, to recover pure fat, protein and
chitin fractions. First, exact proximate composition, total amino acids, fatty
acids profile, and N-acetylglucosamine content of the prepupae samples were
determined. BSF prepupae biomass contained, expressed on dry weight, 32%
proteins, 37% lipids, 19% minerals, 9% chitin. The lipid fraction was easily
recovered by organic solvents, while the most challenging issue was the
separation of protein from chitin. The best separation was obtained by alkali
extraction of proteins (96% of protein recovered) albeit with loss in their
integrity as indicated by the measurement of the degree of hydrolysis with the
o-phthaldialdehyde method. To avoid protein damage in alkali media, a stepwise
protein extraction adopting milder conditions was also explored based on Osborne 
fractionation method, allowing the recovery of >85% of BSF high purity and high
quality proteins, and the obtainment of chitin-enriched fraction as well. The
possibility of using an enzymatic assisted extraction of proteins was also
explored, obtaining a maximum nitrogen solubilisation in the best case (with
Bacillus licheniformis protease) of about 60%. In this latter case, the chitin
fraction obtained also had a significant residual protein content.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.012 
PMID: 29433277 


174. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:733-742. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.007. Epub 2017
Dec 5.

Dynamic correlations between microbiota succession and flavor development
involved in the ripening of Kazak artisanal cheese.

Zheng X(1), Liu F(2), Shi X(2), Wang B(3), Li K(2), Li B(2), Zhuge B(4).

Author information: 
(1)The Key Lab of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Research
Centre of Industrial Microorganisms, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan
University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; School of Food Sciences,
Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomy Region 832003, China.
(2)School of Food Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomy
Region 832003, China.
(3)School of Food Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomy
Region 832003, China. Electronic address: binwang0228@shzu.edu.cn.
(4)The Key Lab of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Research
Centre of Industrial Microorganisms, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan
University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China. Electronic address:
bzhuge@jiangnan.edu.cn.

Cheese is a typical handcrafted fermented food in Kazak minority from the Uighur 
Autonomy Region in China. The ripening process of the cheese is crucial for
quality and flavor. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper knowledge on the
bacterial and fungal community diversity at different time points during the
post-ripening of the cheese and to understand the relationship between bacterial 
and fungal profiles and the chemical components including amino acids, fatty
acids and volatile compounds related the cheese flavor. Cheese samples were
collected from days 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 after the starting point of
post-ripening. The bacterial and fungal compositions were analyzed with next
generation sequencing targeting the 16S rDNA loci for bacteria and ITS loci for
fungi. The amino acids contents were analyzed by reversed phase high performance 
liquid chromatography combined with UV detection. The fatty acids and the
volatile components were analyzed by Solid Phase Micro Extraction followed by Gas
Chromatography/Mass spectrometry. We found that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus,
Kluyveromyces and Torulaspora were the dominant cheese's population.
Bidirectional orthogonal partial least squares (O2PLS) based correlation analysis
between microbiota succession and flavor dynamics showed that bacteria made more 
contributions to flavor formation than fungi. Eight bacteria genera and seven
fungi genera were determined as functional core microbiota for the flavor
production based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community.
This study provided a comprehensive picture of the dynamic changes of microbiota 
profiles through the post-ripening process. The elucidation of the causal
relationship between microbiota and the flavor components has advanced our
understanding of the mechanism underlying the cheese development.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.007 
PMID: 29433268 


175. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:713-723. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.003. Epub 2017
Dec 5.

Flavor profiling of apple ciders from the UK and Scandinavian region.

Qin Z(1), Petersen MA(1), Bredie WLP(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen,
Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
(2)Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen,
Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Electronic address:
wb@food.ku.dk.

The aim of this study was to characterize the flavor profiles of 14 commercial
apple ciders from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian region. The flavor
properties were established by sensory profiling and analysis of volatile and
non-volatile components, including titratable acidity, pH, residual sugars and
organic acids. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the 14 apple
ciders using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass 
spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds found in apple ciders were
esters and higher alcohols, followed by aldehydes and fatty acids. Sensory
characterizations of the aroma and taste of apple ciders were carried out by a
trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis with 23 sensory attributes. The 
attributes apple, cooked apple, yeasty, sweet and sour were the most predominant 
sensory descriptors used to describe the similarities and differences in the
samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that floral and fruity (fresh 
apple, banana and pear) odors were highly associated with sweet taste and opposed
to the more complex aroma attributes (yeasty, lactic, chemical, mouldy, black
pepper and earthy) and sour taste. Most of the UK apple ciders were characterized
by these complex odors and taste notes sour, astringent and bitter, whereas
ciders from the Scandinavian region had diverse sensory profiles. Partial least
squares regression (PLS) based on the sensory and chemical data was able to
cluster the ciders according to differences in production methods (oak-aged or
spontaneous fermentation; controlled malolactic fermentation; industrial
production with flavor modifications). Moreover, this study also suggested that
ciders with marked levels of acetate esters were characterized by cooked/fresh
apple, citrus and tropical fruit odors.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.003 
PMID: 29433266 


176. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:599-604. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.062. Epub 2017
Nov 26.

β-Carotene degradation kinetics as affected by fat crystal network and
solid/liquid ratio.

Calligaris S(1), Valoppi F(2), Barba L(3), Anese M(1), Nicoli MC(1).

Author information: 
(1)Dipartimento di Scienze Agroalimentari, Ambientali e Animali, Università di
Udine, via Sondrio 2/a, 33100 Udine, Italy.
(2)Dipartimento di Scienze Agroalimentari, Ambientali e Animali, Università di
Udine, via Sondrio 2/a, 33100 Udine, Italy; Istituto di Cristallografia,
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 34100 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:
fabio.valoppi@helsinki.fi.
(3)Istituto di Cristallografia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 34100
Trieste, Italy.

The aim of this research was to study β-carotene degradation kinetics into lipid 
systems containing different fat crystal networks in the presence of increasing
liquid oil amounts. To this purpose, fat blends containing liquid saturated
medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) with increasing content of saturated
monoglycerides (MG), tripalmitin (PPP) and tristearin (SSS) were added with
0.6mg/g β-carotene. The fat crystal networks formed in the fat blends were
characterized by using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron X-ray
diffraction (XRD). In addition, β-carotene degradation was monitored during
storage in the dark at 20°C. Results highlighted that fat crystallization could
differently affect β-carotene stability. In bulk SSS and PPP, β-carotene
degradation proceeded at comparable rate, whereas when the saturated liquid oil
MCT is included in the fat network, the rate of oxidation slightly decreased.
Interestingly, the oxidation rate was not significantly affected by the
solid/liquid ratio of the systems. A completely different behavior was observed
in MG containing systems: the rate of β-carotene oxidation was in every case
significantly lower than that observed in SSS and PPP containing samples. Also in
this case, the MG protective effect was independent on its content in the fat
mixtures.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.062 
PMID: 29433253 


177. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:52-58. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.046. Epub 2017
Nov 7.

Identification of enzyme origin in dough improvers: DNA-based and proteomic
approaches.

Picariello G(1), Di Stasio L(2), Mamone G(3), Iacomino G(3), Venezia A(3),
Iannaccone N(3), Ferranti P(2), Coppola R(4), Addeo F(2).

Author information: 
(1)Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) - Istituto di Scienze
dell'Alimentazione, Via Roma 64, I-83100 Avellino, Italy. Electronic address:
picariello@isa.cnr.it.
(2)Università di Napoli "Federico II" - Dipartimento di Agraria, Parco Gussone,
I-80055 Portici, Napoli, Italy.
(3)Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) - Istituto di Scienze
dell'Alimentazione, Via Roma 64, I-83100 Avellino, Italy.
(4)Università del Molise - Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti
(DiAAA), Via F. De Sanctis, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.

Enzymatic dough improvers (DIs) are increasingly used as baking co-adjuvants.
Herein, an array of techniques, including Western blotting, PCR,
electrophoresis-based and shotgun proteomics, was addressed to identify the
enzymes in six commercial DI preparations. In particular, this work sought to
exclude the possible undeclared use of amylolytic enzymes from porcine (or other 
animal origin) pancreas in DIs. PCR-amplified mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt 
b) gene region and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were the targets of DNA-based and
protein methods, respectively, both assuring a limit of detection lower than
0.5-0.1% (w/w). Aspergillum oryzae α-amylase and Hordeum vulgare (barley)
β-amylase were the most represented enzymes in all DI samples. Although one
sample was PCR-positive, none among the DIs contained porcine pancreatic enzymes.
Comparative gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids suggested that the
porcine contamination might arise from hard fats of porcine origin (lard),
emphasizing the need of performing analyses at the protein level when the targets
are enzymes or proteins.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.046 
PMID: 29433244 


178. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:507-516. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.061. Epub 2017
Nov 26.

Changes in extra-virgin olive oil added with Lycium barbarum L. carotenoids
during frying: Chemical analyses and metabolomic approach.

Blasi F(1), Rocchetti G(2), Montesano D(3), Lucini L(4), Chiodelli G(4), Ghisoni 
S(4), Baccolo G(4), Simonetti MS(1), Cossignani L(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, 
University of Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy.
(2)Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,
via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.
(3)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, 
University of Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic
address: domenico.montesano@unipg.it.
(4)Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,
via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample
added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L.
(EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and
physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by
measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268,
and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols,
α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach
discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, 
identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant
variations. Partial least square discriminant analysis and volcano analysis were 
applied together to identify the most significant markers allowing group
separation. The decrease in total phenolic content was lower in EVOOCar than in
EVOO during frying. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a
significant percentage loss, 3.7% and 17.2%, respectively, in EVOO after 180min
frying at 180°C, while they remained constant or slightly changed in EVOOCar.
Zeaxanthin added to the oil rapidly decreased during the frying process. These
findings showed that the addition of a carotenoid extract from L. barbarum can
help to improve the oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.061 
PMID: 29433242 


179. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:41-51. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.070. Epub 2017
Nov 9.

In vitro digestion behavior of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions with gelled
oil-water inner phases.

Andrade J(1), Wright AJ(2), Corredig M(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1,
Canada; Grupo de Engenharia e Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de
Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900, Brazil.
Electronic address: dr.andradej@gmail.com.
(2)Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario
N1G 2W1, Canada.
(3)Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1,
Canada.

Double emulsions may be able to protect and release in a controlled manner
bioactive compounds during digestion of food matrices. It was hypothesized that
the physical state and solid content in the inner phases of water-in-oil-in-water
(W1/O/W2) emulsions may affect the overall stability and the release behavior of 
bioactives during in vitro digestion. Therefore, hydrophobic (phytosterols or
Vitamin D3) and hydrophilic (Vitamin B12) molecules were incorporated in double
emulsions prepared either with a liquid (soybean oil - SO) or oil-fat gel
(soybean oil+trimyristin - STO) lipid phase and liquid internal aqueous phase. In
addition, the impact of a gelled inner aqueous phase was studied, using high
methoxyl pectin. W1/O/W2 emulsions were prepared with polyglycerol
polyricinoleate (PGPR) and sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. After the 30min in
vitro gastric stage, all double emulsions showed no significant change in size.
Lipid crystals were visible in the STO emulsions. Fat crystallization, and the
formation of an oil fat gel, led to coalescence of the inner aqueous droplets.
The inner aqueous droplets were no longer visible by confocal microscopy after
the initial stages of 2h in vitro duodenal digestion. Fat crystals and droplets
of non-spherical shape were also noted in the STO double emulsions up to 25min of
in vitro duodenal stage. Overall, the STO emulsions had a higher extent of free
fatty acid release and consequent bioactive transfer compared to the SO
emulsions. The presence of the medium chain fatty acids (from trimyristin), in
addition to the surface-to-core distribution of the hydrophobic bioactives within
the oil droplet were key factors in lipid digestibility and bioactive release.
The STO and SO samples did not differ in terms of the release of the hydrophilic 
molecule, vitamin B12, over time. On the other hand, there was a significant
increase in the stability of the inner water phase, after gastric digestion, when
this phase was gelled with high methoxyl pectin. This work demonstrated that the 
physical properties of the different internal phases of W1/O/W2 influenced lipid 
digestion and bioactive transfer kinetics during in vitro digestion.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.070 
PMID: 29433230 


180. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:361-370. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.028. Epub 2017
Nov 21.

Metabolite profiling of green, green/red, and red lettuce cultivars: Variation in
health beneficial compounds and antioxidant potential.

Kim DE(1), Shang X(1), Assefa AD(1), Keum YS(1), Saini RK(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Crop Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of
Korea.
(2)Department of Crop Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of
Korea. Electronic address: saini1997@konkuk.ac.kr.

Salad vegetables, commonly consumed at baby-leaf stages, are the most appropriate
and emerging dietary source of antioxidant compounds. Screening and
identification of nutrient-rich cultivars can be potentially useful to obtain a
nutrient-dense diet. Thus, in this study, we explored the genetic potential of
baby leaves of 23 diverse lettuce cultivars for the health-beneficial
metabolites. The results showed that the composition and contents of the studied 
metabolites in lettuces varied significantly between cultivars and were
principally dependent on leaf color. All red-leaf cultivars were rich in
carotenoids, cyanidin, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, primarily in the form 
of α-linolenic and linoleic acid,) total phenolic contents (TPC), and antioxidant
potential. Among carotenoids, all-E-lutein was found in highest amount, followed 
by all-E-violaxanthin and all-E-lactucaxanthin, accounting for an average of 30%,
28% and 15% of total carotenoids, respectively. The content of total folate was
recorded in the range of 6.51 (cv. Caesar Green) to 9.73μg/g (DW) (cv. Asia Heuk 
Romaine). The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cyanidin and
other phenolic compounds are the most potent scavengers of ABTS and DPPH
radicals. The overall results suggested that all red-leaf lettuce cultivars have 
a distinct profile of phytoconstituents, which can be used as a nutrient-dense
food.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.028 
PMID: 29433225 


181. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:210-220. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.072. Epub 2017
Dec 20.

Effect of hop β-acids as dietary supplement for broiler chickens on meat
composition and redox stability.

Zawadzki A(1), Alloo C(2), Grossi AB(3), do Nascimento ESP(4), Almeida LC(4),
Bogusz Junior S(4), Skibsted LH(5), Cardoso DR(6).

Author information: 
(1)Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador
São-Carlense 400, CP 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil; Department of
Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C,
Denmark.
(2)Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK 1958
Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Department of Animal Production, Laboratory of Animal
Nutrition and Animal Product Quality, Ghent University, Belgium.
(3)Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK 1958
Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
(4)Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador
São-Carlense 400, CP 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
(5)Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK 1958
Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Electronic address: ls@food.ku.dk.
(6)Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador
São-Carlense 400, CP 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic
address: drcardoso@iqsc.usp.br.

Addition of β-acids extracted from hop at different levels (0, 30mgkg-1,
60mgkg-1, 240mgkg-1) to the diet of broiler chickens demonstrated significant
effects on the average concentration of polar metabolites and fatty acids of
relevance for meat quality. The largest metabolic differences between control
group and chicken fed different levels of β-acids were achieved using 30mgkg-1 of
supplement. As determined by EPR spin-trapping, increased redox stability was
also obtained for meat from chicken fed 30mgkg-1 of β-acids which also had
highest level of endogenous antioxidants, especially anserine, carnosine, NADH
and PUFAs. Diet and storage period were found to affect protein oxidation and
myosin and actin were recognized as the main targets of protein oxidation.
Myofibrillar proteins from chicken fed hop β-acids showed to be less susceptible 
to oxidation. A moderated level of hop β-acids as dietary supplement accordingly 
improve the overall redox stability, protecting myofibrillar proteins and fatty
acids against oxidation and improve the nutritional properties of meat from
broiler chickens.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.072 
PMID: 29433209 


182. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:197-209. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.013. Epub 2017
Nov 20.

Evaluation of the use of multiflora bee pollen on the volatile compounds and
sensorial profile of Palomino fino and Riesling white young wines.

Amores-Arrocha A(1), Roldán A(2), Jiménez-Cantizano A(2), Caro I(2), Palacios
V(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences,
University of Cadiz, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), IVAGRO,
P.O. Box 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain. Electronic address:
antonio.amores@uca.es.
(2)Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences,
University of Cadiz, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), IVAGRO,
P.O. Box 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain.

This study investigates the impact of bee pollen on volatile compounds, odour
activity values and sensory profiles in Palomino fino and Riesling young white
wines. Commercial bee pollen was added to grape must using six different doses (0
(control), 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 10 and 20g/L) and fermented under controlled
conditions. Volatile compounds were determined with GC and GC-MS chromatography
and sensorial analysis using a qualified panel of tasters. Bee pollen produces an
increase in volatile compounds depending on the grape variety and the dose
applied. It also increases the synthesis of higher alcohols, methanol, esters,
acetaldehyde and terpenes, reducing alcohols and fatty acids. Wines with low
doses (0.1 and 0.25g/L) showed the higher OAV values (fruity and floral) and
scores in overall judgment for the sensory evaluation. High pollen doses decrease
fruity character and could result in deviations affecting the sensorial quality.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.013 
PMID: 29433208 


183. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 28;66(8):1872-1880. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04779.
Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Effects of Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids on Structure
and in Vitro Digestibility of Starch-Protein-Fatty Acid Complexes.

Zheng M(1)(2), Chao C(1)(2), Yu J(1), Copeland L(3), Wang S(1), Wang S(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of
Science & Technology , Tianjin 300457, China.
(2)College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science &
Technology , Tianjin 300457, China.
(3)Sydney Institute of Agriculture, School of Life and Environmental Sciences,
The University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The effects of chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FAs) on
structure and in vitro digestibility of starch-protein-FA complexes were
investigated in model systems. Studies with the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) showed
that the formation of ternary complex resulted in higher viscosities than those
of binary complex during the cooling and holding stages. The results of
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD)
showed that the structural differences for ternary complexes were much less than 
those for binary complexes. Starch-protein-FA complexes presented lower in vitro 
enzymatic digestibility compared with starch-FAs complexes. We conclude that
shorter chain and lower unsaturation FAs favor the formation of ternary complexes
but decrease the thermal stability of these complexes. FAs had a smaller effect
on the ordered structures of ternary complexes than on those of binary complexes 
and little effect on enzymatic digestibility of both binary and ternary
complexes.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04779 
PMID: 29429340 


184. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Mar;113:287-295. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.058. Epub
2018 Feb 5.

Feeding of tobacco blend or nicotine induced weight loss associated with
decreased adipocyte size and increased physical activity in male mice.

Liu M(1), Chuang Key CC(2), Weckerle A(2), Boudyguina E(2), Sawyer JK(2), Gebre
AK(2), Spoo W(3), Makwana O(4), Parks JS(5).

Author information: 
(1)Departments of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. Electronic address: mliu@wakehealth.edu.
(2)Departments of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
(3)RAI Services Company, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Winston-Salem, NC
27101, USA.
(4)Departments of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA; RAI Services Company, Scientific and Regulatory
Affairs, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA.
(5)Departments of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA; Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine,
Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. Electronic address: jparks@wakehealth.edu.

Although epidemiological data and results from rodent studies support an inverse 
relationship between nicotine consumption and body weight, the molecular
mechanisms are poorly understood. CD-1 mice were fed a basal diet or a basal diet
containing low or high dose smokeless tobacco blend or high dose nicotine
tartrate for 14 weeks. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine tartrate diets vs.
basal diet reduced mouse body weight (16.3% and 19.7%, respectively), epididymal 
(67.6% and 72.5%, respectively) and brown adipose weight (42% and 38%,
respectively), epididymal adipocyte size (46.4% and 41.4%, respectively), and
brown adipose tissue lipid droplet abundance, with no elevation of adipose tissue
inflammation. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine diets also increased mouse
physical activity and decreased respiratory exchange ratio, suggesting that high 
dose nicotine intake induces adipose tissue triglyceride lipolysis to provide
fatty acids as an energy source. Both low and high dose tobacco blend and
nicotine diet feeding vs. basal diet increased plasma insulin levels (2.9, 3.6
and 4.3-fold, respectively) and improved blood glucose disposal without affecting
insulin sensitivity. Feeding of the high dose tobacco blend or nicotine feeding
in mice induces body weight loss likely by increasing physical activity and
stimulating adipose tissue triglyceride lipolysis.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.058 
PMID: 29421645 


185. Eur J Cancer. 2018 Mar;91:107-115. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.12.017.

Fatty acid profile in peri-prostatic adipose tissue and prostate cancer
aggressiveness in African-Caribbean and Caucasian patients.

Figiel S(1), Pinault M(1), Domingo I(1), Guimaraes C(1), Guibon R(2), Besson
P(1), Tavernier E(3), Blanchet P(4), Multigner L(5), Bruyère F(6), Haillot O(6), 
Mathieu R(7), Vincendeau S(7), Rioux-Leclercq N(7), Lebdai S(8), Azzouzi AR(8),
Perrouin-Verbe MA(9), Fournier G(9), Doucet L(9), Rigaud J(10), Renaudin K(10),
Mahéo K(1), Fromont G(11).

Author information: 
(1)Inserm UMR1069 "Nutrition, Croissance et Cancer" Université François Rabelais,
Faculté de Médecine, 10 Bd Tonnellé, 37032 Tours, France.
(2)Inserm UMR1069 "Nutrition, Croissance et Cancer" Université François Rabelais,
Faculté de Médecine, 10 Bd Tonnellé, 37032 Tours, France; CHRU Bretonneau,
Department of Pathology, Tours, France; CHRU Bretonneau, Department of Urology,
Tours, France.
(3)CHRU Tours, Clinical Investigation Center - INSERM 1415, Tours, France.
(4)CHU Pointe à Pitre, Department of Urology, Guadeloupe, France; Inserm UMR1085 
- IRSET, Rennes, France.
(5)Inserm UMR1085 - IRSET, Rennes, France.
(6)CHRU Bretonneau, Department of Pathology, Tours, France; CHRU Bretonneau,
Department of Urology, Tours, France.
(7)CHU Rennes, Department of Pathology, Rennes, France; CHU Rennes, Department of
Urology, Rennes, France.
(8)CHU Angers, Department of Urology, Angers, France.
(9)CHU Brest, Department of Pathology, Brest, France; CHU Brest, Department of
Urology, Brest, France.
(10)CHU Nantes, Department of Pathology, Nantes, France; CHU Nantes, Department
of Urology, Nantes, France.
(11)Inserm UMR1069 "Nutrition, Croissance et Cancer" Université François
Rabelais, Faculté de Médecine, 10 Bd Tonnellé, 37032 Tours, France; CHRU
Bretonneau, Department of Pathology, Tours, France; CHRU Bretonneau, Department
of Urology, Tours, France. Electronic address:
gaelle.fromont-hankard@univ-tours.fr.

BACKGROUND: Genetic and nutritional factors have been linked to the risk of
aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). The fatty acid (FA) composition of
peri-prostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), which reflects the past FA intake, is
potentially involved in PCa progression. We analysed the FA composition of PPAT, 
in correlation with the ethno-geographical origin of the patients and markers of 
tumour aggressiveness.
METHODS: From a cohort of 1000 men treated for PCa by radical prostatectomy, FA
composition of PPAT was analysed in 156 patients (106 Caucasians and 50
African-Caribbeans), 78 with an indolent tumour (ISUP group 1 + pT2 + PSA
<10 ng/mL) and 78 with an aggressive tumour (ISUP group 4-5 + pT3). The effect of
FA extracted from PPAT on in-vitro migration of PCa cells DU145 was studied in 72
patients, 36 Caucasians, and 36 African-Caribbeans.
RESULTS: FA composition differed according to the ethno-geographical origin.
Linoleic acid, an essential n-6 FA, was 2-fold higher in African-Caribbeans
compared with Caucasian patients, regardless of disease aggressiveness. In
African-Caribbeans, the FA profile associated with PCa aggressiveness was
characterised by low level of linoleic acid along with high levels of saturates. 
In Caucasians, a weak and negative association was observed between
eicosapentaenoic acid level (an n-3 FA) and disease aggressiveness. In-vitro
migration of PCa cells using PPAT from African-Caribbean patients was associated 
with lower content of linoleic acid.
CONCLUSION: These results highlight an important ethno-geographical variation of 
PPAT, in both their FA content and association with tumour aggressiveness.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.12.017 
PMID: 29413967 


186. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018 Mar 1;1077-1078:35-43. doi:
10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.01.014. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Analysis of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and plasmalogen
molecular species in food lipids using an improved 2D high-performance liquid
chromatography system.

Takahashi R(1), Nakaya M(2), Kotaniguchi M(3), Shojo A(4), Kitamura S(5).

Author information: 
(1)Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture
University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan; YMC Co., Ltd., 284
Daigo-cho, Karasuma Nishiiru Gojo-dori, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8106, Japan.
(2)Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture
University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan; International
Polysaccharide Engineering Inc., 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570, Japan; 
Department of Food and Nutrition Management Studies, Faculty of Human
Development, Soai University, 4-4-1 Nanko-naka, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559-0033,
Japan.
(3)Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture
University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan; International
Polysaccharide Engineering Inc., 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570, Japan.
(4)Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture
University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan; Department of Food
and Nutrition Management Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Soai University, 
4-4-1 Nanko-naka, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559-0033, Japan.
(5)Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture
University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan. Electronic address:
skita@bioinfo.osakafu-u.ac.jp.

Phospholipids are an important class of lipids in cell membranes and food.
Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed
to analyze phospholipids at the molecular species level. We developed a
two-dimensional HPLC system with a charged aerosol detector and mass spectrometry
(MS) to analyze phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and
their plasmalogens (pls) extracted from food materials. Accordingly, the
phospholipid molecular species can be analyzed in a single step despite using
smaller samples. We confirmed that chromatogram peaks from soybean lecithin are
mostly baseline separated, assigned, and quantified (24 molecular species for PE 
and 27 for PC). In addition, it was confirmed that chromatograms of lipids
extracted from chicken breast meat include plasmalogen peaks. The PE fraction in 
lipids extracted from chicken breast meat contained 17 types of ethanolamine
plasmalogens, corresponding to approximately 57% of the total by weight. The PC
fraction contained only four choline plasmalogens, corresponding to approximately
11% of the total weight. The composition of the pls-PC molecular species differed
from that of pls-PEs. The polyunsaturated fatty acids connected at the sn-2
positions of the pls-PEs consisted of 20.5% 20:4 fatty acid and were independent 
of the carbon chain at the sn-1 position. However, the 18:1 fatty acid at the
sn-2 position was dependent on the carbon chain at the sn-1 position.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.01.014 
PMID: 29413575  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


187. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2018 Mar;47(1):155-177. doi:
10.1016/j.gtc.2017.09.007. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Nutritional Interventions in the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Limketkai BN(1), Wolf A(2), Parian AM(3).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of
Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway M211, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic
address: berkeley.limketkai@gmail.com.
(2)Department of Clinical Nutrition, Stanford Health Care, Stanford, 300 Pasteur 
Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA.
(3)Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School
of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Nutritional strategies have been explored as primary or adjunct therapies for
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for
the induction of remission in Crohn disease and is recommended as a first-line
therapy for children. Dietary strategies focus on adjusting the ratio of consumed
nutrients that are proinflammatory or antiinflammatory. Treatments with dietary
supplements focus on the antiinflammatory effects of the individual supplements
(eg, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) or their positive effects on the
intestinal microbiome (eg, prebiotics, probiotics). This article discusses the
role of diets and dietary supplements in the treatment of IBD.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.gtc.2017.09.007 
PMID: 29413010 


188. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):831-836. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14065. Epub 2018 Feb
7.

Shelf to Health: Does Product Innovation Change National Estimates of Dietary
Impacts?

Taylor CA(1), Watowicz RP(2), Spees CK(1), Hooker NH(3).

Author information: 
(1)Medical Dietetics & Health Sciences, School of Health and Rehabilitation
Sciences, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 43210, U.S.A.
(2)School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve Univ., 2109 Adelbert Rd, Cleveland,
Ohio 44106, U.S.A.
(3)John Glenn College of Public Affairs, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio
43210, U.S.A.

This paper presents a simulation process to augment nutrition surveillance in the
United States which incorporates product innovation data. Traditional
point-estimates of nutritional quality in a food category are compared to those
based on distributions of nutrient compositions using product-level variability
seen in the market. Nationally representative consumption patterns provide
dietary intakes. Cookies are used as an example food category. Nutrient
composition data from Global New Product Database (GNPD) for 5259 cookies
launched 2005 to 2012 were matched to dietary intakes from 2005 to 2012 National 
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the 2 y cycles of NHANES
for 8284 cookie consumers. Average dietary intakes from traditional NHANES and
GNPD-based estimations produced similar mean values for energy, carbohydrates,
sugars, total fat, and protein. Saturated fat, fiber and cholesterol
contributions using new product compositions were significantly higher than
traditional NHANES approaches, estimates of sodium were significantly lower.
These differences become pronounced when comparing adult and child consumption
patterns and over time. This process also simulated trans fat consumption
estimates not traditionally available within NHANES. On average cookies
contributed 0.3 g/d (range 0 to 4.1 g/d). Much variability in food composition is
seen in the market which is shown to influence estimates of the national
diet.PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Numerous factors drive changes in the food supply,
including health trends, firm strategic choices, and food policy. This evolution 
presents a challenge for dietary assessments and nutrition monitoring. The public
health impact of variability in nutritional composition, subpopulation
consumption patterns and market dynamics are particularly difficult to evaluate
and are shown to influence estimates of the national diet.

© 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14065 
PMID: 29412459 


189. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):854-863. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14038. Epub 2018 Feb
7.

Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Kenaf Seed Oil, Macroemulsion, and Nanoemulsion in
High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Rats.

Cheong AM(1), Jessica Koh JX(1), Patrick NO(2), Tan CP(3), Nyam KL(1).

Author information: 
(1)Dept. of Food Science with Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI Univ.,
5600, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
(2)Dept. of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI Univ., 56000, Kuala 
Lumpur, Malaysia.
(3)Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Univ. Putra 
Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of kenaf seed oil (KSO), kenaf seed
oil-in-water macroemulsion (KSOM), kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (KSON), 
and emulsifier mixtures (EM) on serum lipid profile, liver oxidative status, and 
histopathological changes in high-cholesterol fed rats. Stability and
characteristic of KSOM and KSON were carried out prior to in vivo study.
Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups (6 rats each) and
induced hypercholesterolemia by feeding high cholesterol diet (HCD) for 14 days
prior to treatments. Different treatments were introduced on day 15 to 29 while
supplemented with HCD and removal of HCD during treatment on day 30 to 43, except
for HCD group. Body weight and serum lipid profiles were measured at 3 different 
points: after hypercholesterolemia was induced, on day 29, and at the end of the 
experiment. Relative liver weight, atherogenic index, coronary risk index, and
fecal total bile acids were also determined at the end of experiment. KSON showed
significantly higher stability than KSOM and FTIR exhibited good encapsulation of
KSO after 1.5 years of storage. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein 
cholesterol, lipid peroxidation levels in HCD group without treatment were
significantly higher compared to normal control group and all treatment groups.
All samples demonstrated hypocholesterolemic effect, but KSON exhibited higher
efficiency in cholesterol-lowering properties, weight control and decreased liver
fat as confirmed by histopathological evaluation. The overall results revealed
that the efficacy of different treatments was in descending order of KSON, KSO,
KSOM, and EM.PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsion (KSON)
has the potential to be used as a natural alternative to the synthetic
hypocholesterolemic drug in the future. However, larger sample size and clinical 
trial are needed to confirm on this potential application. In addition, treatment
with KSON was suggested to prevent cardiovascular disease and fatty liver.

© 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14038 
PMID: 29412455 


190. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2018 Mar;8(1):5-16. doi: 10.1007/s13555-018-0221-x. Epub
2018 Feb 6.

Nutraceuticals: A Review.

Souyoul SA(1), Saussy KP(2), Lupo MP(3).

Author information: 
(1)Lupo Center for Aesthetic and General Dermatology, New Orleans, LA, USA.
drsouyoul@drmarylupo.com.
(2)Department of Internal Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
(3)Lupo Center for Aesthetic and General Dermatology, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Skin aging is continuously influenced by various internal and external factors
such as the biologic progression of cells, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco,
nutritional deficiencies, and hormonal imbalances that lead to the degradation of
skin cells. Through the degradation of skin cells, free radicals and inflammation
weaken repair mechanisms and result in collagen and elastic fiber breakdown. The 
appearance of aging skin is highlighted by skin roughness, wrinkling,
pigmentation change, telangiectasias, loss of elasticity, and decreased firmness,
all of which are accelerated by these internal and external factors. Throughout
the years, nutraceuticals have been studied to delay and fight against these
internal and external factors, many of which are found in foods and byproducts
consumed naturally. The aim of this review is to aid dermatologists in
understanding the mechanism of action of popular nutraceuticals and their
possible efficacy in antiaging and skin health.

DOI: 10.1007/s13555-018-0221-x 
PMCID: PMC5825326
PMID: 29411317 


191. Ann Surg. 2018 Mar;267(3):576-584. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002097.

Pathophysiological Response to Burn Injury in Adults.

Stanojcic M(1), Abdullahi A, Rehou S, Parousis A, Jeschke MG.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Immunology, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Ross Tilley Burn Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences
Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the hypermetabolic, and
inflammatory trajectories in burned adults to gain insight into the
pathophysiological alterations and outcomes after injury.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Burn injury leads to a complex response that is
associated with hypermetabolism, morbidity, and mortality. The underlying
pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function
have not been well delineated in adult burn patients.
METHODS: Burned adult patients (n = 1288) admitted to our center from 2006 to
2016 were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographics, clinical data,
metabolic and inflammatory markers, hypermetabolism, organ function, and clinical
outcomes were obtained throughout acute hospitalization. We then stratified
patients according to burn size (<20%, 20% to 40%, and >40% total body surface
area [TBSA]) and compared biomedical profiles and clinical outcomes for these
patients.
RESULTS: Burn patients were hypermetabolic with elevated resting energy
expenditure (REE) associated with increased browning of white adipose tissue from
weeks 2 to 4. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia peaked 7 to 14 days after
injury. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (QUICKI, HOMA2) tests
further confirmed these findings with similar areas under the curve for moderate 
(20% to 40% TBSA) and severe burn (>40% TBSA). Lipid metabolism in sera revealed 
elevated pro-inflammatory stearic and linoleic acid, with complementary increases
in anti-inflammatory free fatty acids. Similar increases were observed for
inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and metabolic hormones. White adipose tissue 
from the site of injury had increased ER stress, mitochondrial damage, and
inflammasome activity, which was exacerbated with increasing burn severity.
CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective trial, we delineated the complexity of the
pathophysiologic responses postburn in adults and concluded that these profound
responses are time and burn size dependent. Patients with medium-size (20% to 40%
TBSA) burn demonstrated a very robust response that is similar to large burns.

DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002097 
PMID: 29408836 


192. Aquat Toxicol. 2018 Mar;196:104-116. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.01.012. Epub
2018 Feb 3.

Environmentally-realistic concentration of cadmium combined with polyunsaturated 
fatty acids enriched diets modulated non-specific immunity in rainbow trout.

Cornet V(1), Ouaach A(2), Mandiki SNM(2), Flamion E(2), Ferain A(3), Van Larebeke
M(3), Lemaire B(3), Reyes López FE(4), Tort L(4), Larondelle Y(3), Kestemont
P(2).

Author information: 
(1)Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of 
Namur (UNamur), 5000 Namur, Belgium. Electronic address:
valerie.cornet@unamur.be.
(2)Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of 
Namur (UNamur), 5000 Namur, Belgium.
(3)Institute of Life Sciences, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), 1348
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
(4)Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de
Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Nutrition is crucial to grow healthy fish particularly in a context of pollution,
overcrowding and pathogen risks. Nowadays, the search for food components able to
improve fish health is increasingly developing. Here, the influence of four
dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA,
18:3n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) on the sensitivity of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles to environmentally realistic cadmium (Cd,
0.3 μg/L) concentration was investigated. Fish diets were designed to ensure the 
specific abundance of one of these individual PUFAs, and were given for a 4-week 
pre-conditioning period followed by a 6-week Cd exposure period. Focus was put on
growth performance and immune responses following a short (24 h) and a long-term 
(6 weeks) Cd exposure. For each experimental condition, some fish were submitted 
to a bacterial challenge (24 h) with Aeromonas salmonicida achromogenes at the
end of Cd conditioning period. DHA-enriched diet improved growth performances as 
compared to LA-enriched diet, but also increased ROS production (after short-term
exposure to Cd) that could lead to a higher inflammation status, and some
immunity-related genes (at short and long-term exposure). We notably highlighted 
the fact that even a low, environmentally-realistic concentration, Cd can
strongly impact the immune system of rainbow trout, and that specific dietary
PUFA enrichment strategies can improve growth performance (DHA-enriched diet),
provide protection against oxidative stress (ALA- and EPA-enriched diet) and
stimulate non-specific immunity.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.01.012 
PMID: 29407798 


193. J Plant Physiol. 2018 Mar;222:39-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.004. Epub 2018 
Feb 3.

UV-B radiation modulates physiology and lipophilic metabolite profile in Olea
europaea.

Celeste Dias M(1), Pinto DCGA(2), Correia C(3), Moutinho-Pereira J(3), Oliveira
H(4), Freitas H(5), Silva AMS(2), Santos C(6).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Life Sciences & CFE, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies,
University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal;
Department of Chemistry & QOPNA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de
Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address: celeste.dias@uc.pt.
(2)Department of Chemistry & QOPNA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de
Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
(3)Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological
Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apt. 1013, 5000-801 
Vila Real, Portugal.
(4)Department Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de
Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal; Department of Chemistry & CICECO, University
of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
(5)Department of Life Sciences & CFE, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies,
University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.
(6)Department of Biology, LAQV/REQUIMTE, Faculty of Sciences, University of
Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation plays an important role in plant
photomorphogenesis. Whilst the morpho-functional disorders induced by excessive
UV irradiation are well-known, it remains unclear how this irradiation modulates 
the metabolome, and which metabolic shifts improve plants' tolerance to UV-B. In 
this study, we use an important Mediterranean crop, Olea europaea, to decipher
the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation on the physiological performance and
lipophilic metabolite profile. Young olive plants (cv. 'Galega Vulgar') were
exposed for five days to UV-B biologically effective doses of 6.5 kJ m-2 d-1 and 
12.4 kJ m-2 d-1. Cell cycle/ploidy, photosynthesis and oxidative stress, as well 
as GC-MS metabolites were assessed. Both UV-B treatments impaired net CO2
assimilation rate, transpiration rate, photosynthetic pigments, and RuBisCO
activity, but 12.4 kJ m-2 d-1 also decreased the photochemical quenching (qP) and
the effective efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII). UV-B treatments promoted
mono/triperpene pathways, while only 12.4 kJ m-2 d-1 increased fatty acids and
alkanes, and decreased geranylgeranyl-diphosphate. The interplay between
physiology and metabolomics suggests some innate ability of these plants to
tolerate moderate UV-B doses (6.5 kJ m-2 d-1). Also their tolerance to higher
doses (12.4 kJ m-2 d-1) relies on plants' metabolic adjustments, where the
accumulation of specific compounds such as long-chain alkanes, palmitic acid,
oleic acid and particularly oleamide (which is described for the first time in
olive leaves) play an important protective role. This is the first study
demonstrating photosynthetic changes and lipophilic metabolite adjustments in
olive leaves under moderate and high UV-B doses.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.004 
PMID: 29407548 


194. Cell Biochem Funct. 2018 Mar;36(2):65-79. doi: 10.1002/cbf.3318. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of amino acids and ATP levels during
acute amino acid starvation in MDAMB231 cells.

Thomas M(1), Davis T(1), Loos B(1), Sishi B(1), Huisamen B(2)(3), Strijdom H(2), 
Engelbrecht AM(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Stellenbosch
University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
(2)Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
(3)Diabetes Discovery Platform, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South
Africa.

Autophagy plays a major role in the adaptive metabolic response of cancer cells
during adverse conditions such as nutrient deprivation. However, specific data
that assess metabolite profiles in context with adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
availability and cell death susceptibility remain limited. Human breast cancer
cells, MDAMB231, and normal breast epithelial cells, MCF12A, were subjected to
short-term amino acid starvation and the cellular apoptotic and autophagic
responses assessed. The role of autophagy in the control of cellular amino acid, 
ATP, free fatty acid, and glucose levels during amino acid starvation were
compared. We demonstrate that breast cancer cells have an increased metabolic
demand contributing to significant amino acid and ATP depletion in a
nutrient-poor environment. Upregulation of autophagy was important for the
generation of amino acids and free fatty acids and maintenance of cellular ATP
levels. In contrast to normal cells, breast cancer cells were unable to maintain 
the response after 12 hours of amino acid starvation. Regulation of autophagic
activity in these environments had indirect consequences on cell death
susceptibility. Overall, our data provide support for autophagy as an important
survival mechanism capable of providing metabolic substrates when cancer cells
are faced with nutrient-deprived environments.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY: The results 
obtained in this study helps to expand our current knowledge on how cells respond
to environmental changes; the biochemical and metabolic consequences and the
physiological processes activated in response. The environmental stress applied
in this study is relevant to tumour physiology, and results can be translated to 
cancer therapeutic and clinical research areas, ultimately assisting in the
specific targeting of cancer cells while avoiding harm to normal cells.

Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI: 10.1002/cbf.3318 
PMID: 29399832 


195. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 28;66(8):1751-1759. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04704.
Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Sunflower Oil and Nannochloropsis oculata Microalgae as Sources of Unsaturated
Fatty Acids for Mitigation of Methane Production and Enhancing Diets' Nutritive
Value.

Gomaa AS(1), Kholif AE(1), Kholif AM(1), Salama R(2), El-Alamy HA(1), Olafadehan 
OA(3).

Author information: 
(1)Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre , 33 Bohouth St. Dokki,
Giza, Egypt.
(2)Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University ,
Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
(3)Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja , Abuja, Nigeria.

The objective of this assay was to investigate the effect of adding sunflower
oil, Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae and their mixture at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and
5% to three total mixed rations (TMRs) with different concentrate:forage ratios
(40C:60F, 50C:50F, and 60C:40F) on in vitro gas production (GP), methane (CH4)
production, and nutrient degradability. Asymptotic GP, GP rate, CH4
concentration/g acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter (DM) degradability (DMD), 
short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and ruminal bacteria population increased, but
neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability (NDFD), ADF degradability (ADFD), and
protozoa count decreased with increasing concentrate level in the TMR. Methane
production/g DM and NDF was higher for 50C:50F TMR. Sunflower oil reduced
asymptotic GP, lag time, CH4 production/g ADF, ammonia-N (NH3-N), and SCFA.
Compared to the control treatments, additives decreased GP rate, while sunflower 
oil/N. oculata mixture increased DMD and NDFD. All additives at 5% increased GP
rate and lag time and decreased CH4 production/g DM, ADF, and NDF, ruminal NH3-N,
and protozoa count. All additives at 2% increased DMD, NDFD and ADFD, SCFA, and
bacteria population. Supplementation of TMR, containing different
concentrate:forage ratios, with sunflower oil, N. oculata, and sunflower oil/N.
oculata mixture at different doses modified in vitro GP, CH4 production, and
nutrient degradability.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04704 
PMID: 29397713 


196. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Mar;102(5):2101-2116. doi:
10.1007/s00253-017-8732-4. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Anaerobiosis revisited: growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under extremely low
oxygen availability.

da Costa BLV(1)(2), Basso TO(2), Raghavendran V(1)(3), Gombert AK(4).

Author information: 
(1)School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80,
Campinas, SP, 13083-862, Brazil.
(2)Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano
Gualberto 380, São Paulo, SP, 05508-010, Brazil.
(3)Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of
Technology, Kemivägen 10, 412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
(4)School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80,
Campinas, SP, 13083-862, Brazil. gombert@unicamp.br.

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in
biotechnological applications, ranging from fuel ethanol to recombinant protein
production. It is also a model organism for studies on cell physiology and
genetic regulation. Its ability to grow under anaerobic conditions is of interest
in many industrial applications. Unlike industrial bioreactors with their low
surface area relative to volume, ensuring a complete anaerobic atmosphere during 
microbial cultivations in the laboratory is rather difficult. Tiny amounts of O2 
that enter the system can vastly influence product yields and microbial
physiology. A common procedure in the laboratory is to sparge the culture vessel 
with ultrapure N2 gas; together with the use of butyl rubber stoppers and
norprene tubing, O2 diffusion into the system can be strongly minimized. With
insights from some studies conducted in our laboratory, we explore the question
'how anaerobic is anaerobiosis?'. We briefly discuss the role of O2 in
non-respiratory pathways in S. cerevisiae and provide a systematic survey of the 
attempts made thus far to cultivate yeast under anaerobic conditions. We conclude
that very few data exist on the physiology of S. cerevisiae under anaerobiosis in
the absence of the anaerobic growth factors ergosterol and unsaturated fatty
acids. Anaerobicity should be treated as a relative condition since complete
anaerobiosis is hardly achievable in the laboratory. Ideally, researchers should 
provide all the details of their anaerobic set-up, to ensure reproducibility of
results among different laboratories.

DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8732-4 
PMID: 29397429 


197. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Mar;28(3):197-205. doi:
10.1016/j.numecd.2017.11.001. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Hypertriglyceridemia and omega-3 fatty acids: Their often overlooked role in
cardiovascular disease prevention.

Arca M(1), Borghi C(2), Pontremoli R(3), De Ferrari GM(4), Colivicchi F(5),
Desideri G(6), Temporelli PL(7).

Author information: 
(1)Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specialità Mediche, Sapienza Università di 
Roma, Roma, Italy. Electronic address: marcello.arca@uniroma1.it.
(2)Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Università di Bologna, Ospedale
Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.
(3)Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Genova, Ospedale Policlinico
San Martino, Genova, Italy.
(4)Unità Coronarica e Laboratori Sperimentazione e Ricerca, Centro Clinico di
Ricerca Cardiovascolare, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Dipartimento di
Medicina Molecolare, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
(5)UOC Cardiologia, Ospedale S. Filippo Neri, ASL ROMA 1, Roma, Italy.
(6)Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, L'Aquila,
Italy.
(7)Divisione di Cardiologia Riabilitativa, ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno-NO, Italy.

AIMS: This review aims to describe the pathogenic role of triglycerides in
cardiometabolic risk, and the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in the
management of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease.
DATA SYNTHESIS: In epidemiological studies, hypertriglyceridemia correlates with 
an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even after adjustment for low
density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This has been further supported
by Mendelian randomization studies where triglyceride-raising common single
nucleotide polymorphisms confer an increased risk of developing cardiovascular
disease. Although guidelines vary in their definition of hypertriglyceridemia,
they consistently define a normal triglyceride level as <150 mg/dL (or
<1.7 mmol/L). For patients with moderately elevated triglyceride levels, LDL-C
remains the primary target for treatment in both European and US guidelines.
However, since any triglyceride level in excess of normal increases the risk of
cardiovascular disease, even in patients with optimally managed LDL-C levels,
triglycerides are an important secondary target in both assessment and treatment.
Dietary changes are a key element of first-line lifestyle intervention, but
pharmacological treatment including omega-3 fatty acids may be indicated in
people with persistently high triglyceride levels. Moreover, in patients with
pre-existing cardiovascular disease, omega-3 supplements significantly reduce the
risk of sudden death, cardiac death and myocardial infarction and are generally
well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeting resistant hypertriglyceridemia should be considered as a
part of clinical management of cardiovascular risk. Omega-3 fatty acids may
represent a valuable resource to this aim.

Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the 
Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2017.11.001 
PMID: 29397253 


198. Mol Genet Metab. 2018 Mar;123(3):364-374. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.01.008. Epub 
2018 Jan 31.

Cutis laxa, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and altered cellular metabolomics
as additional symptoms in a new patient with ATP6AP1-CDG.

Dimitrov B(1), Himmelreich N(1), Hipgrave Ederveen AL(2), Lüchtenborg C(3), Okun 
JG(1), Breuer M(1), Hutter AM(1), Carl M(4), Guglielmi L(4), Hellwig A(5),
Thiemann KC(1), Jost M(1), Peters V(1), Staufner C(1), Hoffmann GF(1), Hackenberg
A(6), Paramasivam N(7), Wiemann S(8), Eils R(9), Schlesner M(10), Strahl S(11),
Brügger B(3), Wuhrer M(2), Christoph Korenke G(12), Thiel C(13).

Author information: 
(1)Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine, Department I, Im Neuenheimer Feld
669, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(2)Leiden University Medical Center, Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics,
Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands.
(3)Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH), Im Neuenheimer Feld 328,
69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(4)Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg
University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany; Laboratory of Translational Neurogenetics,
Center for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, 39123 Trento, Italy.
(5)Department of Neurobiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences,
Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(6)Division of Pediatric Neurology, University Children's Hospital Zürich,
Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zürich, Switzerland.
(7)Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; 
Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im 
Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Bioinformatics and Omics Data
Analytics (B240), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 
69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(8)Genomics & Proteomics Core Facility, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im 
Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Division of Molecular Genome
Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120
Heidelberg, Germany.
(9)Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 
Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Department for Bioinformatics
and Functional Genomics, Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology
(IPMB), BioQuant, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany;
Bioinformatics and Omics Data Analytics (B240), German Cancer Research Center
(DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(10)Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ),
Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Bioinformatics and Omics Data
Analytics (B240), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 
69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(11)Centre for Organismal Studies (COS), Glycobiology, Heidelberg University, Im 
Neuenheimer Feld 360, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
(12)Klinikum Oldenburg, Zentrum für Kinder-und Jugendmedizin, Klinik für
Neuropädiatrie u. angeborene Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Rahel-Straus-Straße 10,
26133 Oldenburg, Germany.
(13)Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine, Department I, Im Neuenheimer Feld
669, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:
christian.thiel@med.uni-heidelberg.de.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic defects in the
glycoconjugate biosynthesis. >100 types of CDG are known, most of them cause
multi-organ diseases. Here we describe a boy whose leading symptoms comprise
cutis laxa, pancreatic insufficiency and hepatosplenomegaly. Whole exome
sequencing identified the novel hemizygous mutation c.542T>G (p.L181R) in the
X-linked ATP6AP1, an accessory protein of the mammalian vacuolar H+-ATPase, which
led to a general N-glycosylation deficiency. Studies of serum N-glycans revealed 
reduction of complex sialylated and appearance of truncated diantennary
structures. Proliferation of the patient's fibroblasts was significantly reduced 
and doubling time prolonged. Additionally, there were alterations in the
fibroblasts' amino acid levels and the acylcarnitine composition. Especially,
short-chain species were reduced, whereas several medium- to long-chain
acylcarnitines (C14-OH to C18) were elevated. Investigation of the main lipid
classes revealed that total cholesterol was significantly enriched in the
patient's fibroblasts at the expense of phophatidylcholine and
phosphatidylethanolamine. Within the minor lipid species, hexosylceramide was
reduced, while its immediate precursor ceramide was increased. Since catalase
activity and ACOX3 expression in peroxisomes were reduced, we assume an
ATP6AP1-dependent impact on the β-oxidation of fatty acids. These results help to
understand the complex clinical characteristics of this new patient.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.01.008 
PMID: 29396028 


199. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2018 Mar;73(1):54-60. doi: 10.1007/s11130-018-0652-7.

Effects of Blackcurrant and Dietary Fibers on Large Intestinal Health Biomarkers 
in Rats.

Paturi G(1), Butts CA(2), Monro JA(2), Hedderley D(2).

Author information: 
(1)The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag
92169, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. gunaranjan.paturi@plantandfood.co.nz.
(2)The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag
11600, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand.

This study examined the effects of anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract and
dietary fibers individually and their combinations on biomarkers of large
intestinal health in rats. After six weeks of feeding, rats fed diets with
blackcurrant gained significantly less body weight and reduced their food intake 
resulting in a lower food efficiency compared with those rats fed control diets. 
Combining dietary fiber (apple or broccoli) with blackcurrant in the diet was
more effective in reducing the body weight gain and food intake. Cecal bacterial 
populations and short-chain fatty acids differed between the experimental diets. 
Blackcurrants significantly altered the bacterial populations by increasing the
abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group and Lactobacillus spp.,
while decreasing the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium
perfringens. Propionic acid concentrations were increased by the diets with
blackcurrant. Butyric acid concentrations were increased by dietary fiber
supplementation. Dietary fiber increased the number of goblet cells in the colon.
Diets with blackcurrant were more effective in altering the biomarkers of large
intestinal health than those without blackcurrant.

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-018-0652-7 
PMID: 29388158 


200. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2018 Jan 28;13:78-82. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.01.006.
eCollection 2018 Mar.

Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium
4-phenylbutyrate.

Kawai A(1), Yamasaki K(1)(2), Enokida T(1), Miyamoto S(1), Otagiri M(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku,
Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan.
(2)DDS Research Institute, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto
860-0082, Japan.

Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle
disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the 
action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular
transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the
treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and
metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound
to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2.
However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this
issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The
structure of the HSA-PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is
quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed
to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide
useful basic information related to drug-HSA interactions. Moreover, the
information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient
treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.01.006 
PMCID: PMC5789167
PMID: 29387812 
201. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2018 Mar;82(3):489-496. doi:
10.1080/09168451.2018.1429886. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Effect of a combination of inulin and polyphenol-containing adzuki bean extract
on intestinal fermentation in vitro and in vivo.

Nagata R(1)(2), Echizen M(1), Yamaguchi Y(1), Han KH(1), Shimada K(1), Ohba K(3),
Kitano-Okada T(3), Nagura T(4), Uchino H(4), Fukushima M(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Life and Food Sciences , Obihiro University of Agriculture and
Veterinary Medicine , Obihiro , Japan.
(2)b The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences , Iwate University ,
Morioka , Japan.
(3)c Cosmo Foods Co., Ltd. , Tokyo , Japan.
(4)d Research Center , Nippon Beet Sugar Mfg. Co., Ltd. , Obihiro , Japan.

The effect of a combination of inulin (INU) and polyphenol-containing adzuki bean
extract (AE) on intestinal fermentation was examined in vitro using fermenters
for 48 h and in vivo using rats for 28 d. The total short-chain fatty acid
concentrations in the fermenters were decreased by a combination of INU and AE,
but the concentration in the INU + AE group was higher than the cellulose (CEL)
and CEL + AE groups. The cecal propionate concentration was increased by a
combination of INU and AE compared with their single supplement. The
ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the fermenters and rat cecum was decreased by
INU and AE. Cecal mucin levels were increased by INU and AE respectively.
Therefore, our observations suggested that the combination of INU and AE might be
a material of functional food that includes several healthy effects through
intestinal fermentation.

DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2018.1429886 
PMID: 29383988 


202. Langmuir. 2018 Feb 27;34(8):2764-2773. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b03541. Epub
2018 Feb 13.

Manipulating the Ordered Nanostructure of Self-Assembled Monoolein and
Phytantriol Nanoparticles with Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

Tran N(1), Mulet X(1), Hawley AM(2), Fong C(1), Zhai J, Le TC, Ratcliffe J(1),
Drummond CJ.

Author information: 
(1)CSIRO Manufacturing , Clayton, Victoria 3149, Australia.
(2)Australian Synchrotron, ANSTO , Clayton, Victoria 3149, Australia.

Mesophase structures of self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles
are important factors that directly influence their ability to encapsulate and
release drugs and their biological activities. However, it is difficult to
predict and precisely control the mesophase behavior of these materials,
especially in complex systems with several components. In this study, we report
the controlled manipulation of mesophase structures of monoolein (MO) and
phytantriol (PHYT) nanoparticles by adding unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). By
using high throughput formulation and small-angle X-ray scattering
characterization methods, the effects of FAs chain length, cis-trans isomerism,
double bond location, and level of chain unsaturation on self-assembled systems
are determined. Additionally, the influence of temperature on the phase behavior 
of these nanoparticles is analyzed. We found that in general, the addition of
unsaturated FAs to MO and PHYT induces the formation of mesophases with higher
Gaussian surface curvatures. As a result, a rich variety of lipid polymorphs are 
found to correspond with the increasing amounts of FAs. These phases include
inverse bicontinuous cubic, inverse hexagonal, and discrete micellar cubic phases
and microemulsion. However, there are substantial differences between the phase
behavior of nanoparticles with trans FA, cis FAs with one double bond, and cis
FAs with multiple double bonds. Therefore, the material library produced in this 
study will assist the selection and development of nanoparticle-based drug
delivery systems with desired mesophase.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b03541 
PMID: 29381863 


203. J Clin Invest. 2018 Feb 26. pii: 95864. doi: 10.1172/JCI95864. [Epub ahead of
print]

IRE1α RNase-dependent lipid homeostasis promotes survival in Myc-transformed
cancers.

Xie H(1)(2), Tang CA(3), Song JH(1)(4), Mancuso A(1), Del Valle JR(5), Cao
J(6)(7)(8), Xiang Y(1), Dang CV(1), Lan R(1), Sanchez DJ(1)(4), Keith B(1)(2), Hu
CA(3), Simon MC(1)(4).

Author information: 
(1)Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and.
(2)Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
(3)The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
(4)Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at
the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
(5)Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.
(6)Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology.
(7)Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center, and.
(8)Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Myc activation is a primary oncogenic event in many human cancers; however, these
transcription factors are difficult to inhibit pharmacologically, suggesting that
Myc-dependent downstream effectors may be more tractable therapeutic targets.
Here, we show that Myc overexpression induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress
and engages the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)/X-box binding protein 1
(XBP1) pathway through multiple molecular mechanisms in a variety of c-Myc- and
N-Myc-dependent cancers. In particular, Myc-overexpressing cells require
IRE1α/XBP1 signaling for sustained growth and survival in vitro and in vivo,
dependent on elevated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity. Pharmacological 
and genetic XBP1 inhibition induces Myc-dependent apoptosis, which is alleviated 
by exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. Of note, SCD1 inhibition phenocopies IRE1α 
RNase activity suppression in vivo. Furthermore, IRE1α inhibition enhances the
cytotoxic effects of standard chemotherapy drugs used to treat
c-Myc-overexpressing Burkitt's lymphoma, suggesting that inhibiting the
IRE1α/XBP1 pathway is a useful general strategy for treatment of Myc-driven
cancers.

DOI: 10.1172/JCI95864 
PMID: 29381485 


204. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):624-630. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14033. Epub 2018 Jan
27.

Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six
Saudi Arabian Cultivars.

Nehdi IA(1)(2), Sbihi HM(1), Tan CP(3), Rashid U(4), Al-Resayes SI(1).

Author information: 
(1)Chemistry Dept., College of Science, King Saud Univ., P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh
11451, Saudi Arabia.
(2)UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Chemistry Dept., Science College,
Tunis El Manar Univ., 2092 Tunis, Tunisia.
(3)Dept. of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Univ. Putra 
Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
(4)Inst. of Advanced Technology, Univ. Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia.

This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical
properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars
(Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and
to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds
was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric
acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid
(8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera
seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was
the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%),
γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal
and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the
potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm
olein.PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study showed that date seed had great
nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as
frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in
cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix
dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits
especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the
environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale
date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia.

© 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14033 
PMID: 29377104 


205. J Mol Biol. 2018 Mar 2;430(5):581-590. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2018.01.010. Epub 2018 
Jan 31.

Molecular Paths Linking Metabolic Diseases, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and
Enterobacteria Infections.

Serino M(1).

Author information: 
(1)IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM, INRA, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse, France.
Electronic address: matteo.serino@inserm.fr.

Alterations of both ecology and functions of gut microbiota are conspicuous
traits of several inflammatory pathologies, notably metabolic diseases such as
obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the proliferation of enterobacteria,
subdominant members of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, has been shown to be
favored by Western diet, the strongest inducer of both metabolic diseases and gut
microbiota dysbiosis. The inner interdependence between the host and the gut
microbiota is based on a plethora of molecular mechanisms by which host and
intestinal microbes modify each other. Among these mechanisms are as follows: (i)
the well-known metabolic impact of short chain fatty acids, produced by microbial
fermentation of complex carbohydrates from plants; (ii) a mutual modulation of
miRNAs expression, both on the eukaryotic (host) and prokaryotic (gut microbes)
side; (iii) the production by enterobacteria of virulence factors such as the
genotoxin colibactin, shown to alter the integrity of host genome and induce a
senescence-like phenotype in vitro; (iv) the microbial excretion of
outer-membrane vesicles, which, in addition to other functions, may act as a
carrier for multiple molecules such as toxins to be delivered to target cells. In
this review, I describe the major molecular mechanisms by which gut microbes
exert their metabolic impact at a multi-organ level (the gut barrier being in the
front line) and support the emerging triad of metabolic diseases, gut microbiota 
dysbiosis and enterobacteria infections.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2018.01.010 
PMID: 29374557 


206. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018 Mar;26(3):396-406. doi: 10.1038/s41431-017-0052-8. Epub
2018 Jan 24.

Association of metreleptin treatment and dietary intervention with neurological
outcomes in Celia's encephalopathy.

Araújo-Vilar D(1)(2), Domingo-Jiménez R(3), Ruibal Á(4)(5)(6), Aguiar P(4)(6),
Ibáñez-Micó S(3), Garrido-Pumar M(4), Martínez-Olmos MÁ(7), López-Soler C(8),
Guillín-Amarelle C(9)(7), González-Rodríguez M(7), Rodríguez-Núñez A(10),
Álvarez-Escudero J(11), Liñares-Paz M(12), González-Méndez B(9), Rodríguez-García
S(9), Sánchez-Iglesias S(9).

Author information: 
(1)Thyroid and Metabolic Diseases Unit, Biomedical Research Institute
(CIMUS)-IDIS, School of Medicine, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,
Santiago de Compostela, Spain. david.araujo@usc.es.
(2)Division of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario de
Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. david.araujo@usc.es.
(3)Section of Neuropediatrics, Division of Pediatrics, Hospital Clínico
Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca-IMIB Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain.
(4)Division of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de
Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(5)Fundación Tejerina, Madrid, Spain.
(6)Molecular Imaging and Medical Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela.
IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(7)Division of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario de
Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(8)Departamento de Psicología Clínica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
(9)Thyroid and Metabolic Diseases Unit, Biomedical Research Institute
(CIMUS)-IDIS, School of Medicine, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,
Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(10)Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Area, Hospital Clínico Universitario
de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(11)Anesthesia and Reanimation Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de
Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
(12)Department of Radiology, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de
Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Celia's encephalopathy (progressive encephalopathy with/without lipodystrophy,
PELD) is a recessive neurodegenerative disease that is fatal in childhood. It is 
caused by a c.985C>T variant in the BSCL2/seipin gene that results in an aberrant
seipin protein. We evaluated neurological development before and during treatment
with human recombinant leptin (metreleptin) plus a dietary intervention rich in
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the only living patient. A 7 years and 10
months old girl affected by PELD was treated at age 3 years with metreleptin,
adding at age 6 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Her mental age was evaluated 
using the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDI), and brain
PET/MRI was performed before treatment and at age 5, 6.5, and 7.5 years. At age
7.5 years, the girl remains alive and leads a normal life for her mental age of
30 months, which increased by 4 months over the last 18 months according to BDI. 
PET images showed improved glucose uptake in the thalami, cerebellum, and
brainstem. This patient showed a clear slowdown in neurological regression during
leptin replacement plus a high PUFA diet. The aberrant BSCL2 transcript was
overexpressed in SH-SY5Y cells and was treated with docosahexaenoic acid (200 µM)
plus leptin (0.001 mg/ml) for 24 h. The relative expression of aberrant BSCL2
transcript was measured by qPCR. In vitro studies showed significant reduction
(32%) in aberrant transcript expression. This therapeutic approach should be
further studied in this devastating disease.

DOI: 10.1038/s41431-017-0052-8 
PMID: 29367704 


207. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Mar;124:117-125. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.012.
Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Lipid production in aquatic plant Azolla at vegetative and reproductive stages
and in response to abiotic stress.

Miranda AF(1), Liu Z(2), Rochfort S(3), Mouradov A(4).

Author information: 
(1)School of Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic
address: ana.miranda@rmit.edu.au.
(2)AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083,
Australia. Electronic address: Zhiqian.Liu@ecodev.vic.gov.au.
(3)AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083,
Australia. Electronic address: simone.rochfort@ecodev.vic.gov.au.
(4)School of Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic
address: aidyn.mouradov@rmit.edu.au.

The aquatic plant Azolla became increasingly popular as bioenergy feedstock
because of its high growth rate, production of biomass with high levels of
biofuel-producing molecules and ability to grow on marginal lands. In this study,
we analysed the contribution of all organs of Azolla to the total yield of lipids
at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to stress.
Triacylglycerol-containing lipid droplets were detected in all (vegetative and
reproductive) organs with the highest level in the male microsporocarps and
microspores. As a result, significantly higher total yields of lipids were
detected in Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata at the reproductive stage.
Starving changed the yield and composition of the fatty acid as a result of
re-direction of carbon flow from fatty acid to anthocyanin pathways. The
composition of lipids, in regard the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty
acids, in Azolla meets most of the important requirements for biodiesel
standards. The ability of Azolla to grow on wastewaters, along with their high
productivity rate, makes it an attractive feedstock for the production of
biofuels.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.012 
PMID: 29366971 


208. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Mar;124:112-116. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.007.
Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Leaf fatty acid remodeling in the salt-excreting halophytic grass Spartina patens
along a salinity gradient.

Duarte B(1), Matos AR(2), Marques JC(3), Caçador I(4).

Author information: 
(1)MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences of the
University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic
address: baduarte@fc.ul.pt.
(2)BioISI-Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Plant Functional
Genomics Group, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciências da
Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
(3)MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, c/o DCV, Faculty of Sciences 
and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
(4)MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences of the
University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

Spartina patens is a highly dispersed halophytic grass invader in Mediterranean
marshes. It is also characterized by having a high degree of resistance to
salinity, one of the main drivers of plant zonation in salt marshes.
Nevertheless, the physiological basis behind the extreme resistance of S. patens 
requires more detailed studies. In the present work, we aimed to study how
membrane fatty acid remodeling could contribute to the resistance of this plant
to salt. Spartina patens individuals exposed to increasing levels of salinity and
its leaf fatty acid profile under lipid peroxidation products evaluated under all
tested concentrations. A significant increase in the relative amounts of the
saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, namely palmitic acid (C16:0), essential
for PS II functioning, and stearic (C18:0) acid. The chloroplastidial
trans-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1t) as well as the polyunsaturated linoleic (C18:2) 
and linolenic (C18:3) acids showed significant decreases in all the salt
treatments. These changes led to a reduction in the double bond index in
salt-treated plants which reflects reduction of the fluidity of the chloroplast
membranes, which could contribute to maintain the membrane impermeable to the
toxic exogenous Na. Despite the decrease observed in the total fatty acid
contents in plants exposed to high salt concentrations the amounts of lipid
peroxidation products decreased highlighting the resistance of this species
towards toxic exogenous salt concentrations. Membrane fatty acid remodeling could
represent an efficient mechanism to maintain the photosynthetic machinery of S.
patens highly efficient under salt stress.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.007 
PMID: 29366970 


209. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Mar;113:73-82. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.029. Epub 2018 
Jan 31.

Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
caused by Western diet containing benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

Uno S(1), Nebert DW(2), Makishima M(3).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University 
School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.
(2)Department of Environmental Health, Center for Environmental Genetics,
University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267,
USA.
(3)Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University 
School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.
Electronic address: makishima.makoto@nihon-u.ac.jp.

The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant
produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome
P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic 
activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in
NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without
oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus
wild-type mice. A Western diet plus BaP induced lipid-droplet accumulation in
liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice. The hepatic steatosis observed
in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice was associated with increased cholesterol, triglyceride and
bile acid levels. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice fed Western diet plus BaP had changes in
expression of genes involved in bile acid and lipid metabolism, and showed no
increase in Cyp1a2 expression but did exhibit enhanced Cyp1b1 mRNA expression, as
well as hepatic inflammation. Enhanced BaP metabolic activation, oxidative stress
and inflammation may exacerbate metabolic dysfunction in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-)
mice. Thus, Western diet plus BaP induces NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in
Cyp1a1(-/-) mice in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a protective role of
CYP1A1 against NAFLD pathogenesis.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.029 
PMCID: PMC5831517 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29366871 


210. J Lipid Res. 2018 Mar;59(3):404-415. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M073817. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Sidt2 regulates hepatocellular lipid metabolism through autophagy.

Chen X(1), Gu X(2), Zhang H(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetic Metabolism, Xinhua Hospital,
Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School
of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
(2)Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetic Metabolism, Xinhua Hospital,
Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School
of Medicine, Shanghai, China gu_xuefan@163.com huiwenzhang@yahoo.com.

SID1 transmembrane family member 2 (Sidt2) is an integral lysosomal membrane
protein. To investigate its explicit function, we generated a global Sidt2
knockout mouse model (Sidt2-/-). Compared with the littermate controls, Sidt2-/- 
mice exhibited a remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in liver. First, it
was observed that food consumption, hepatocyte fatty acid uptake and de novo
lipogenesis, hepatocyte lipolysis, and TG secretion in the form of very low
density lipoprotein were comparable between Sidt2-/- and WT mice. However, the
hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids decreased significantly as revealed by a low
level of serum β-hydroxybutyrate in the Sidt2-/- mice along with normal mRNA
expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In addition, the classical 
autophagy pathway marker proteins, p62 and LC3-II, increased in liver, along with
compromised autophagic flux in primary hepatocytes, indicating a block of
autophagosome maturation due to Sidt2 deficiency, which was also supported by
electron microscopy image analysis both in livers and in primary hepatocytes from
Sidt2-/- mice. It was concluded that Sidt2 plays an important role in mouse
hepatic lipid homeostasis by regulating autophagy at the terminal stage.

Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 
Inc.

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M073817 
PMCID: PMC5832936 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29363559 


211. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Mar;102(5):2289-2299. doi:
10.1007/s00253-018-8774-2. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Time-course responses of ileal and fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles to
antibiotics in cannulated pigs.

Gao K(1), Pi Y(1), Peng Y(1), Mu CL(1), Zhu WY(2).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and
Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, People's
Republic of China.
(2)Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and
Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, People's
Republic of China. zhuweiyun@njau.edu.cn.

We investigated the time-course effects of therapeutic antibiotics on intestinal 
microbial composition and metabolism in an ileal-cannulated pig model. Sixteen
ileal-cannulated piglets (12 ± 0.5 kg) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and
fed standard diets with or without antibiotics. At 4 days before, and at days 2, 
7, and 13 after antibiotic administration, ileal and fecal samples were collected
for analysis of microbiota composition via 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and
metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, biogenic amines, and indole). It was found 
that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium had decreased by an average 2.68-fold and 
508-fold in ileum on days 2-13, and by an average 45.08-fold and 71.50-fold in
feces on days 7-13 (P < 0.05). Escherichia/Shigella had increased by an average
265-fold in ileum on days 2-13, and by an average 36.70-fold in feces on days
7-13 (P < 0.05). Acetate concentration had decreased in ileum by an average
2.88-fold on days 2-13, and by 1.83-fold in feces on day 7 (P < 0.05). Cadaverine
concentration had increased by an average 7.03-fold in ileum on days 2-13, and by
an average 9.96-fold in feces on days 7-13 (P < 0.05), and fecal indole
concentration had increased by an average 2.51-fold on days 7-13 (P < 0.05).
Correlation analysis between significant microbes and metabolites indicated that 
the antibiotic-induced microbiota shift appeared to result in the changes of
intestinal metabolism. In conclusion, antibiotic administration led to dynamic
changes in microbial communities and metabolism in ileum and feces, with ileal
microbiota being more prone to shift than fecal microbiota.

DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8774-2 
PMID: 29362824 


212. J Proteome Res. 2018 Mar 2;17(3):1041-1053. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00683.
Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Metabolic Fate of 13C-Labeled Polydextrose and Impact on the Gut Microbiome: A
Triple-Phase Study in a Colon Simulator.

Lamichhane S(1)(2), Yde CC(1)(3), Jensen HM(3), Morovic W(4), Hibberd AA(4),
Ouwehand AC(5), Saarinen MT(5), Forssten SD(5), Wiebe L(6), Marcussen J(3),
Bertelsen K(3)(7), Meier S(8), Young JF(1), Bertram HC(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science, Aarhus University , Kirstinebjergvej 10, 5792
Aarslev and Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.
(2)Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University
, Turku 20520, Finland.
(3)DuPont Nutrition Biosciences ApS , Edwin Rahrs Vej 38, 8220 Brabrand, Denmark.
(4)DuPont Nutrition and Health , 3329 Agriculture Drive, Madison, Wisconsin
53716, United States.
(5)Dupont Nutrition and Health , Sokeritehtaantie 20, 02460 Kantvik, Finland.
(6)DuPont Nutrition Biosciences ApS , Tårnvej 25, 7200 Grindsted, Denmark.
(7)Vestas Wind Systems A/S , Hedeager 42, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.
(8)Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark , Kemitorvet,
Building 207, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

The present study introduces a novel triple-phase (liquids, solids, and gases)
approach, which employed uniformly labeled [U-13C] polydextrose (PDX) for the
selective profiling of metabolites generated from dietary fiber fermentation in
an in vitro colon simulator using human fecal inocula. Employing 13C NMR
spectroscopy, [U-13C] PDX metabolism was observed from colonic digest samples.
The major 13C-labeled metabolites generated were acetate, butyrate, propionate,
and valerate. In addition to these short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 13C-labeled
lactate, formate, succinate, and ethanol were detected in the colon simulator
samples. Metabolite formation and PDX substrate degradation were examined
comprehensively over time (24 and 48 h). Correlation analysis between 13C NMR
spectra and gas production confirmed the anaerobic fermentation of PDX to SCFAs. 
In addition, 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the level of Erysipelotrichaceae 
was influenced by PDX supplementation and Erysipelotrichaceae level was
statistically correlated with SCFA formation. Overall, our study demonstrates a
novel approach to link substrate fermentation and microbial function directly in 
a simulated colonic environment.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00683 
PMID: 29359944 


213. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018 Mar;48(3). doi: 10.1111/eci.12893. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

The effects of fish oil on gene expression in patients with polycystic ovary
syndrome.

Rahmani E(1), Jamilian M(2), Dadpour B(3), Nezami Z(2), Vahedpoor Z(4), Mahmoodi 
S(4), Aghadavod E(5), Taghizadeh M(5), Beiki Hassan A(6), Asemi Z(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Bushehr
University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
(2)Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Gynecology and
Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
(3)Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical
Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
(4)Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kashan University
of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
(5)Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan
University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
(6)Barij Medicinal Plants Research Center, Kashan, Iran.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the effects of fish oil
administration on gene expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in
women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
was conducted among 40 subjects with PCOS, aged 18-40 years. Subjects were
randomly allocated into two groups to take either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids
from fish oil (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) twice a day for 12 weeks. Gene
expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation was quantified in
peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PCOS women with RT-PCR method.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that after the 12-week intervention, compared
with the placebo, fish oil supplementation upregulated gene expression of
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P < .001) in PBMC of
subjects with PCOS. In addition, compared to the placebo, taking fish oil
supplements downregulated gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P = .02) and
interleukin-8 (IL-8) (P = .01) in PBMC of subjects with PCOS. We did not observe 
any significant effect of fish oil supplementation on gene expression of
lipoprotein(a) [LP(a)], low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), glucose
transporter 1 (GLUT-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming
growth factor beta (TGF-β) in PBMC of subjects with PCOS.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks to subjects with PCOS
significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1 and IL-8, but did not
influence gene expression of LP(a), LDLR, GLUT-1, TNF-α and TGF-β.

© 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

DOI: 10.1111/eci.12893 
PMID: 29359480 


214. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 28;66(8):1800-1806. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04509.
Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

Poirier BC(1), Buchanan DA(1), Rudell DR(1), Mattheis JP(1).

Author information: 
(1)Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS , Wenatchee, Washington 98801, United
States.

Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have
outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes
in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of
superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest
applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have 
generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study,
we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel
epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in
peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified
several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All
free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of
β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and 
uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the 
dewaxed peel epidermis.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04509 
PMID: 29356521 


215. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):617-623. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14049. Epub 2018 Jan
22.

Characterization of a New α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Oil: Eucommia ulmoides Seed Oil.

Zhang ZS(1), Liu YL(1), Che LM(2).

Author information: 
(1)Coll. of Food Science and Technology, Henan Univ. of Technology, NO.100,
Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 45001, P. R. China.
(2)Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Xiamen Univ., No.422, Siming
South Road, Xiamen 361005, P. R. China.

Eucommia ulmoides seed oil is the main byproduct of E. ulmoides cultivation. To
better understand its functions, E. ulmoides seed oil is characterized
comprehensively in this work. The composition of E. ulmoides seed,
physicochemical properties, thermal properties, fatty acid composition,
triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and Vitamin E composition of E. ulmoides seed
oil were determined. The results show that the E. ulmoides seed contained about
34.63% oil. The excellent physicochemical properties of E. ulmoides seed oil
ensured it has a potential to be developed as an edible oil. The main fatty acids
in E. ulmoides seed oil were linolenic acid (61.36%), oleic acid (17.02%), and
linoleic acid (12.04%). HPLC-ELSD method determined that LnLnLn (37.99%), LnLnO
(22.62%), LnLnL (14.5%), and LnLnP (8.78%) were the oil's major TAG components.
The oil exhibited a unique thermal curve which contained 2 melting peaks at
-38.45 and -22.22 °C, respectively. The total content of vitamin E in E. ulmoides
seed oil was 190.96 mg/100g, which exist mainly in γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol 
isomer. Overall, the results indicated that E. ulmoides seed oil is a promising
oil in food, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other nonfood industries.

© 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14049 
PMID: 29355957 


216. J Food Sci. 2018 Mar;83(3):822-830. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14055. Epub 2018 Jan
22.

Effects of Storage Conditions on Consumer and Chemical Assessments of Raw
'Nonpareil' Almonds Over a Two-Year Period.

Pleasance EA(1), Kerr WL(2), Pegg RB(2), Swanson RB(1), Cheely AN(1), Huang G(3),
Parrish DR(2), Kerrihard AL(4).

Author information: 
(1)Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, The
Univ. of Georgia, 305 Sanford Drive, Athens, GA, 30602, U.S.A.
(2)Dept. of Food Science & Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental 
Sciences, The Univ. of Georgia, 100 Cedar St., Athens, GA, 30602, U.S.A.
(3)Almond Board of California, 1150 Ninth St., Suite, 1500, Modesto, CA, 95354,
U.S.A.
(4)Dept. of Nutrition and Food Studies, College of Education and Human Services, 
Montclair State Univ., 1 Normal Ave., Montclair, NJ, 07043, U.S.A.

Raw almonds are a major commodity, yet much is unknown about how storage
conditions determine their shelf life. The storage stability, as measured by
consumer assessments and chemical measures, of raw almonds was determined for
samples stored in cardboard boxes and polypropylene packaging for 2 years at 4,
15, 25, and 35 °C, and at 50% and 65% relative humidity (RH). Samples stored in
unlined cartons always failed (>25% rejection) before their counterparts stored
in polypropylene bags under identical environmental conditions. Models determined
that polypropylene packaging (as opposed to unlined cardboard cartons) extended
the time until sample rejection by more than 7 months. Temperature and RH were
both negatively associated with storage time until failure. Flavor was a greater 
contributor to consumer acceptability than texture or odor, while peroxide values
and free fatty acids were of greater importance in predicting raw almond consumer
quality than measures of conjugated dienes or 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive
substances.PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study will allow almond
producers to determine packaging types and environmental storage conditions that 
provide shelf life of a specified time.

© 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14055 
PMID: 29355948 


217. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2018 Mar;70(3):404-412. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12871. Epub 2018 Jan
22.

Antigastritis effects of Armillariella tabescens (Scop.) Sing. and the
identification of its anti-inflammatory metabolites.

Lee S(1), Lee D(1)(2), Park JY(2), Seok S(3), Jang TS(4), Park HB(5), Shim SH(6),
Kang KS(2), Kim KH(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea.
(2)College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam, Korea.
(3)Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Institute of Agricultural
Sciences, RDA, Iseo-myeon, , Wanju-gun, , Jeollabuk-do, Korea.
(4)Institute of Green Bio Science & Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeong
Chang, Korea.
(5)Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
(6)College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Dobong-gu, Seoul, Korea.

OBJECTIVES: This study demonstrates the biological and chemical analysis of the
mushroom Armillariella tabescens (Scop.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae).
METHODS: Chemical structures of the isolates were determined by 1D and 2D NMR,
and ESI-MS, as well as comparison with previously reported data. All isolates
were tested for anti-inflammatory effects based on their ability to inhibit
LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells.
KEY FINDINGS: We found that the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of A.
tabescens showed antigastritis activity against ethanol-induced gastric damage in
rats and notably reduced the gastric damage index compared to control in a
concentration-dependent manner. Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract led to
the isolation of four steroids (1-4), three alkaloids (5-7), two nucleic acids
(8-9) and four fatty acids (10-13). This is the first study to report the
identification of all isolates, except for compound 7, from A. tabescens.
Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 showed inhibition on LPS-stimulated NO production.
Treatment with compound 10 inhibited expression of iNOS, COX-2, phospho-IKKα,
IKKα, phospho-IκBα, IκBα and NF-kappa B in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Compound 10 likely contributes to the health benefits of A.
tabescens as an antigastritis agent through its anti-inflammatory effects.

© 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12871 
PMID: 29355943 


218. J Lipid Res. 2018 Mar;59(3):542-549. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M083030. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Altered eicosanoid production and phospholipid remodeling during cell culture.

Okuno T(1), Gijón MA(2), Zarini S(2), Martin SA(2), Barkley RM(2), Johnson CA(2),
Ohba M(1), Yokomizo T(1), Murphy RC(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.
(2)Department of Pharmacology, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado
Denver, Aurora, CO 80045.
(3)Department of Pharmacology, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado
Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 Robert.Murphy@ucdenver.edu.

The remodeling of PUFAs by the Lands cycle is responsible for the diversity of
phospholipid molecular species found in cells. There have not been detailed
studies of the alteration of phospholipid molecular species as a result of serum 
starvation or depletion of PUFAs that typically occurs during tissue culture. The
time-dependent effect of cell culture on phospholipid molecular species in RAW
264.7 cells cultured for 24, 48, or 72 h was examined by lipidomic strategies.
These cells were then stimulated to produce arachidonate metabolites derived from
the cyclooxygenase pathway, thromboxane B2, PGE2, and PGD2, and the
5-lipoxygenase pathway, leukotriene (LT)B4, LTC4, and 5-HETE, which decreased
with increasing time in culture. However, the 5-lipoxygenase metabolites of a
20:3 fatty acid, LTB3, all trans-LTB3, LTC3, and 5-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid,
time-dependently increased. Molecular species of arachidonate containing
phospholipids were drastically remodeled during cell culture, with a new 20:3
acyl group being populated into phospholipids to replace increasingly scarce
arachidonate. In addition, the amount of TNFα induced by lipopolysaccharide
stimulation was significantly increased in the cells cultured for 72 h compared
with 24 h, suggesting that the remodeling of PUFAs enhanced inflammatory
response. These studies supported the rapid operation of the Lands cycle to
maintain cell growth and viability by populating PUFA species; however, without
sufficient n-6 fatty acids, 20:3 n-9 accumulated, resulting in altered lipid
mediator biosynthesis and inflammatory response.

Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 
Inc.

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M083030 
PMCID: PMC5832926 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29353239 


219. Carbohydr Polym. 2018 Mar 1;183:230-239. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.12.048. Epub
2017 Dec 19.

Structural characterization and in vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide
from Sargassum thunbergii and its impact on gut microbiota.

Fu X(1), Cao C(2), Ren B(2), Zhang B(2), Huang Q(2), Li C(3).

Author information: 
(1)School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 
381Wushan Road, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green
Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, Guangzhou, China.
(2)School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 
381Wushan Road, Guangzhou, China.
(3)School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 
381Wushan Road, Guangzhou, China; Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for
Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), Guangzhou,
China. Electronic address: felichao@scut.edu.cn.

The aim of the present study was to investigate structural characteristic and in 
vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide named ST-P2 from Sargassum
thunbergii by human fecal inoculums, and its impact on human colonic microbiota. 
The results showed that ST-P2 was homogeneous with molecular weight of 48,788 Da,
and consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose. The main
linkage types were identified as (1 → 5)-α-L-Araf, (1 → 3)-α-L-Manp,
(1 → 3,6)-β-D-Galp, (1 → 6)-α-D-Glcp, and (1 → 3)-β-D-Xylp, respectively. After
48 h fermentation, 67.83 ± 1.15% of total carbohydrate was utilized by colonic
microbiota. The pH value in the fecal culture significantly decreased from
6.09 ± 0.11 to 4.70 ± 0.04. The concentrations of total short chain fatty acids, 
acetic, propionic, n-butyric and n-valeric acids significantly increased compared
to the blank. ST-P2 could remarkably modulate the composition and abundance of
beneficial microbiota. These results suggest that ST-P2 could potentially be a
functional food aimed at promoting the gut health.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.12.048 
PMID: 29352879 


220. Benef Microbes. 2018 Feb 27;9(2):199-208. doi: 10.3920/BM2017.0072. Epub 2018 Jan
18.

The impact of probiotics and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on
intestinal permeability in pregnancy: a randomised clinical trial.

Mokkala K(1), Pussinen P(2), Houttu N(1), Koivuniemi E(1)(3), Vahlberg T(4),
Laitinen K(1).

Author information: 
(1)1 Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
(2)2 Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and University
Hospital of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
(3)3 Turku University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 20014
Turku, Finland.
(4)4 Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and
Turku University Hospital, 20014 Turku, Finland.

A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to
metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We
investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin
concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is 
reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised
double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary
probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in 
lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity. The probiotic supplement
was a combination of two bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 and
Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. This study included 200 overweight pregnant women 
participating in an on-going study; participants were randomised to consume
either (1) probiotics, (2) LC-PUFA, (3) probiotics and LC-PUFA, or (4) placebo
for each supplement. Blood samples were obtained at early, the baseline, and late
pregnancy (mean 14 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). Serum zonulin
concentration increased from early (mean (standard deviation): 62.7 (12.9) ng/ml)
to late pregnancy by 5.3 (95%CI 3.7-6.9) ng/ml, and LPS activity increased from
(0.16 (0.04) EU/ml) by 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.05) EU/ml. No differences among the
intervention groups were detected in the change from early to late pregnancy in
serum zonulin concentration (P=0.8) or LPS activity (P=0.2). The change in serum 
zonulin concentration during the pregnancy was associated with the weeks of
follow up (r=0.25, P<0.001). Serum LPS activity was correlated with higher
maternal weight gain (r=0.19, P=0.008). As a conclusion, intestinal permeability 
increased with the progression of pregnancy in overweight and obese women and was
reflected in LPS activity. No efficacy of supplementation with probiotics and/or 
LC-PUFA was demonstrated in pregnancy-induced changes in serum zonulin
concentration or LPS activity.

DOI: 10.3920/BM2017.0072 
PMID: 29345158 


221. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 Mar 7;140(9):3285-3291. doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b12045. Epub 2018 
Feb 26.

Membrane Allostery and Unique Hydrophobic Sites Promote Enzyme Substrate
Specificity.

Mouchlis VD(1), Chen Y(1), McCammon JA(1), Dennis EA(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Pharmacology,
School of Medicine , University of California , San Diego, La Jolla , California 
92093-0601 , United States.

We demonstrate that lipidomics coupled with molecular dynamics reveal unique
phospholipase A2 specificity toward membrane phospholipid substrates. We
discovered unexpected headgroup and acyl-chain specificity for three major human 
phospholipases A2. The differences between each enzyme's specificity, coupled
with molecular dynamics-based structural and binding studies, revealed unique
binding sites and interfacial surface binding moieties for each enzyme that
explain the observed specificity at a hitherto inaccessible structural level.
Surprisingly, we discovered that a unique hydrophobic binding site for the
cleaved fatty acid dominates each enzyme's specificity rather than its catalytic 
residues and polar headgroup binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations
revealed the optimal phospholipid binding mode leading to a detailed
understanding of the preference of cytosolic phospholipase A2 for cleavage of
proinflammatory arachidonic acid, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, which is 
involved in membrane remodeling for cleavage of linoleic acid and for
antibacterial secreted phospholipase A2 favoring linoleic acid, saturated fatty
acids, and phosphatidylglycerol.

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b12045 
PMID: 29342349 


222. J Endocrinol. 2018 Mar;236(3):137-150. doi: 10.1530/JOE-17-0580. Epub 2018 Jan
16.

Cholecystokinin is involved in triglyceride fatty acid uptake by rat adipose
tissue.

Plaza A(1), Merino B(1), Cano V(1), Domínguez G(2), Pérez-Castells J(2), Soledad 
Fernández-Alfonso M(3), Sengenès C(4), Chowen JA(5), Ruiz-Gayo M(6).

Author information: 
(1)Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la SaludFacultad de Farmacia,
Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Madrid, Spain.
(2)Departamento de Química y BioquímicaFacultad de Farmacia, Universidad San
Pablo-CEU, Madrid, Spain.
(3)Departamento de FarmacologíaInstituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad
Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
(4)STROMALabUniversité de Toulouse, CNRS ERL5311, EFS, INP-ENVT, Inserm U1031,
UPS, Toulouse, France.
(5)Departamento de EndocrinologíaHospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús,
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa, CIBEROBN Instituto Carlos III,
Madrid, Spain ruigayo@ceu.es julieann.chowen@salud.madrid.org.
(6)Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la SaludFacultad de Farmacia,
Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Madrid, Spain ruigayo@ceu.es
julieann.chowen@salud.madrid.org.

The incorporation of plasma triglyceride (TG) fatty acids to white adipose tissue
(WAT) depends on lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is regulated by
angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL-4), an unfolding molecular chaperone that
converts active LPL dimers into inactive monomers. The production of ANGPTL-4 is 
promoted by fasting and repressed by feeding. We hypothesized that the
postprandial hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) facilitates the storage of dietary TG 
fatty acids in WAT by regulating the activity of the LPL/ANGPTL-4 axis and that
it does so by acting directly on CCK receptors in adipocytes. We report that
administration of CCK-8 (a bioactive fragment of CCK) to rats: (i) reduces plasma
ANGTPL-4 levels; (ii) represses Angptl-4 expression in WAT and (iii)
simultaneously enhances LPL activity in this tissue without inducing Lpl
expression. In vivo CCK-8 effects are specifically antagonized by the CCK-2
receptor (CCK-2R) antagonist, L-365,260. Moreover, CCK-8 downregulates Angptl-4
expression in wild-type pre-adipocytes, an effect that is not observed in
engineered pre-adipocytes lacking CCK-2R. These effects have functional
consequences as CCK-8 was found to promote the uptake of dietary fatty acids by
WAT, as demonstrated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The 
efficacy of acute CCK-8 administration was not reduced after chronic CCK-8
treatment. Moreover, the effects of CCK-8 on WAT were not associated to the
increase of circulating insulin. Our results show that cholecystokinin promotes
lipid storage in WAT by acting on adipocyte CCK-2R, suggesting a pivotal role for
CCK in TG homeostasis.

© 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

DOI: 10.1530/JOE-17-0580 
PMID: 29339381 


223. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Mar;261:307-311. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.038. Epub
2017 Dec 15.

Omega-3 supplements reduce self-reported physical aggression in healthy adults.

Bègue L(1), Zaalberg A(2), Shankland R(3), Duke A(3), Jacquet J(3), Kaliman P(4),
Pennel L(5), Chanove M(6), Arvers P(3), Bushman BJ(7).

Author information: 
(1)LIP/PC2S, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.. Electronic address:
Laurent.Begue@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr.
(2)Ministry of Security and Justice, Crime, Law Enforcement and Sanctions
Research Division (CRS), The Hague, The Netherlands.
(3)LIP/PC2S, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
(4)Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, United States.
(5)University Hospital, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
(6)MSH Alpes, CNRS/University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
(7)School of Communication and Department of Psychology, The Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

There is emerging evidence that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
supplements can decrease aggression. However, experimental studies with adults
from non-specific populations are scarce. We hypothesized that Omega-3
supplements would decrease self-reported aggression among non-clinical
participants. In a double-blind randomized trial, two groups of participants (N =
194) aged 18-45 from the general population followed a 6-weeks treatment with
638mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 772mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) per day or
the equivalent quantity of copra oil (placebo). Self-reported aggressiveness was 
measured at baseline and after the 6-week treatment period. Findings showed that 
Omega-3 supplements significantly decreased self-reported aggressiveness at the
end of the 6-week period (d = 0.31). In conclusion, this experiment indicates
that Omega-3 administration has beneficial effects in reducing aggression among
the general population.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.038 
PMID: 29331711 


224. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2335-2349. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13565. Epub 2018
Jan 10.

High-grain diets supplemented with phytogenic compounds or autolyzed yeast
modulate ruminal bacterial community and fermentation in dry cows.

Neubauer V(1), Petri R(2), Humer E(2), Kröger I(2), Mann E(3), Reisinger N(4),
Wagner M(3), Zebeli Q(5).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, and Food
Science, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of 
Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria; Institute for Milk 
Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science, Department for Farm Animals and
Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1,
1210 Vienna, Austria.
(2)Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, and Food
Science, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of 
Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
(3)Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science, Department for
Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine,
Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
(4)BIOMIN Research Center, BIOMIN Holding GmbH, 3430 Tulln, Austria.
(5)Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, and Food
Science, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of 
Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
qendrim.zebeli@vetmeduni.ac.at.

The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and
dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine
the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY)
on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed
concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4
Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows.
The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not
supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY. Each of the 4 consecutive
experimental periods was composed of a 1-wk roughage-only diet (RD), 6-d gradual 
concentrate increase, followed by 1 wk of 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc
I), and 1 wk of RD and a final 2-wk 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc II)
phase. Digesta samples were collected from the rumen mat for bacterial 16S rRNA
gene Illumina MiSeq (Illumina, Balgach, Switzerland) sequencing, and samples of
particle-associated rumen liquid were obtained for measuring short-chain fatty
acids, lactate, ammonia, and pH during RD (d 6), Conc I (d 19), and Conc II (d
39). The concentrate feeding caused a decrease of overall bacterial diversity
indices, especially during Conc I. The genera Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, and
Coprococcus were decreased, whereas Prevotella, Megasphaera, Lachnospira, and
Bacteroides were increased in abundance. Supplementation of both feed additives
increased the abundance of gram-positive and decreased that of gram-negative
bacteria. Supplementation of AY enhanced cellulolytic bacteria such as
Ruminococcus spp., whereas PHY decreased starch and sugar fermenters including
Bacteroides spp., Shuttleworthia spp., and Syntrophococcus spp. Moreover, PHY
supplementation increased butyrate percentage in the rumen in both concentrate
phases. In conclusion, intermittent high-concentrate feeding altered the
digesta-associated rumen bacterial community and rumen fermentation with more
significant alterations found in Conc I than in Conc II. The data also showed
that both feed additives had the most significant modulatory effects on the
bacterial community, and their subsequent fermentation, during periods of low pH.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13565 
PMID: 29331466 


225. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2248-2259. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13479. Epub 2018
Jan 10.

Somatic cell count-based selection reduces susceptibility to energy shortage
during early lactation in a sheep model.

Bouvier-Muller J(1), Allain C(2), Enjalbert F(2), Farizon Y(2), Portes D(3),
Foucras G(4), Rupp R(5).

Author information: 
(1)GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT, Castanet Tolosan, F-31326,
France; Interactions Hôtes-Agents Pathogènes (IHAP), Université de Toulouse,
ENVT, Toulouse, F-131076, France.
(2)GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT, Castanet Tolosan, F-31326,
France.
(3)Domaine de La Fage, INRA, Roquefort sur Soulzon, F-12250, France.
(4)Interactions Hôtes-Agents Pathogènes (IHAP), Université de Toulouse, ENVT,
Toulouse, F-131076, France.
(5)GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT, Castanet Tolosan, F-31326,
France. Electronic address: rachel.rupp@toulouse.inra.fr.

During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience
a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility
to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected 
for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the
response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight
early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were
allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups-an NEB group, which was energy restricted
and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group-to 
obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS
positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB. High-SCS ewes showed
greater weight loss and increased plasmatic concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate
and nonesterified fatty acids than low-SCS ewes when confronted with an induced
NEB. The aim of this study was to further characterize this interaction by
combining transcriptomic and phenotypic data with a generalized partial least
squares discriminant analysis using mixOmics package framework. A preliminary
analysis using 3 blocks of phenotypes (fatty acids, weight and production, blood 
metabolites) revealed a high correlation between fat-to-protein ratio,
β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations with milk
long-chain fatty acid yields. These phenotypes allowed good discrimination of the
energy-restricted high-SCS ewes and confirmed a high level of adipose tissue
mobilization in this group. A second analysis, which included RNA-seq data,
revealed high correlations between the long-chain fatty acid yields in milk and
PDK4, CPT1A, SLC25A20, KLF10, and KLF11 expression, highlighting the relationship
between mobilization of body reserves and enhanced fatty acids utilization for
energy production in blood cells. Finally, analysis of milk composition measured 
in 1,025 ewes from the 2 genetic lines over 10 yr confirmed significant higher
fat-to-protein ratio in high-SCS ewes in early lactation. Altogether, our results
strongly confirmed a genetic link between susceptibility to mastitis and
metabolic adaptation to energy shortage. Improving genetic resistance to mastitis
using SCS should be accompanied by a favorable effect on the response to
metabolic stress, especially in highly stressful early lactation. Moreover, this 
study suggests that the fat-to-protein ratio could be used as a low-cost tool for
monitoring energy balance and ketosis during this critical phase of lactation.

The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American
Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13479 
PMID: 29331464 


226. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Mar;261:243-247. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.028. Epub
2017 Dec 12.

Assessment of the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic and inflammatory
parameters in patients with schizophrenia taking clozapine and sodium valproate.

Behdani F(1), Roudbaraki SN(2), Saberi-Karimian M(3), Tayefi M(4), Hebrani P(1), 
Akhavanrezayat A(5), Amlashi SV(6), Ferns GA(7), Ghayour-Mobarhan M(8).

Author information: 
(1)Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Ibn-e-Sina Hospital,
Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(2)Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Ibn-e-Sina Hospital,
Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;
Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad,
Iran.
(3)Student Research Committee, Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies,
School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(4)Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(5)Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical 
Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(6)Department of Dermatology, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical
Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(7)Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Falmer,
Brighton, Sussex BN1 9PH, UK.
(8)Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of 
Medical Sciences, Mashhad 99199-91766, Iran. Electronic address:
ghayourm@mums.ac.ir.

Omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation has been reported to improve several
cardio-metabolic risk factors. We aimed to assess the efficacy of omega-3 fatty
acids on metabolic and inflammatory indices in patients with schizophrenia who
were taking clozapine and sodium valproate. All patients were on a stable dose of
300-400mg of clozapine for 3 months. Subjects were randomized to treatment with
either omega-3 fatty acid (4gr/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. Height, weight,
abdominal circumference, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and
serum high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were determined at baseline
and after 8 weeks of treatment. Fifty six subjects were recruited into the study.
Patients with schizophrenia who were in the group receiving omega-3 FA capsules
had an improvement in some anthropometric indices including weight, BMI, wrist
and waist circumference, compared to the placebo group. Only changes in waist
circumferences remained significantly different after adjustment for serum fasted
TG. Our results showed omega-3 FA supplementation can improve some anthropometric
indices in patients with schizophrenia who are taking clozapine pharmacotherapy.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.028 
PMID: 29329042 


227. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018 Mar;38(3):653-659. doi:
10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310366. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Plasma n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids Are Differentially Related to Carotid Plaque and
Its Progression: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Steffen BT(1), Guan W(1), Stein JH(1), Tattersall MC(1), Kaufman JD(1), Sandfort 
V(1), Szklo M(1), Tsai MY(2).

Author information: 
(1)From the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis (B.T.S., M.Y.T.); Division of Biostatistics, University of
Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis (W.G.); Division of Cardiovascular
Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison (J.H.S.,
M.C.T.); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of
Washington, Seattle (J.D.K.); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences,
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (V.S.); and
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
Baltimore, MD (M.S.).
(2)From the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis (B.T.S., M.Y.T.); Division of Biostatistics, University of
Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis (W.G.); Division of Cardiovascular
Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison (J.H.S.,
M.C.T.); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of
Washington, Seattle (J.D.K.); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences,
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (V.S.); and
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
Baltimore, MD (M.S.). tsaix001@umn.edu.

OBJECTIVE: ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) have long been considered healthful
dietary components, yet recent clinical trials have questioned their
cardiovascular benefits. By contrast, the ω-6 (n-6) FAs have been considered
harmful, proatherogenic macronutrients, despite an absence of empirical evidence 
supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether plasma n-3 and n-6 FAs 
are related to risk of carotid plaque and its progression in 3327 participants of
MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
APPROACH AND RESULTS: Carotid plaque was assessed using ultrasonography at
baseline and after a median period of 9.5 years. Plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 
FAs were determined using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Relative
risk regression analyses assessed the relations of FAs with the presence or
progression of carotid plaque adjusted for typical cardiovascular disease risk
factors. At baseline, it was found that participants in the fourth quartile of
n-3 docosahexaenoic acid showed a 9% lower risk of carotid plaque (P=0.05),
whereas those in the second quartile of n-3 α-linolenic acid showed an 11%
greater risk compared with respective referent quartiles (P=0.02). In prospective
analyses, individuals in the top quartile of docosahexaenoic acid showed a 12%
lower risk of carotid plaque progression during 9.5 years compared with those in 
the referent quartile (P=0.002). No significant relations were observed among n-6
FAs and plaque outcomes. No significant race/ethnicity interactions were found.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support docosahexaenoic acid as an atheroprotective
macronutrient, whereas null findings for n-6 FAs challenge the view that they
promote atherosclerosis.

© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310366 
PMCID: PMC5823763 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29326315 


228. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 2;293(9):3028-3038. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.802058. Epub 2018
Jan 11.

Dual cyclooxygenase-fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor exploits novel binding
interactions in the cyclooxygenase active site.

Goodman MC(1), Xu S(1), Rouzer CA(1), Banerjee S(2), Ghebreselasie K(1), Migliore
M(3), Piomelli D(3)(4), Marnett LJ(5).

Author information: 
(1)From the A. B. Hancock, Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research,
Departments of Biochemistry, Chemistry, and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Institute of
Chemical Biology and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer
Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.
(2)the Northeastern Collaborative Access Team, Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, Illinois 60439.
(3)the Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Istituto Italiano di
Tecnologia, 16163 Genoa, Italy.
(4)the Departments of Anatomy, Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Biological
Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, and.
(5)From the A. B. Hancock, Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research,
Departments of Biochemistry, Chemistry, and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Institute of
Chemical Biology and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer
Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232,
larry.marnett@vanderbilt.edu.

The cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 oxygenate arachidonic acid (AA) to
prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). COX-2 also oxygenates the endocannabinoids
2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) to the
corresponding PGH2 analogs. Both enzymes are targets of nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but NSAID-mediated COX inhibition is associated
with gastrointestinal toxicity. One potential strategy to counter this toxicity
is to also inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyzes bioactive 
fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) into fatty acids and ethanolamine. Here, we
investigated the mechanism of COX inhibition by ARN2508, an NSAID that inhibits
both COXs and FAAH with high potency, target selectivity, and decreased
gastrointestinal toxicity in mouse models, presumably due to its ability to
increase levels of FAEs. A 2.27-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the
COX-2·(S)-ARN2508 complex reveals that ARN2508 adopts a binding pose similar to
that of its parent NSAID flurbiprofen. However, ARN2508's alkyl tail is inserted 
deep into the top channel, an active site region not exploited by any previously 
reported NSAID. As for flurbiprofen, ARN2508's potency is highly dependent on the
configuration of the α-methyl group. Thus, (S)-ARN2508 is more potent than
(R)-ARN2508 for inhibition of AA oxygenation by both COXs and 2-AG oxygenation by
COX-2. Also, similarly to (R)-flurbiprofen, (R)-ARN2508 exhibits substrate
selectivity for inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation. Site-directed mutagenesis
confirms the importance of insertion of the alkyl tail into the top channel for
(S)-ARN2508's potency and suggests a role for Ser-530 as a determinant of the
inhibitor's slow rate of inhibition compared with that of (S)-flurbiprofen.

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.802058 
PMID: 29326169 


229. Plant J. 2018 Mar;93(5):931-942. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13820. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Differential induction of polar and non-polar metabolism during wound-induced
suberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

Woolfson KN(1), Haggitt ML(1), Zhang Y(1), Kachura A(1), Bjelica A(1), Rey Rincon
MA(1), Kaberi KM(1), Bernards MA(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology and the Biotron, The University of Western Ontario,
London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada.

Wound-induced suberin deposition involves the temporal and spatial coordination
of phenolic and fatty acid metabolism. Phenolic metabolism leads to both soluble 
metabolites that accumulate as defense compounds as well as hydroxycinnamoyl
derivatives that form the basis of the poly(phenolic) domain found in suberized
tissue. Fatty acid metabolism involves the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty 
acids, 1-alkanols, ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids that form a
poly(aliphatic) domain, commonly referred to as suberin. Using the abscisic acid 
(ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone (FD), we reduced wound-induced de novo
biosynthesis of ABA in potato tubers, and measured the impact on the expression
of genes involved in phenolic metabolism (StPAL1, StC4H, StCCR, StTHT), aliphatic
metabolism (StCYP86A33, StCYP86B12, StFAR3, StKCS6), metabolism linking phenolics
and aliphatics (StFHT) or acyl chains and glycerol (StGPAT5, StGPAT6), and in the
delivery of aliphatic monomers to the site of suberization (StABCG1). In
FD-treated tissue, both aliphatic gene expression and accumulation of aliphatic
suberin monomers were delayed. Exogenous ABA restored normal aliphatic suberin
deposition in FD-treated tissue, and enhanced aliphatic gene expression and
poly(aliphatic) domain deposition when applied alone. By contrast, phenolic
metabolism genes were not affected by FD treatment, while FD + ABA and ABA
treatments slightly enhanced the accumulation of polar metabolites. These data
support a role for ABA in the differential induction of phenolic and aliphatic
metabolism during wound-induced suberization in potato.

© 2018 The Authors.The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and
Society for Experimental Biology.

DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13820 
PMID: 29315972 


230. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018 Mar;17(3):225-233. doi: 10.1080/14740338.2018.1424828.
Epub 2018 Jan 23.

The role of Iloprost on bone edema and osteonecrosis: Safety and clinical
results.

Pountos I(1), Giannoudis PV(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Academic Department of Trauma & Orthopaedics, School of Medicine ,
University of Leeds , Leeds , United Kingdom.

INTRODUCTION: Iloprost is a commercially available prostaglandin I2 (PGI2)
analogue that is shown to have antithrombotic, vasodilatative and
antiproliferative effects. A number of clinical studies have shown that Iloprost 
can be effective in the management of bone marrow oedema and the treatment of
avascular necrosis. The aim of this manuscript is to present our current
understanding on the effect of Iloprost on the treatment of these conditions.
Areas covered: The authors offer a comprehensive review of the existing
literature on the experimental and clinical studies analysing the effect of
Iloprost on bone, bone marrow oedema and avascular necrosis. Expert opinion: The 
available data from the clinical studies suggest that Iloprost has limited effect
in advanced stages of avascular necrosis. However, literature suggests that
Iloprost administration can be a viable option in the management of bone marrow
oedema and early stages of osteonecrosis. Despite these promising results its
effect on bone homeostasis needs further elucidation. Moreover, further data on
its safety, dosage and efficiency through randomized multicenter studies are
desirable in order to reach final conclusions.

DOI: 10.1080/14740338.2018.1424828 
PMID: 29315006  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


231. J Basic Microbiol. 2018 Mar;58(3):247-254. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201700276. Epub 2018
Jan 4.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production in bacterial co-culture using glucose and 
volatile fatty acids as carbon source.

Munir S(1)(2), Jamil N(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan.
(2)Department of Zoology, University of Lahore, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Mixed bacterial cultures are increasingly being used in the production of
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as they have the potential to be more cost
effective than axenic pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to use pure
cultures in combination to identify their potential of PHA production. In this
work we used volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and glucose as carbon source to check
the ability of selected strains ST2 (Pseudomonas sp.) and CS8 (Bacillus sp.) as
co-culture. The production of PHA in pure co-cultures of bacteria was therefore
investigated in order to understand the effect of combining cultures on PHA
production parameters and material properties. Bacteria could use the feed in
better way when mixed as compared to individual strain. In undertaking this
analysis, model volatile fatty acids (i.e., acetic and propionic acids) were used
alone and in combination with glucose as feedstock. The production by Pseudomonas
was 34% while 24% by Bacillus. However when combined and mixed feed
(glucose + propionic acid) was used, 35% PHA produced. Overall, it was found that
the ability of the pure cultures to produce PHA was low but when selected
cultures were mixed, their ability to produce PHA was enhanced. Copolymers were
obtained instead of homopolymers with improved properties. This suggests that
industrial wastewater rich in volatile fatty acids and carbohydrates can be a
good carbon source for PHA production with variable properties.

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201700276 
PMID: 29314110 


232. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2018 Mar;110:20-29. doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2017.12.003. 
Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Enhancement of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid glycerides in Sardine oil by a
bioimprinted cross-linked Candida rugosa lipase.

Sampath C(1), Belur PD(2), Iyyasami R(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology
Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar, Mangaluru 575 025, India.
(2)Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology
Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar, Mangaluru 575 025, India. Electronic
address: prsnbhat@gmail.com.

Considering the advantages of bioimprinting and carrier free immobilization,
cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) were prepared by using bioimprinted Candida
rugosa lipase (CRL) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Polyethyleneimine and
glutaraldehyde. Effect of various factors such as CRL-Oleic acid ratio, CRL-BSA
ratio, CRL- Polyethyleneimine ratio, glutaraldehyde loading, cross-linking time
etc., on lipase activity recovery and aggregate yield were studied and optimized.
This immobilized lipase (CRL-CLEA) was used for the selective hydrolysis of ester
linkages of non-PUFA glycerides, with an aim to concentrate EPA and DHA
glycerides in the Sardine oil. Imprinting with oleic acid in the presence of
ethanol and Tween 60, and further immobilization with co-aggregates and
cross-linking agent showed 10.4 times higher degree of hydrolysis compared to
free enzyme. As result, 2.83-fold increase of n-3 PUFA content in deacidified oil
was obtained by using CRL-CLEA. The resultant oil had negligible di- and
triglycerides content, proving higher efficiency in hydrolysing ester bonds of
fatty acids, other than n-3 PUFA. Reusability studies showed CRL-CLEA could be
reused up to 5 runs without a substantial reduction in its performance.
Improvement in degree of hydrolysis, thermostability, efficiency of hydrolysis
and reusability were achieved due to bioimprinting and subsequent immobilization 
of CRL in the form of CLEA.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2017.12.003 
PMID: 29310852 


233. Talanta. 2018 Mar 1;179:624-631. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.11.067. Epub 2017
Dec 22.

Silver nanoparticles as matrix for MALDI FTICR MS profiling and imaging of
diverse lipids in brain.

Guan M(1), Zhang Z(1), Li S(1), Liu J(2), Liu L(1), Yang H(1), Zhang Y(2), Wang
T(1), Zhao Z(3).

Author information: 
(1)Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Research/Education
Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical
Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing, China; Graduate School,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
(2)Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Research/Education
Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical
Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing, China.
(3)Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Research/Education
Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical
Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing, China; Graduate School,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
zhenwenzhao@iccas.ac.cn.

Owing to the diversity of lipids, profiling and imaging multiple classes of
lipids in one analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass
spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a great challenge. In this work,
polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was used as the
matrix for MALDI MSI for the first time to simultaneously analyze 10 classes of
lipids from the brain. This analysis included fatty acids and their derivatives, 
sterols, CPAs, LPA and PAs, LPE and PEs, LPC and PCs, PS, Cers, SMs, and MAGs and
DAGs, and other small metabolites. Owing to the abundant silver ions on the
surface of PVP-capped AgNPs, compounds with poor ionization efficiency such as
FAs and sterols can be detected. The PVP-capped AgNPs based MALDI MSI analysis of
mouse brain showed that lipid distributions in the substructures of the mouse
brain can be connected with their biological functions. The brain lipids in rats 
with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were also investigated. Most
unsaturated FAs, prostaglandins, CPAs, vitamin A, neuraminic acid,
5-OH-tryptophan and the K+ adducts of most phospholipids (PAs, LPE, PEs, PCs, PS)
and SMs were extremely down regulated in the ischemic region and saturated FA,
Cers, hexanoylcarnitine, stearaldehyde, the Na+ adduct of phospholipids (LPA,
PAs, LPE, PEs, LPC, PCs) and SMs were highly expressed in the damaged section.
These novel findings could be very significant for elucidating the disease
mechanism. MALDI MSI using PVP-capped AgNPs as a matrix can be a powerful tool in
histopathology and pathology studies.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.11.067 
PMID: 29310285 


234. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;252:127-133. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.099.
Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Influence of feedstock-to-inoculum ratio on performance and microbial community
succession during solid-state thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine
and rice straw.

Meng L(1), Xie L(1), Kinh CT(1), Suenaga T(1), Hori T(2), Riya S(3), Terada A(1),
Hosomi M(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and
Technology, 2-24-16 Naka, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.
(2)Environmental Management Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
305-8569, Japan.
(3)Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and
Technology, 2-24-16 Naka, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:
sriya@cc.tuat.ac.jp.

This study investigated the effect of the feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratio on
performance of the solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw
inoculated with a solid digestate, and clarified the microbial community
succession. A 44-day biochemical methane potential test at F/I ratios of 0.5, 1, 
2 and 3 at 55 °C and a 35-day large-scale batch test at F/I ratios of 0.5 and 3
at 55 °C were conducted to investigate the effects of F/I ratio on anaerobic
digestibility and analyze microbial community succession, respectively. The
highest cumulative methane yield was 353.7 m3/t VS in the large-scale batch test.
Volatile fatty acids did not accumulate at any F/I ratios. The volatile solids
reduction rate was highest at a F/I ratio of 0.5. Microbial community structures 
were similar between F/I ratios of 3 and 0.5, despite differences in digestion
performance, suggesting that stable operation can be achieved at these ratios.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.099 
PMID: 29310016 


235. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Mar;16(3):171-181. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.149. Epub
2018 Jan 8.

Microbial modulation of cardiovascular disease.

Brown JM(1), Hazen SL(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner
Research Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, NC-10, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Although diet has long been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of
cardiovascular disease (CVD), research over the past decade has revealed an
unexpected interplay between nutrient intake, gut microbial metabolism and the
host to modify the risk of developing CVD. Microbial-associated molecular
patterns are sensed by host pattern recognition receptors and have been suggested
to drive CVD pathogenesis. In addition, the host microbiota produces various
metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids and
secondary bile acids, that affect CVD pathogenesis. These recent advances support
the notion that targeting the interactions between the host and microorganisms
may hold promise for the prevention or treatment of CVD. In this Review, we
summarize our current knowledge of the gut microbial mechanisms that drive CVD,
with special emphasis on therapeutic interventions, and we highlight the need to 
establish causal links between microbial pathways and CVD pathogenesis.

DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.149 
PMID: 29307889 


236. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1863(3):323-338. doi:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.013. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Ablating both Fabp1 and Scp2/Scpx (TKO) induces hepatic phospholipid and
cholesterol accumulation in high fat-fed mice.

Milligan S(1), Martin GG(2), Landrock D(1), McIntosh AL(2), Mackie JT(1),
Schroeder F(2), Kier AB(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical
Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467, USA.
(2)Department of Physiology/Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine &
Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4466, USA.
(3)Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical
Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467, USA. Electronic
address: akier@cvm.tamu.edu.

Although singly ablating Fabp1 or Scp2/Scpx genes may exacerbate the impact of
high fat diet (HFD) on whole body phenotype and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
(NAFLD), concomitant upregulation of the non-ablated gene, preference for ad
libitum fed HFD, and sex differences complicate interpretation. Therefore, these 
issues were addressed in male and female mice ablated in both genes
(Fabp1/Scp2/Scpx null or TKO) and pair-fed HFD. Wild-type (WT) males gained more 
body weight as fat tissue mass (FTM) and exhibited higher hepatic lipid
accumulation than WT females. The greater hepatic lipid accumulation in WT males 
was associated with higher hepatic expression of enzymes in glyceride synthesis, 
higher hepatic bile acids, and upregulation of transporters involved in hepatic
reuptake of serum bile acids. While TKO had little effect on whole body phenotype
and hepatic bile acid accumulation in either sex, TKO increased hepatic
accumulation of lipids in both, specifically phospholipid and cholesteryl esters 
in males and females and free cholesterol in females. TKO-induced increases in
glycerides were attributed not only to complete loss of FABP1, SCP2 and SCPx, but
also in part to sex-dependent upregulation of hepatic lipogenic enzymes. These
data with WT and TKO mice pair-fed HFD indicate that: i) Sex significantly
impacted the ability of HFD to increase body weight, induce hepatic lipid
accumulation and increase hepatic bile acids; and ii) TKO exacerbated the HFD
ability to induce hepatic lipid accumulation, regardless of sex, but did not
significantly alter whole body phenotype in either sex.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.013 
PMCID: PMC5807141 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29307784 


237. Waste Manag. 2018 Mar;73:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.12.027. Epub 2018
Jan 4.

Influence of feed/inoculum ratios and waste cooking oil content on the mesophilic
anaerobic digestion of food waste.

Li Y(1), Jin Y(2), Borrion A(3), Li J(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Key
Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety (Tsinghua
University), Ministry of Education of China, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084,
China.
(2)School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Key
Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety (Tsinghua
University), Ministry of Education of China, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084,
China. Electronic address: jinyy@tsinghua.edu.cn.
(3)Dept of Civil, Environ & Geomatic Eng, University College London, London WC1E 
6BT, UK.

Information on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) with different
waste cooking oil contents is limited in terms of the effect of the initial
substrate concentrations. In this work, batch tests were performed to evaluate
the combined effects of waste cooking oil content (33-53%) and feed/inoculum
(F/I) ratios (0.5-1.2) on biogas/methane yield, process stability parameters and 
organics reduction during the FW AD. Both waste cooking oil and the inoculation
ratios were found to affect digestion parameters during the AD process start-up
and the F/I ratio was the predominant factor affecting AD after the start-up
phase. The possible inhibition due to acidification caused by volatile fatty
acids accumulation, low pH values and long-chain fatty acids was reversible. The 
characteristics of the final digestate indicated a stable anaerobic system,
whereas samples with F/I ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 display higher propionic 
and valeric acid contents and high amounts of total ammonia nitrogen and free
ammonia nitrogen. Overall, F/I ratios higher than 0.70 caused inhibition and
resulted in low biogas/methane yields from the FW.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.12.027 
PMID: 29307470 


238. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;252:118-126. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.096.
Epub 2017 Dec 29.

LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in
Nannochloropsis microalgae.

Ma R(1), Thomas-Hall SR(2), Chua ET(2), Eltanahy E(3), Netzel ME(4), Netzel G(4),
Lu Y(5), Schenk PM(6).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China; Algae
Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University
of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.
(2)Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.
(3)Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia; Phycology
Laboratory, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt.
(4)Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of
Queensland, PO Box 156, Archerfield, Queensland 4108, Australia.
(5)Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China.
(6)Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic
address: p.schenk@uq.edu.au.

The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and
carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on
biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output
efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained
at high light intensity (150 μmol m-2 s-1) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity 
(50 μmol m-2 s-1) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies
of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were
higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both,
carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were
neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency 
of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted
in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can 
be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.096 
PMID: 29306714 


239. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018 Mar 1;84(6). pii: e02537-17. doi:
10.1128/AEM.02537-17. Print 2018 Mar 15.

A Unique Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Process Showing a Dynamic
Transition of Physicochemical and Bacterial Characteristics from the Mesophilic
to the Thermophilic Phase.

Tashiro Y(1)(2), Kanda K(1), Asakura Y(1), Kii T(1), Cheng H(1), Poudel P(1),
Okugawa Y(1), Tashiro K(3), Sakai K(4)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Division of Systems
Bioengineering, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of
Agriculture, Graduate School of Bioresources and Bioenvironmental Sciences,
Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
(2)Laboratory of Microbial Environmental Protection, Tropical Microbiology Unit, 
Center for International Education and Research of Agriculture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
(3)Laboratory of Molecular Gene Technology, Division of Systems Bioengineering,
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate
School, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
(4)Laboratory of Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Division of Systems
Bioengineering, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of
Agriculture, Graduate School of Bioresources and Bioenvironmental Sciences,
Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan kensak@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp.

A unique autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) process has been used 
to convert human excreta to liquid fertilizer in Japan. This study investigated
the changes in physicochemical and bacterial community characteristics during the
full-scale ATAD process operated for approximately 3 weeks in 2 different years. 
After initiating simultaneous aeration and mixing using an air-inducing
circulator (aerator), the temperature autothermally increased rapidly in the
first 1 to 2 days with exhaustive oxygen consumption, leading to a drastic
decrease and gradual increase in oxidation-reduction potential in the first 2
days, reached >50°C in the middle 4 to 6 days, and remained steady in the final
phase. Volatile fatty acids were rapidly consumed and diminished in the first 2
days, whereas the ammonia nitrogen concentration was relatively stable during the
process, despite a gradual pH increase to 9.3. Principal-coordinate analysis of
16S rRNA gene amplicons using next-generation sequencing divided the bacterial
community structures into distinct clusters corresponding to three phases, and
they were similar in the final phase in both years despite different transitions 
in the middle phase. The predominant phyla (closest species, dominancy) in the
initial, middle, and final phases were Proteobacteria (Arcobacter trophiarum, 19 
to 43%; Acinetobacter towneri, 6.3 to 30%), Bacteroidetes (Moheibacter sediminis,
43 to 54%), and Firmicutes (Thermaerobacter composti, 11 to 28%; Heliorestis
baculata, 2.1 to 16%), respectively. Two predominant operational taxonomic units 
(OTUs) in the final phase showed very low similarities to the closest species,
indicating that the process is unique compared with previously published ones.
This unique process with three distinctive phases would be caused by the aerator 
with complete aeration.IMPORTANCE Although the autothermal thermophilic aerobic
digestion (ATAD) process has several advantages, such as a high degradation
capacity, a short treatment period, and inactivation of pathogens, one of the
factors limiting its broad application is the high electric power consumption for
aerators with a full-scale bioreactor. We elucidated the dynamics of the
bacterial community structures, as well as the physicochemical characteristics,
in the ATAD process with a full-scale bioreactor from human excreta for 3 weeks. 
Our results indicated that this unique process can be divided into three
distinguishable phases by an aerator with complete aeration and showed a
possibility of shortening the digestion period to approximately 10 days. This
research not only helps to identify which bacteria play significant roles and how
the process can be improved and controlled but also demonstrates an efficient
ATAD process with less electric power consumption for worldwide application.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02537-17 
PMID: 29305505 


240. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2018 Mar;79:158-167. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.026.
Epub 2017 Dec 28.

"Force-from-lipids" gating of mechanosensitive channels modulated by PUFAs.

Ridone P(1), Grage SL(2), Patkunarajah A(3), Battle AR(4), Ulrich AS(2), Martinac
B(5).

Author information: 
(1)Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.
(2)Institute for Biological Interfaces IBG-2, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 
Karlsruhe, Germany.
(3)School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney 
2052, Australia.
(4)Translational Research Institute (TRI) and Institute of Health and Biomedical 
Innovation (IHBI), School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of
Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia.
(5)Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia; St
Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010,
Australia. Electronic address: b.martinac@victorchang.edu.au.

The level of fatty acid saturation in phospholipids is a crucial determinant of
the biophysical properties of the lipid bilayer. Integral membrane proteins are
sensitive to changes of their bilayer environment such that their activities and 
localization can be profoundly affected. When incorporated into phospholipids of 
mammalian cells, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) determine the mechanical
properties of the bilayer thereby affecting several membrane-associated functions
such as endo- and exo-cytosis and ion channel/membrane receptor signalling
cascades. In order to understand how membrane tension is propagated through
poly-unsaturated bilayers, we characterized the effect of lipid saturation on
liposome reconstituted MscS and MscL, the two bacterial mechanosensitive ion
channels that have for many years served as models of ion- channel-mediated
mechanotransduction. The combination of NMR and patch clamp experiments in this
study demonstrate that bilayer thinning is the main responsible factor for the
modulation of the MscL threshold of activation while a change in transbilayer
pressure profile is indicated as the main factor behind the observed modulation
of the MscS kinetics. Together, our data offer a novel insight into how the
structural shape differences between the two types of mechanosensitive channels
determine their differential modulation by poly-unsaturated phospholipids and
thus lay the foundation for future functional studies of eukaryotic ion channels 
involved in the physiology of mechanosensory transduction processes in mammalian 
cells.SUMMARY: Mechanosensitive channels MscL and MscS are differentially
modulated by poly-unsaturated fatty acids in lipid bilayers. MscL becomes
sensitized because of increased hydrophobic mismatch while MscS open state is
stabilized due to changes in the bilayer lateral pressure profile determined by
NMR.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.026 
PMID: 29304430 


241. Diabetologia. 2018 Mar;61(3):688-699. doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4528-4. Epub 2018
Jan 3.

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is induced by 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a
by-product of n-3 fatty acid peroxidation.

Soulage CO(1), Sardón Puig L(2), Soulère L(3), Zarrouki B(4), Guichardant M(1),
Lagarde M(1), Pillon NJ(5).

Author information: 
(1)Univ Lyon, CarMeN, INSA-Lyon, Inserm UMR 1060, INRA UMR 1397, Université
Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.
(2)Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet,
Stockholm, Sweden.
(3)Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, CPE Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, UMR 5246, CNRS, ICBMS,
Institut de Chimie et de Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires, Chimie
Organique et Bioorganique (COB), Villeurbanne, France.
(4)Bioscience Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit,
AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
(5)Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, von Eulers
väg 4a, IV, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. nicolas.pillon@ki.se.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of insulin
resistance and its progression towards type 2 diabetes. The peroxidation of n-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids produces 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid
aldehyde with potent electrophilic properties able to interfere with many
pathophysiological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the
role of 4-HHE in the development of insulin resistance.
METHODS: 4-HHE concentration was measured in plasma from humans and rats by
GC-MS. Insulin resistance was estimated in healthy rats after administration of
4-HHE using hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps. In muscle cells, glucose uptake
was measured using 2-deoxy-D-glucose and signalling pathways were investigated by
western blotting. Intracellular glutathione was measured using a fluorimetric
assay kit and boosted using 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T).
RESULTS: Circulating levels of 4-HHE in type 2 diabetic humans and a rat model of
diabetes (obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats), were twice those in their
non-diabetic counterparts (33 vs 14 nmol/l, p < 0.001), and positively correlated
with blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps in rats,
acute intravenous injection of 4-HHE significantly altered whole-body insulin
sensitivity and decreased glucose infusion rate (24.2 vs 9.9 mg kg-1 min-1,
p < 0.001). In vitro, 4-HHE impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and
signalling (protein kinase B/Akt and IRS1) in L6 muscle cells. Insulin-induced
glucose uptake was reduced from 186 to 141.9 pmol mg-1 min-1 (p < 0.05). 4-HHE
induced carbonylation of cell proteins and reduced glutathione concentration from
6.3 to 4.5 nmol/mg protein. Increasing intracellular glutathione pools using D3T 
prevented 4-HHE-induced carbonyl stress and insulin resistance.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: 4-HHE is produced in type 2 diabetic humans and
Zucker diabetic fatty rats and blunts insulin action in skeletal muscle. 4-HHE
therefore plays a causal role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and might
constitute a potential therapeutic target to taper oxidative stress-induced
insulin resistance.

DOI: 10.1007/s00125-017-4528-4 
PMID: 29299636 


242. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;251:364-373. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.069.
Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Evaluation of single and two stage anaerobic digestion of landfill leachate:
Effect of pH and initial organic loading rate on volatile fatty acid (VFA) and
biogas production.

Begum S(1), Anupoju GR(2), Sridhar S(3), Bhargava SK(4), Jegatheesan V(5),
Eshtiaghi N(5).

Author information: 
(1)Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Group, Environmental Engineering and
Fossil Fuels (EEFF) Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
(IICT), Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India; School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne 
Institute of Technology (RMIT), 124 La Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
(2)Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Group, Environmental Engineering and
Fossil Fuels (EEFF) Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
(IICT), Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India. Electronic address:
gangagnirao@gmail.com.
(3)Membrane Separations Group, Chemical Engineering Department, CSIR- IICT,
Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India.
(4)School of Science, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), 124 La
Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
(5)School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), 124 La 
Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

This work aims to evaluate the impact of pH and initial organic load (IOL) in
terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of landfill leachate for the production of 
value added products during single and two stage anaerobic digestion (AD). It was
observed that at an optimal IOL of 48 g/L, acetic acid was dominant at pH 5.5
whereas it was butyric acid at pH of 5.5-6.0 and 10-11. The yield of Volatile
Fatty Acids (VFA) was dependent on IOL and it was in the range of 0.26 to 0.36 g 
VFA/(g COD removed). Methane was also harvested during single and two stage AD
and found that it was varying in the range of 0.21-0.34 L CH4/(g COD removed) and
0.2-0.32 L CH4/(g COD removed) respectively. An overall increase of 21% COD
removal was noticed in two stage AD in comparison to single stage.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.069 
PMID: 29294458 


243. Poult Sci. 2018 Mar 1;97(3):874-881. doi: 10.3382/ps/pex372.

Effect of dietary xylooligosaccharides on intestinal characteristics, gut
microbiota, cecal short-chain fatty acids, and plasma immune parameters of laying
hens.

Ding XM(1), Li DD(1), Bai SP(1), Wang JP(1), Zeng QF(1), Su ZW(1), Xuan Y(1),
Zhang KY(1).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, China, Ya'an, 
625014.

This study examined the prebiotic effects of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on
intestinal characteristics, gut microbiota, cecal short-chain fatty acids, plasma
calcium metabolism, and immune parameters of laying hens. A total of 1,080 White 
Lohmann laying hens (28 wk of age) was assigned to 6 dietary treatments that
included XOS at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, or 0.05% for 8
weeks. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 10 cages (3 birds/cage). Blood,
intestinal tissues, and cecal digesta samples were collected from chickens at the
end of the experiment. Villus height, crypt depth, the villus to crypt (VH: CD)
ratio, and the relative length of different intestinal sections were evaluated.
Additionally, the number of microorganisms and the content of short-chain fatty
acids in cecal digesta samples were determined. Plasma concentrations of
immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M (IgM), interleukin 2
(IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), 
calcitonin (CT), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were also determined. The results 
showed that villus height and the VH: CD ratio of the jejunum were increased
(linear, P < 0.01) with the increase in dietary XOS concentration, and the
relative length of the jejunum (P = 0.03) was increased significantly in XOS
diets. Dietary supplementation of XOS significantly increased (linear, P < 0.01) 
the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum; however, total bacteria count,
Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli in the cecum were not affected by XOS
supplementation. In addition, inclusion of XOS increased (linear, P < 0.01) the
content of butyrate in the cecum; and the content of acetic acid showed a linear 
increasing trend (P = 0.053) with increasing concentration of XOS in the diets.
Supplementation with XOS increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) the content of
1,25(OH)2D3 in plasma. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the
content of CT and PTH among dietary treatments. Furthermore, dietary XOS
increased contents of IgA (linear, P < 0.05), TNF-α (linear, P < 0.05), IgM
(linear, P < 0.05; quadratic, P < 0.05), and IL-2 (quadratic, P < 0.05). Taken
together, it was suggested that supplemental XOS can enhance the intestinal
health and immune function of laying hens by positively influencing the
intestinal characteristics, gut microbiota, cecal short-chain fatty acids, and
immune parameters.

DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex372 
PMID: 29294100 


244. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018 Mar 1;23:1552-1563.

Lipid droplet autophagy during energy mobilization, lipid homeostasis and protein
quality control.

Garcia EJ(1), Vevea JD(2), Pon LA(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY,
10032 USA.
(2)HHMI and Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53705
USA.
(3)Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY,
10032 USA, lap5@cumc.columbia.edu.

Lipid droplets (LDs) have well-established functions as sites for lipid storage
and energy mobilization to meet the metabolic demands of cells. However, recent
studies have expanded the roles of LDs to protein quality control. Lipophagy, or 
LD degradation by autophagy, plays a vital role not only in the mobilization of
free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid homeostasis at LDs, but also in the adaptation 
of cells to certain forms of stress including lipid imbalance. Recent studies
have provided new mechanistic insights about the diverse types of lipophagy, in
particular microlipophagy. This review summarizes key findings about the
mechanisms and functions of lipophagy and highlights a novel function of LD
microlipophagy as a mechanism to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis
under conditions of lipid imbalance.


PMCID: PMC5836320
PMID: 29293450 


245. Waste Manag. 2018 Mar;73:123-129. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.12.030. Epub 2017
Dec 30.

Selection of microalgae intended for valorization of digestate from agro-waste
mixtures.

Koutra E(1), Grammatikopoulos G(2), Kornaros M(3).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology (LBEET),
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece.
(2)Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Patras,
26504 Patras, Greece.
(3)Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering & Environmental Technology (LBEET),
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece.
Electronic address: kornaros@chemeng.upatras.gr.

Digestates have been recently recognized as valuable substrates for microalgal
cultivation, effectively combining wastewater remediation and biofuels
production. In this regard, selection of the appropriate species for such a
process is of utmost importance. In this study, the performance of seven
different microalgal strains in 10% (v/v) digestate which derived from the
co-digestion of several agro-waste streams was investigated. Parachlorella
kessleri, Acutodesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Tetraselmis tetrathele
were able to acclimate to this new medium, resulting in biomass yields and fatty 
acids (FAs) content which varied between 570-1117 mg L-1 and 3.9-24.5%,
respectively. The main FAs detected in the four species were oleic, palmitic and 
linolenic acid, with significant differences in their relative abundance.
Concerning nutrients removal, almost complete NH3-N removal was observed, while %
TP removal exceeded 80% for three of the four strains tested. Furthermore,
induction kinetics of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence was used as a screening
tool indicative of the reactions of the photosynthetic machinery of different
microalgal species cultivated in digestate.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.12.030 
PMID: 29291909 


246. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar;29(3):178-190. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2017.11.009. 
Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Palmitic and Oleic Acid: The Yin and Yang of Fatty Acids in Type 2 Diabetes
Mellitus.

Palomer X(1), Pizarro-Delgado J(1), Barroso E(1), Vázquez-Carrera M(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of 
Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of 
the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Pediatric Research Institute-Hospital Sant
Joan de Déu, and Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated
Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM)-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Avinguda Joan XXIII 
27-31, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
(2)Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of 
Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of 
the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Pediatric Research Institute-Hospital Sant
Joan de Déu, and Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated
Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM)-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Avinguda Joan XXIII 
27-31, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: mvazquezcarrera@ub.edu.

Increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) link obesity with insulin
resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, in contrast to the
saturated FA (SFA) palmitic acid, the monounsaturated FA (MUFA) oleic acid
elicits beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, and the dietary palmitic
acid:oleic acid ratio impacts diabetes risk in humans. Here we review recent
mechanistic insights into the beneficial effects of oleic acid compared with
palmitic acid on insulin resistance and T2DM, including its anti-inflammatory
actions, and its capacity to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, prevent
attenuation of the insulin signaling pathway, and improve β cell survival.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the antidiabetic effects of oleic acid 
may contribute to understanding the benefits of this FA in the prevention or
delay of T2DM.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2017.11.009 
PMID: 29290500 


247. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2072-2083. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13440. Epub 2017
Dec 28.

Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the
milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

Williams SRO(1), Chaves AV(2), Deighton MH(3), Jacobs JL(3), Hannah MC(3), Ribaux
BE(3), Morris GL(3), Wales WJ(3), Moate PJ(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport, and Resources,
Agriculture Victoria, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821, Australia. Electronic address:
richard.williams@ecodev.vic.gov.au.
(2)Faculty of Veterinary Science, School of Life Sciences and Environment, The
University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia.
(3)Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport, and Resources,
Agriculture Victoria, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821, Australia.

Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses 
for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane
emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with
either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition,
and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in
mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows
received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 
10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg
of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 
0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 
14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of
DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT
diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled 
citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4
d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur
hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk
yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield
of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of
cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk 
yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the
concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean
protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from
cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet
(0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual 
fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet 
was not different to the pH in the ruminal fluids of cows offered the ALH or the 
CIT diets. The mean methane emissions (g/d) and yields (g/kg of DM intake) were
not influenced by dietary treatment. These findings indicate that, although
almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp can be used as a low-cost feed supplement,
almond hulls did negatively affect milk production and neither inhibited enteric 
methane emissions.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13440 
PMID: 29290453 


248. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2144-2147. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13725. Epub 2017
Dec 28.

Short communication: Effects of dietary 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole supplementation
on vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in dairy cows
during the transition period and early lactation.

Wang DM(1), Zhang BX(1), Wang JK(1), Liu HY(1), Liu JX(2).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Dairy Science, MoE Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, 
College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China.
(2)Institute of Dairy Science, MoE Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, 
College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China.
Electronic address: liujx@zju.edu.cn.

The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of
5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) supplementation to the feed during the transition
period and early lactation on the vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and 
energy balance in postpartum cows. Twenty-four prepartum Holstein dairy cows were
divided into 12 blocks based on their parity and milk yield at the last lactation
and were then randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: a basal diet without DMB
(control) or a treatment diet that contained 1.5 g of DMB/d per cow. The study
started at wk 3 before the expected calving day and ended at wk 8 postpartum. The
feed intake and the lactation performance were measured weekly after calving.
Blood parameters were measured on d -10, 0, 8, 15, 29, 43, and 57 relative to the
calving day. Body weight was measured on the calving day and on d 57 after
calving. The yields of milk, protein, and lactose in cows fed DMB were higher
than in the control throughout the whole postpartum stage. On wk 8 postpartum,
the vitamin B12 content in the milk and sera was greater in cows fed DMB than in 
the control. The overall body weight loss from wk 1 to 8 postpartum was less in
cows fed DMB than in the control. The plasma content of nonesterified fatty acids
and β-hydroxybutyric acid was significantly lower in cows fed DMB than in the
control throughout the whole experimental stage. In conclusion, dietary DMB fed
during the transition period and early lactation improved the vitamin B12 supply,
milk production, and energy balance of postpartum dairy cows.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13725 
PMID: 29290452 


249. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2084-2095. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13227. Epub 2017
Dec 28.

Lactation response to soybean meal and rumen-protected methionine supplementation
of corn silage-based diets.

Nursoy H(1), Ronquillo MG(2), Faciola AP(3), Broderick GA(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary Faculty, Bingol University, Bingol,
Turkey 12000.
(2)Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y 
Zootecnia, Instituto Literario 100, Toluca, Mexico.
(3)Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
(4)USDA-Agricultural Research Service, US Dairy Forage Research Center, 1925
Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Electronic address: gbroderi@wisc.edu.

Corn silage, an important forage fed to dairy cows in the United States, is
energy rich but protein poor. The objectives of this experiment were to
investigate the effects on production of milk and milk components of feeding corn
silage-based diets with 4 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) plus
rumen-protected methionine (RPM). Thirty-six cows were blocked by days in milk
into 9 squares and randomly assigned to 9 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 
4-wk periods. All diets were formulated to contain, as a percent of dry matter
(DM), 50% corn silage, 10% alfalfa silage, 4% soyhulls, 2.4% mineral-vitamin
supplement, and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Supplemental RPM (Mepron, Evonik
Corp., Kennesaw, GA) was added to all diets to maintain a Lys:Met ratio of 3.1 in
digested AA. Ground high-moisture corn was reduced and soybean meal (SBM) plus
RPM increased to give diets containing, on average, 11% CP (28% corn, 31% starch,
6% SBM, 4 g of RPM/d), 13% CP (23% corn, 29% starch, 10% SBM, 8 g of RPM/d), 15% 
CP (19% corn, 26% starch, 15% SBM, 10 g of RPM/d), and 17% CP (14% corn, 24%
starch, 19% SBM, 12 g of RPM/d). Data from the last 14 d of each period were
analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). With
the exception of milk fat and milk lactose content, we found no significant
effects of diet on all production traits. We did note linear responses to dietary
CP concentration for intake, production of milk and milk components, and MUN.
Cows fed the 11% CP diet had reduced DM intake, lost weight, and yielded less
milk and milk components. Mean separation indicated that only true protein yield 
was lower on 13% CP than on 17% dietary CP, but not different between 15 and 17% 
CP. This indicated no improvement in production of milk and milk components above
15% CP. Quadratic trends for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true
protein suggested that a dietary CP concentration greater than 15% may be
necessary to maximize production or, alternately, that a plateau was reached and 
no further CP was required. Although diet influenced apparent digestibility of
DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility did not increase
linearly with dietary CP. However, we observed linear and quadratic effects of
dietary CP on acid detergent fiber digestibility. As expected, we found a linear 
effect of dietary CP on apparent N digestibility and on fecal and urinary N
excretion, but no effect of diet on estimated true N digestibility. Ruminal
concentrations of ammonia, total AA, peptides, and branched-chain volatile fatty 
acids also increased linearly with dietary CP. Quadratic responses indicated that
14.0 to 14.8% CP was necessary to optimize digestion and energy utilization.
Overall results indicated that, when RPM was added to increase Lys:Met to 3.1,
15% CP was adequate for lactating dairy cows fed corn silage diets supplemented
with SBM and secreting about 40 kg of milk/d; N excretion was lower than at 17%
CP but with no reduction in yield of milk and milk components.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13227 
PMID: 29290449 


250. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2669-2678. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-14042. Epub 2017
Dec 28.

Clinical and metabolic indicators associated with early mortality at a milk-fed
veal facility: A prospective case-control study.

Renaud DL(1), Duffield TF(1), LeBlanc SJ(1), Haley DB(1), Kelton DF(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G
2W1.
(2)Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G
2W1. Electronic address: dkelton@uoguelph.ca.

Antimicrobial use and resistance, in combination with high levels of mortality,
are important challenges facing the veal industry. To improve both the economic
sustainability of the industry and animal welfare, measures need to be taken to
explore and address reasons for these challenges. Health status at arrival may be
an important predictor of calf mortality because substantial mortality occurs
early in the growing period on veal operations. The objective of this
observational case-control study was to identify clinically measurable variables 
and metabolic indicators associated with mortality in the first 21 d following
arrival at a veal facility. Calves were evaluated using a standardized health
scoring system, blood was collected, calves were weighed, and the supplier of the
calf was recorded at arrival. The calves were followed until death or 21 d after 
arrival. Cases were defined as calves that died ≤21 d following arrival. Two
controls for every case were randomly selected from calves that survived >21 d,
arrived on the same day, and were housed in the same barn as cases. Stored serum 
harvested at arrival from cases and controls was submitted for measurement of
concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose,
cholesterol, urea, haptoglobin, and immunoglobulin G. A conditional logistic
regression model was built to evaluate factors associated with mortality ≤21 d
following arrival. A total of 4,825 calves were evaluated from November 2015 to
September 2016. The mortality risk in the first 21 d was 2.8%, giving 135 cases, 
which were compared with 270 controls. Six variables were significant in the
final multivariable model. Calves with a slightly enlarged navel with slight pain
or moisture, and those with severe dehydration had increased odds of mortality
≤21 d following arrival. Drover-derived calves, calves that weighed more, and
calves that had higher concentration of immunoglobulin G or cholesterol at
arrival were less likely to die. The results demonstrate that calves at elevated 
risk for early mortality can be identified at arrival using both health and
hematological factors. Early recognition of high-risk calves may allow for an
intervention that could result in improvement in survival rates; however,
prevention of these abnormalities before arrival at veal facilities needs to be
further explored.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-14042 
PMID: 29290429 


251. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2110-2126. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13334. Epub 2017
Dec 28.

The relationship between milk metabolome and methane emission of Holstein
Friesian dairy cows: Metabolic interpretation and prediction potential.

van Gastelen S(1), Antunes-Fernandes EC(2), Hettinga KA(3), Dijkstra J(4).

Author information: 
(1)Top Institute Food and Nutrition, PO Box 557, 6700 AN Wageningen, the
Netherlands; Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box
338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
sanne.vangastelen@wur.nl.
(2)Top Institute Food and Nutrition, PO Box 557, 6700 AN Wageningen, the
Netherlands; Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO 
Box 17, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.
(3)Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 17,
6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.
(4)Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 338, 6700 AH 
Wageningen, the Netherlands.

This study aimed to quantify the relationship between CH4 emission and fatty
acids, volatile metabolites, and nonvolatile metabolites in milk of dairy cows
fed forage-based diets. Data from 6 studies were used, including 27 dietary
treatments and 123 individual observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.
These dietary treatments covered a large range of forage-based diets, with
different qualities and proportions of grass silage and corn silage. Methane
emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production
(g per day), yield (g per kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g per kg 
of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). Milk samples were analyzed for fatty
acids by gas chromatography, for volatile metabolites by gas chromatography-mass 
spectrometry, and for nonvolatile metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dry 
matter intake was 15.9 ± 1.90 kg/d (mean ± SD), FPCM yield was 25.2 ± 4.57 kg/d, 
CH4 production was 359 ± 51.1 g/d, CH4 yield was 22.6 ± 2.31 g/kg of DMI, and CH4
intensity was 14.5 ± 2.59 g/kg of FPCM. The results show that changes in
individual milk metabolite concentrations can be related to the ruminal CH4
production pathways. Several of these relationships were diet driven, whereas
some were partly dependent on FPCM yield. Next, prediction models were developed 
and subsequently evaluated based on root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP),
concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis, and random 10-fold
cross-validation. The best models with milk fatty acids (in g/100 g of fatty
acids; MFA) alone predicted CH4 production, yield, and intensity with a RMSEP of 
34 g/d, 2.0 g/kg of DMI, and 1.7 g/kg of FPCM, and with a CCC of 0.67, 0.44, and 
0.75, respectively. The CH4 prediction potential of both volatile metabolites
alone and nonvolatile metabolites alone was low, regardless of the unit of CH4
emission, as evidenced by the low CCC values (<0.35). The best models combining
the 3 types of metabolites as selection variables resulted in the inclusion of
only MFA for CH4 production and CH4 yield. For CH4 intensity, MFA, volatile
metabolites, and nonvolatile metabolites were included in the prediction model.
This resulted in a small improvement in prediction potential (CCC of 0.80; RMSEP 
of 1.5 g/kg of FPCM) relative to MFA alone. These results indicate that volatile 
and nonvolatile metabolites in milk contain some information to increase our
understanding of enteric CH4 production of dairy cows, but that it is not
worthwhile to determine the volatile and nonvolatile metabolites in milk to
estimate CH4 emission of dairy cows. We conclude that MFA have moderate potential
to predict CH4 emission of dairy cattle fed forage-based diets, and that the
models can aid in the effort to understand and mitigate CH4 emissions of dairy
cows.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13334 
PMID: 29290428 


252. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2018 Mar;391(3):335-346. doi:
10.1007/s00210-017-1460-6. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation with lithium and aripiprazole for improving
the balance of circulating hormones and brain neurotransmitters in manic mice
model.

Arunagiri P(1)(2), Balamurugan E(3), Saravanakumar M(4), Irene M(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai
University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India. giriarun07@gmail.com.
(2)Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical
Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4000, 
South Africa. giriarun07@gmail.com.
(3)Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai
University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India. balamurugan_au@yahoo.com.
(4)Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical
Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4000, 
South Africa.

The present study was designed to evaluate the combined effect of lithium and
aripiprazole supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids in methylphenidate
(MPD)-induced manic mice. Swiss albino mice were administered with MPD or saline 
for 14 days, and based on changes in behavioral activities animals were treated
with lithium, aripiprazole, and omega-3 fatty acids from the 8th day. Behavioral 
patterns were analyzed by video tracking. Thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were assayed in serum
using ELISA kits. The levels of neurotransmitters in the whole brain were
analyzed spectrofluorometrically. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) mice brain 
mRNA expression levels and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) protein levels were measured
using RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Results indicated that the
administration of MPD alters the behavioral activity, thyroid hormones, FSH, LH, 
and testosterone levels. Lithium, aripiprazole, and omega-3 fatty acids alone
significantly reduced MPD-induced behavior, hormonal, and neurotransmitter
abnormalities. However, GSK3β and pAkt in the brain showed no significant
differences in the level of expression. These results reveal that the combination
of lithium and aripiprazole supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids provide
protective effects against MPD-induced neuroendocrine system and multiple
neurochemical abnormalities.

DOI: 10.1007/s00210-017-1460-6 
PMID: 29290022 


253. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;251:288-294. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.036.
Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Enzyme/whole-cell biotransformation of plant oils, yeast derived oils, and
microalgae fatty acid methyl esters into n-nonanoic acid, 9-hydroxynonanoic acid,
and 1,9-nonanedioic acid.

Seo EJ(1), Yeon YJ(2), Seo JH(3), Lee JH(1), Boñgol JP(4), Oh Y(4), Park JM(4),
Lim SM(5), Lee CG(5), Park JB(6).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul
03760, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Biochemical Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University,
Gangneung 25457, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of BT-Convergent Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University,
Asan 31460, Republic of Korea.
(4)Department of Chemical Engineering, POSTEC, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.
(5)Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Republic
of Korea.
(6)Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul
03760, Republic of Korea; Institute of Molecular Microbiology and Biosystems
Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea. Electronic
address: jbpark06@ewha.ac.kr.

Oils and fatty acids are important renewable resources provided by nature.
Therefore, biotransformation of renewable oils and fatty acids into industrially 
relevant C9 chemicals was investigated in this study. Olive oil, soybean oil,
yeast derived oil, and microalgae fatty acid methyl esters were converted into
n-nonanoic acid, 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, and 1,9-nonanedioic acid by a lipase and
a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing oleate hydratase, long chain secondary 
alcohol dehydrogenase, Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, long chain primary alcohol 
dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. It was found that n-nonanoic acid and 
azelaic acid could be produced to a concentration of 4.3 mM from 3 g/L olive oil 
with a specific product formation rate of 3.1 U/g dry cells. Biotransformation
rates were influenced by compositions of fatty acids and purity of the starting
material. This study may contribute to the production of industrially relevant C9
chemicals from renewable oils and fatty acids by simultaneous enzyme/whole-cell
biotransformation.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.036 
PMID: 29288957 


254. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;251:274-279. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.058.
Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Responses of microalgae Coelastrella sp. to stress of cupric ions in treatment of
anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

Li X(1), Yang WL(1), He H(1), Wu S(2), Zhou Q(2), Yang C(3), Zeng G(1), Luo L(1),
Lou W(4).

Author information: 
(1)College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key
Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University),
Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.
(2)College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key
Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University),
Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key
Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, College of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang
310018, China.
(3)College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key
Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University),
Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key
Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, College of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang
310018, China. Electronic address: yangc@hnu.edu.cn.
(4)Hunan Hikee Environmental Technology Co., Ltd., Changsha, Hunan 410001, China.

Microalgae Coelastrella sp. could remove nutrients from anaerobically digested
swine wastewater (ADSW) effectively, while its responses to the stress of Cu(II) 
were not well understood. In this paper, nutrients removal and growth of
Coelastrella sp. were investigated at the presence of Cu(II) in ADSW. Results
showed ammonium nitrogen concentration in ADSW decreased with culturing duration,
while increased with an increased Cu(II) concentration. Total phosphorous
concentration decreased with time, while did not drop in 4 days at Cu(II)
concentration ≥1.0 mg/L. Microalgal growth was inhibited at all the Cu(II)
concentrations, and ceased in about 6-8 days at Cu(II) concentration ≥1.0 mg/L.
With an increased Cu(II) concentration, the contents of chlorophyll a and
proteins decreased, those of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, and ratios
of octadecanoic acid (C18:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) and octadecenoic acid
(C18:1) to fatty acids in Coelastrella sp. increased, while octadecatrienoic acid
(C18:3) gradually disappeared.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.058 
PMID: 29288955 


255. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1866(3):473-481. doi:
10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.12.008. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Structural evidence for a fatty acid-independent myotoxic mechanism for a
phospholipase A2-like toxin.

Salvador GHM(1), Dos Santos JI(1), Borges RJ(1), Fontes MRM(2).

Author information: 
(1)Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade
Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
(2)Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade
Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
fontes@ibb.unesp.br.

The myotoxic mechanism for PLA2-like toxins has been proposed recently to be
initiated by an allosteric change induced by a fatty acid binding to the protein,
leading to the alignment of the membrane docking site (MDoS) and membrane
disrupting site (MDiS). Previous structural studies performed by us demonstrated 
that MjTX-II, a PLA2-like toxin isolated from Bothrops moojeni, presents a
different mode of ligand-interaction caused by natural amino acid substitutions
and an insertion. Herein, we present four crystal structures of MjTX-II, in its
apo state and complexed with fatty acids of different lengths. Analyses of these 
structures revealed slightly different oligomeric conformations but with both
MDoSs in an arrangement that resembles an active-state PLA2-like structure. To
explore the structural transitions between apo protein and fatty-acid complexes, 
we performed Normal Mode Molecular Dynamics simulations, revealing that
oligomeric conformations of MjTX-II/fatty acid complexes may be reached in
solution by the apo structure. Similar simulations with typical PLA2-like
structures demonstrated that this transition is not possible without the presence
of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesize that MjTX-II does not require fatty acids to
be active, although these ligands may eventually help in its stabilization by the
formation of hydrogen bonds. Therefore, these results complement previous
findings for MjTX-II and help us understand its particular ligand-binding
properties and, more importantly, its particular mechanism of action, with a
possible impact on the design of structure-based inhibitors for PLA2-like toxins 
in general.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.12.008 
PMID: 29287778 


256. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1864(3):952-958. doi:
10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.12.032. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

A novel case of ACOX2 deficiency leads to recognition of a third human
peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase.

Ferdinandusse S(1), Denis S(2), van Roermund CWT(2), Preece MA(3), Koster J(2),
Ebberink MS(2), Waterham HR(2), Wanders RJA(2).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry,
Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
S.Ferdinandusse@amc.nl.
(2)Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry,
Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
(3)Department of Newborn Screening and Biochemical Genetics, Birmingham
Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B4 6NH, United Kingdom.

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases catalyze the first step of beta-oxidation of a
variety of substrates broken down in the peroxisome. These include the CoA-esters
of very long-chain fatty acids, branched-chain fatty acids and the C27-bile acid 
intermediates. In rat, three peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases with different
substrate specificities are known, whereas in humans it is believed that only two
peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases are expressed under normal circumstances. Only
three patients with ACOX2 deficiency, including two siblings, have been
identified so far, showing accumulation of the C27-bile acid intermediates. Here,
we performed biochemical studies in material from a novel ACOX2-deficient patient
with increased levels of C27-bile acids in plasma, a complete loss of ACOX2
protein expression on immunoblot, but normal pristanic acid oxidation activity in
fibroblasts. Since pristanoyl-CoA is presumed to be handled by ACOX2
specifically, these findings prompted us to re-investigate the expression of the 
human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases. We report for the first time expression of
ACOX3 in normal human tissues at the mRNA and protein level. Substrate
specificity studies were done for ACOX1, 2 and 3 which revealed that ACOX1 is
responsible for the oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids with different chain 
lengths, ACOX2 is the only human acyl-CoA oxidase involved in bile acid
biosynthesis, and both ACOX2 and ACOX3 are involved in the degradation of the
branched-chain fatty acids. Our studies provide new insights both into ACOX2
deficiency and into the role of the different acyl-CoA oxidases in peroxisomal
metabolism.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.12.032 
PMID: 29287774 


257. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018 Mar;17(3):431-441. doi: 10.1074/mcp.RA117.000121. Epub 
2017 Dec 27.

Development of Multimarker Diagnostic Models from Metabolomics Analysis for
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).

Hou W(1), Meng X(2), Zhao A(3), Zhao W(1), Pan J(1), Tang J(1), Huang Y(2), Li
H(2), Jia W(3), Liu F(4), Jia W(1).

Author information: 
(1)From the ‡Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology &
Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital,
Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center of
Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute for Diabetes, Shanghai, China.
(2)§Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai Clinical Center for Severe 
Maternal Rescue, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's
Hospital, Shanghai, China.
(3)¶Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated
Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.
(4)From the ‡Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology &
Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital,
Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center of
Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute for Diabetes, Shanghai, China;
f-liu@sjtu.edu.cn.

Although metabolomics are desirable to understand the pathophysiology of
gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), comprehensive metabolomic studies of GDM are
rare. We aimed to offer a holistic view of metabolites alteration in GDM patients
and investigate the possible multimarker models for GDM diagnosis. Biochemical
parameters and perinatal data of 131 GDM cases and 138 controls were collected.
Fasting serum samples at 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were used for
metabolites by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of
flight-mass spectrometry, ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple
triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography- time-of- flight mass 
spectrometry platforms. Significant changes were observed in free fatty acids,
bile acids, branched chain amino acids, organic acids, lipids and organooxygen
compounds between two groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
analysis, different combinations of candidate biomarkers and metabolites in
multimarker models achieved satisfactory discriminative abilities for GDM, with
the values of area under the curve (AUC) ranging from 0.721 to 0.751. Model
consisting of body mass index (BMI), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4),
n-acetylaspartic acid and C16:1 (cis-7) manifested the best discrimination [AUC
0.751 (95% CI: 0.693-0.809), p < 0.001], followed by model consisting of BMI,
Cystatin C, acetylaspartic acid and 6,7-diketoLCA [AUC 0.749 (95% CI:
0.691-0.808), p < 0.001]. Metabolites alteration reflected disorders of glucose
metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, bile acid metabolism as well
as intestinal flora metabolism in GDM state. Multivariate models combining
clinical markers and metabolites have the potential to differentiate GDM subjects
from healthy controls.

© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

DOI: 10.1074/mcp.RA117.000121 
PMCID: PMC5836369 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29282297 


258. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1863(3):299-312. doi:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.009. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, cholesterol, and fatty acids modulate the 
calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A (ANO1).

De Jesús-Pérez JJ(1), Cruz-Rangel S(1), Espino-Saldaña ÁE(2), Martínez-Torres
A(2), Qu Z(3), Hartzell HC(4), Corral-Fernandez NE(5), Pérez-Cornejo P(5),
Arreola J(6).

Author information: 
(1)Physics Institute, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Ave. Dr. Manuel
Nava #6, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290, Mexico.
(2)Laboratorio de Neurobiología Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Neurobiología
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro
76230, Mexico.
(3)Center for Medical Research, Affiliated Hospital, Qingdao University,
Shangdong 266071, PR China.
(4)Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA
30322, USA.
(5)Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis
Potosí School of Medicine, Ave. V. Carranza 2405, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290,
Mexico.
(6)Physics Institute, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Ave. Dr. Manuel
Nava #6, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78290, Mexico. Electronic address:
arreola@dec1.ifisica.uaslp.mx.

The TMEM16A-mediated Ca2+-activated Cl- current drives several important
physiological functions. Membrane lipids regulate ion channels and transporters
but their influence on members of the TMEM16 family is poorly understood. Here we
have studied the regulation of TMEM16A by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
(PI(4,5)P2), cholesterol, and fatty acids using patch clamp, biochemistry and
fluorescence microscopy. We found that depletion of membrane PI(4,5)P2 causes a
decline in TMEM16A current that is independent of cytoskeleton, but is partially 
prevented by removing intracellular Ca2+. On the other hand, supplying PI(4,5)P2 
to inside-out patches attenuated channel rundown and/or partially rescued
activity after channel rundown. Also, depletion (with methyl-β-cyclodextrin
M-βCD) or restoration (with M-βCD+cholesterol) of membrane cholesterol slows down
the current decay observed after reduction of PI(4,5)P2. Neither depletion nor
restoration of cholesterol change PI(4,5)P2 content. However, M-βCD alone
transiently increases TMEM16A activity and dampens rundown whereas
M-βCD+cholesterol increases channel rundown. Thus, PI(4,5)P2 is required for
TMEM16A function while cholesterol directly and indirectly via a
PI(4,5)P2-independent mechanism regulate channel function. Stearic, arachidonic, 
oleic, docosahexaenoic, and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids as well as methyl
stearate inhibit TMEM16A in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner.
Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid whose hydrocarbon tails contain stearic and
oleic acids also inhibits TMEM16A. Finally, we show that TMEM16A remains in the
plasma membrane after treatment with M-βCD, M-βCD+cholesterol, oleic, or
docosahexaenoic acids. Thus, we propose that lipids and fatty acids regulate
TMEM16A channels through a membrane-delimited protein-lipid interaction.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.009 
PMCID: PMC5807209 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29277655 


259. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Mar;217:70-78. doi:
10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.12.010. Epub 2017 Dec 24.

Cloning, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation of a fatty acyl
Elovl4-like elongase in mud crab, Scylla paramamosain (Estampador, 1949).

Lin Z(1), Hao M(2), Huang Y(1), Zou W(1), Rong H(1), Wen X(3).

Author information: 
(1)Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, Shantou University,
Shantou 515063, PR China.
(2)College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou
510642, PR China.
(3)Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, Shantou University,
Shantou 515063, PR China. Electronic address: wenxbo@stu.edu.cn.

In this report, the full-length cDNA of fatty acyl Elovl4-like elongase was
cloned from the hepatopancreas of Scylla paramamosain by rapid-amplification of
cDNA ends (RACE). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of
Elovl4-like elongase in crustaceans. The full-length cDNA of Elovl4-like was
1119bp, which included a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 58bp, a
3'-terminal UTR of 44bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1017bp encoding a
polypeptide of 338 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that
Elovl4-like transcripts are widely distributed in various organs, with high mRNA 
levels in the hepatopancreas and cranial ganglia. Further, Elovl4-like
transcriptional levels in hepatopancreas were up-regulated in proportion to the
replacement of dietary fish oil (FO) with soybean oil (SO). The result showed
that Elovl4-like transcripts increased about 0.83 and 1.12-fold respectively when
SO constituted 80% and 100% of total oil (P<0.05). These results may contribute
to better understanding of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA)
biosynthetic pathway and regulation mechanism in this species.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.12.010 
PMID: 29277642 


260. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2650-2654. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13682. Epub 2017
Dec 21.

Technical note: Changes in rumen mucosa thickness measured by transabdominal
ultrasound as a noninvasive method to diagnose subacute rumen acidosis in dairy
cows.

Neubauer V(1), Humer E(1), Kröger I(1), Meißl A(1), Reisinger N(2), Zebeli Q(3).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for
Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine,
Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
(2)Biomin Research Center, Biomin Holding GmbH, 3430 Tulln, Austria.
(3)Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for
Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine,
Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
qendrim.zebeli@vetmeduni.ac.at.

Feeding high-grain diets leads to the release and accumulation of short-chain
fatty acids in the rumen. The subsequent prolonged decline in ruminal pH can lead
to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Accumulation of short-chain fatty acids can 
cause proliferation of rumen papillae to increase absorption surface,
subsequently leading to a thickening of the rumen mucosa. The aim of this study
was to evaluate the appropriateness of continuous measurements of the rumen
mucosa thickness (RMT) as a diagnostic tool for SARA in dairy cows compared with 
continuous measurements of ruminal pH. The study used 6 lactating Simmental cows 
switched from a moderate-grain (MG) diet with 40% concentrate (dry matter basis) 
for 1 wk to a high-grain (HG) diet with 60% concentrate (dry matter basis) for 4 
wk. Reticuloruminal pH was recorded with indwelling sensors throughout the trial.
Rumen mucosa thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound at 4 d during
the MG diet and 23 d during the HG diet. Mean RMT increased from 4.7 ± 0.19 mm in
the MG diet to 5.3 ± 0.17 mm in the HG diet, whereas daily mean reticular pH
decreased from 6.8 ± 0.01 in the MG diet to 6.5 ± 0.01 in the HG diet. Older cows
(>3 lactations) had increased RMT, associated with higher reticular pH throughout
the experiment. The higher RMT and pH level in older cows underlines their lesser
susceptibility to SARA during high-grain feeding. In conclusion, RMT can
successfully be measured using linear ultrasound probes, commonly used by
veterinary practitioners as rectal probes. By combining noninvasive RMT
measurements with the lactation number of the individual cows in a herd, this
study suggests that RMT is a viable option for diagnosing SARA. Further research,
using a larger number of cows with different lactations numbers, is needed to
establish a cut-off RMT indicating the risk of SARA.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13682 
PMID: 29274977 


261. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2506-2518. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-12878. Epub 2017
Dec 21.

Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression
in the liver of dairy cows after prolonged feeding of high-concentrate diet.

Xu TL(1), Seyfert HM(2), Shen XZ(3).

Author information: 
(1)College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing,
210095, P.R. China; Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institute for
Genome Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.
(2)Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institute for Genome Biology, 18196
Dummerstorf, Germany.
(3)College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing,
210095, P.R. China. Electronic address: xzshen@njau.edu.cn.

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) of dairy cattle is a widely occurring but not
very overt metabolic disorder thought to impair milk composition. The enzyme
stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is rate-limiting for the formation of Δ-9
unsaturated fatty acids and thus crucially involved in controlling lipid
metabolism in the liver. It is known that SCD1 expression is downregulated during
SARA, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To study these
mechanisms, we enrolled 12 healthy multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows into a
diet-induced SARA experiment. Six cows were fed a high-concentrate diet for 18
weeks (60% content of high-concentrate to 40% forage; HC group), whereas the
others received a low-concentrate diet ad libitum (40% high-concentrate content
to 60% forage; LC group). Sustained low ruminal pH values (pH 5.6 maintained for 
4 h/d) and reduced milk yield performance (2.07 kg/d less than LC cows) verified 
that SARA had been induced in the HC group. Results showed a significantly
decreased concentrations of cis-9 monounsaturated long-chain fatty acids in
plasma collected from hepatic but not portal veins. This was matched by reduced
SCD1 mRNA and protein concentrations in HC livers. The expression levels of genes
related to lipid formation (DGAT1 and PLIN2) were downregulated during SARA,
whereas those of catabolic genes (CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1) and some inflammatory
genes were upregulated. Expression of SCD1 was downregulated through reduced
transcription and abundance of the transcription factor sterol regulatory
element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1c).This effect was augmented by local chromatin 
tightening and DNA methylation at and around the SREBP1c binding site in the SCD1
promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that SARA reduced
SREBP1c binding at the SCD1 promoter; hence, epigenetic mechanisms are involved
in regulating the expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid
modification, partially through downregulation of both SCD1 and SREBP1c in the
liver. Our results suggest that in addition to inflammatory genes, SCD1 is also
involved in SARA-induced epigenetic regulation and its associated metabolic
changes. This knowledge might help to provide a target for intervening against
the detrimental metabolic effects of SARA.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-12878 
PMID: 29274956 


262. Bioresour Technol. 2018 Mar;251:158-164. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.037.
Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Influence of biochar on volatile fatty acids accumulation and microbial community
succession during biosolids composting.

Awasthi MK(1), Awasthi SK(2), Wang Q(2), Wang Z(2), Lahori AH(2), Ren X(2), Chen 
H(2), Wang M(2), Zhao J(2), Zhang Z(3).

Author information: 
(1)College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University,
Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China; Department of Biotechnology,
Amicable Knowledge Solution University, Satna, India.
(2)College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University,
Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
(3)College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University,
Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China. Electronic address:
zhangzq58@126.com.

The impact of biochar amendment on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and odor
generation during the biosolids-wheat straw composting was investigated. Five
treatments were design using the same mixture of biosolids-wheat straw with
different dosage of biochar blending (2%, 4%, 8% and 12% on dry weight basis) and
without biochar applied treatment served as control. The results of VFAs and
Odour Index (OI) profile designated that compost with 8-12% biochar became more
rapidly humified with less quantity of VFAs and OI generation content compared to
control. Consequently, the VFAs degrading and total bacterial abundance are also 
significantly higher recorded in 8-12% biochar than 2% biochar and control. In
addition, 8-12% biochar applied treatment has significantly maximum close
correlation among the all physicochemical and gaseous emission parameters.
Finally, results designated that higher dosage of biochar (8-12% biochar) was
more feasible approach for biosolids composting.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.037 
PMID: 29274855 


263. Anim Sci J. 2018 Mar;89(3):537-546. doi: 10.1111/asj.12946. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Dietary protein level affects nutrient digestibility and ileal microbiota
structure in growing pigs.

Qiu K(1), Zhang X(1), Jiao N(1), Xu D(1), Huang C(1), Wang Y(1), Yin J(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition & Ministry of Agriculture Feed
Industry Centre, College of Animal Science & Technology, China Agricultural
University, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to determine whether dietary protein content influences pig
health as indicated by ileal microbiota structure and coefficients of total tract
apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients. Seventy-two gilts, with an initial
body weight of 29.9 ± 1.5 kg, were used in this 42-day feeding study. Pigs were
randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments of corn-soybean meal
contained 14, 16 or 18% crude protein (CP). As dietary CP content decreased, the 
CTTAD of most essential amino acids (AAs), except for arginine and histidine,
increased linearly, while those of most nonessential AAs decreased linearly. The 
concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was higher in pigs fed the 
diet with 14% CP content than others. Ileal microbiota structure was changed by
dietary treatments. In particular, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of
Tenericutes in ileal digesta decreased as the dietary protein content reduced,
while that of cyanobacteria increased. At the genus level, the relative abundance
of Weeksella, Phaseolus acutifolius, Slackia, Sulfurimonas and Aerococcus showed 
significant differences among the three dietary treatments. In conclusion, ileal 
microbiota structure was changed by dietary protein content. Moderate reduction
of protein intake can benefit gut health by enhancing the gut microbial
fermentation and SCFA formation.

© 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

DOI: 10.1111/asj.12946 
PMID: 29271556 


264. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1860(3):718-727. doi:
10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.12.015. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Membrane fluidization by alcohols inhibits DesK-DesR signalling in Bacillus
subtilis.

Vaňousová K(1), Beranová J(2), Fišer R(3), Jemioła-Rzemińska M(4), Matyska
Lišková P(5), Cybulski L(6), Strzałka K(7), Konopásek I(8).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles
University, Viničná 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
schromka@seznam.cz.
(2)Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles
University, Viničná 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
jana.beranova@natur.cuni.cz.
(3)Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles
University, Viničná 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
fiserr@natur.cuni.cz.
(4)Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry,
Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30 387
Krakow, Poland; Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 7A, 30-387 Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:
malgorzata.jemiola-rzeminska@uj.edu.pl.
(5)Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles
University, Viničná 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
petra.liskova@natur.cuni.cz.
(6)Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y
Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Suipacha 531, 2000
Rosario, Argentina. Electronic address: larisacybulski@gmail.com.
(7)Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry,
Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30 387
Krakow, Poland; Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 7A, 30-387 Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:
kazimierz.strzalka@uj.edu.pl.
(8)Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Charles
University, Viničná 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
ivo.konopasek@natur.cuni.cz.

After cold shock, the Bacillus subtilis desaturase Des introduces double bonds
into the fatty acids of existing membrane phospholipids. The synthesis of Des is 
regulated exclusively by the two-component system DesK/DesR; DesK serves as a
sensor of the state of the membrane and triggers Des synthesis after a decrease
in membrane fluidity. The aim of our work is to investigate the biophysical
changes in the membrane that are able to affect the DesK signalling state. Using 
linear alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol) and benzyl
alcohol, we were able to suppress Des synthesis after a temperature downshift.
The changes in the biophysical properties of the membrane caused by alcohol
addition were followed using membrane fluorescent probes and differential
scanning calorimetry. We found that the membrane fluidization induced by alcohols
was reflected in an increased hydration at the lipid-water interface. This is
associated with a decrease in DesK activity. The addition of alcohol mimics a
temperature increase, which can be measured isothermically by fluorescence
anisotropy. The effect of alcohols on the membrane periphery is in line with the 
concept of the mechanism by which two hydrophilic motifs located at opposite ends
of the transmembrane region of DesK, which work as a molecular caliper, sense
temperature-dependent variations in membrane properties.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.12.015 
PMID: 29269314 


265. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 Mar 1;94(3). doi: 10.1093/femsec/fix179.

Shift of hindgut microbiota and microbial short chain fatty acids profiles in
dairy calves from birth to pre-weaning.

Song Y(1), Malmuthuge N(1), Steele MA(1), Guan LL(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada.

This study aimed to characterize mucosa- and digesta-associated microbiota in the
hindgut (cecum, colon and rectum) of newborn (NB, n = 6), day 7 (n = 6), day 21
(n = 6) and day 42 (n = 6) Holstein bull calves using amplicon sequencing. The
hindgut microbiota was diverse at birth, and mucosa-attached microbial community 
had higher individual variation than that of digesta-associated community. In
total, 16 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria
being the dominant microbial taxa in the hindgut. Quantitative real-time PCR
analysis showed a significant age effect on the proportion of mucosa-attached
Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster XIVa and Faecalibacterium 
prausnitzii. Especially, high abundance of mucosa-associated Escherichia was
detected during the first week of life, suggesting higher chance of the
pathogenic infection during this stage. The relative abundances of predicted
microbial genes involved in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and
energy metabolism were enriched, indicating the importance of hindgut microbiota 
in fermentation during the pre-weaned period. Moreover, the significant
correlation between short-chain fatty acid concentration and mucosa-attached
carbohydrate utilizing (Coprococcus 1, Blautia, Lachnospiraceae NC2004 group,
etc.) and health-related bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Salmonella) suggests 
the importance of hindgut microbiota in the fermentation and health of dairy
calves during pre-weaned period.

DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fix179 
PMID: 29267960 


266. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar;34(2):90-96. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000416.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cholesterol gallstones, and cholecystectomy:
new insights on a complex relationship.

Arrese M(1)(2), Cortés V(3), Barrera F(1), Nervi F(1).

Author information: 
(1)Departments of Gastroenterology.
(2)Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE), Departamento de Biología
Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad
Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
(3)Nutrition, School of Medicine.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease (GSD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
(NAFLD often coexist in a given patient and both conditions are associated to
obesity and insulin resistance. The relationship between GSD and NAFLD is complex
and bidirectional. In the present review, we summarize the existing information
on the complex link between GSD and NAFLD and the potential implications for
patient care.
RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical studies and systematic reviews have addressed
the association between NAFLD and GSD underscoring that NAFLD is an independent
risk factor for GSD. Conversely, GSD has been found also to be an independent
risk factor for NAFLD with GSD potentially being linked to greater disease
severity. In addition to the data showing association of NAFLD and GSD, recent
evidence has also showed that cholecystectomy may itself be a risk factor for
NAFLD development. The complex and bidirectional relationship between these
diseases is partially explained by a number of common pathogenic links but the
precise underlying mechanisms of the association of GSD and NAFLD need to be
better delineated. Also, although the mechanisms of the promotional effect of
cholecystectomy on NAFLD development are unknown, recent findings unveiling new
aspects of gallbladder physiology and endocrine actions of bile acids provide a
framework to advance research in this field.
SUMMARY: In this review, we address the different aspects of the complex
association between NAFLD and GSD. The potential underlying mechanisms and recent
information on endocrine actions of bile acids and the gallbladder are reviewed.

DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000416 
PMID: 29266009 


267. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):97-103. doi:
10.1097/MCO.0000000000000445.

Dispelling myths about intravenous fish oil-based lipid emulsions: a clinical
perspective.

ApSimon M(1).

Author information: 
(1)Critical Care, Cardiac and Vascular and Neuro Trauma Programs, Hamilton
General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are an essential component
of parenteral nutrition. With the recent incorporation of new lipid emulsions
into the Canadian and American market, the clinician responsible for prescribing 
these lipids should be educated regarding the different fatty acid (FA) profiles 
of these lipids, as well as their metabolic and functional effects.
RECENT FINDINGS: New IVLEs contain a mix of soybean oil and olive oil, or a mix
of soybean oil, coconut oil, olive oil and fish oil. These new lipid emulsions
provide less essential fatty acids (FAs) (linoleic and alpha linolenic acids)
than in pure soybean oil, yet incorporation of fish oil into an IVLE may decrease
the amount of essential FAs required. Fish oil is a treatment for
hypertriglyceridemia, and therefore, IVLEs that include fish oil may decrease
serum triglycerides. Historical perspective is that fish oil can be associated
with increased bleeding time. Evidence suggests that there is no association
between fish oil and increased bleeding in patients, even those who are using
anticoagulants. New IVLEs provide less vitamin K than soybean oil alone.
Patients, or the parenteral nutrition solutions that include these new IVLEs
should be supplemented with vitamin K.
SUMMARY: Canadian and American Guidelines for IVLEs were based on soybean oil.
Current practice should be tailored to which IVLE is being prescribed.

DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000445 
PMID: 29256925 


268. Chemosphere. 2018 Mar;194:784-792. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.075. Epub
2017 Dec 12.

The effect of toxic carbon source on the reaction of activated sludge in the
batch reactor.

Wu C(1), Zhou Y(2), Zhang S(3), Xu M(4), Song J(5).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; Research
Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of
Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Electronic address:
changyongwu@126.com.
(2)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; Research
Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of
Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Electronic address:
zhouyx@craes.org.cn.
(3)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; School of
Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and
Technology, Beijing 100083, China.
(4)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; College of
Water Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
(5)Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research
Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

The toxic carbon source can cause higher residual effluent dissolved organic
carbon than easily biodegraded carbon source in activated sludge process. In this
study, an integrated activated sludge model is developed as the tool to
understand the mechanism of toxic carbon source (phenol) on the reaction,
regarding the carbon flows during the aeration period in the batch reactor. To
estimate the toxic function of phenol, the microbial cells death rate (kdeath) is
introduced into the model. The integrated model was calibrated and validated by
the experimental data and it was found the model simulations matched the all
experimental measurements. In the steady state, the toxicity of phenol can result
in higher microbial cells death rate (0.1637 h-1 vs 0.0028 h-1) and decay rate
coefficient of biomass (0.0115 h-1 vs 0.0107 h-1) than acetate. In addition, the 
utilization-associated products (UAP) and extracellular polymeric substances
(EPS) formation coefficients of phenol are higher than that of acetate,
indicating that more carbon flows into the extracellular components, such as
soluble microbial products (SMP), when degrading toxic organics. In the
non-steady state of feeding phenol, the yield coefficient for growth and maximum 
specific growth rate are very low in the first few days (1-10 d), while the decay
rate coefficient of biomass and microbial cells death rate are relatively high.
The model provides insights into the difference of the dynamic reaction with
different carbon sources in the batch reactor.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.075 
PMID: 29253823  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


269. J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Mar;98:9-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.11.013. Epub
2017 Nov 28.

Dietary intake of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risks of perinatal
depression: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

Hamazaki K(1), Takamori A(2), Tsuchida A(3), Kigawa M(3), Tanaka T(4), Ito M(5), 
Adachi Y(6), Saito S(5), Origasa H(7), Inadera H(3); Japan Environment and
Children's Study (JECS) Group.

Collaborators: Kishi R(8), Yaegashi N(9), Hashimoto K(10), Mori C(11), Ito S(12),
Yamagata Z(13), Inadera H(2), Kamijima M(14), Nakayama T(15), Iso H(16), Shima
M(17), Hirooka Y(18), Suganuma N(19), Kusuhara K(20), Katoh T(21).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama,
Toyama, Japan; Toyama Regional Center for JECS, University of Toyama, Toyama,
Japan. Electronic address: keihama@med.u-toyama.ac.jp.
(2)Toyama Regional Center for JECS, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
(3)Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama,
Toyama, Japan; Toyama Regional Center for JECS, University of Toyama, Toyama,
Japan.
(4)Toyama Regional Center for JECS, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan;
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama,
Japan.
(5)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
(6)Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama,
Japan.
(7)Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Graduate School of
Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
(8)Hokkaido Regional Center for JECS, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
(9)Miyagi Regional Center for JECS, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
(10)Fukushima Regional Center for JECS, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 
Japan.
(11)Chiba Regional Center for JECS, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
(12)Kanagawa Regional Center for JECS, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
(13)Koshin Regional Center for JECS, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan.
(14)Aichi Regional Center for JECS, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.
(15)Kyoto Regional Center for JECS, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
(16)Osaka Regional Center for JECS, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.
(17)Hyogo Regional Center for JECS, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya,
Japan.
(18)Tottori Regional Center for JECS, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.
(19)Kochi Regional Center for JECS, Kochi University, Nankoku, Japan.
(20)Fukuoka Regional Center for JECS, University of Occupational and
Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
(21)South Kyushu/Okinawa Regional Center for JECS, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto,
Japan.

The results of several epidemiological studies and clinical trials investigating 
the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on antenatal and postnatal
depression remain controversial. We investigated the possible association of
dietary intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs with the risks of maternal and paternal
psychological distress during pregnancy and of maternal postpartum depression in 
Japan. From a dataset comprising 104,102 maternal registrations and 52,426
paternal registrations in The Japan Environment and Children's Study, this study 
analyzed complete data on questionnaires for 75,139, 79,346, and 77,661 women
during early pregnancy, mid-late pregnancy, and after pregnancy, respectively,
and for 41,506 male partners. Multivariable logistic regression showed reduced
risk of psychological distress in the second and third quintiles for fish intake 
in early pregnancy and in the second to fifth quintile in mid-late pregnancy. No 
reductions were observed for n-3 PUFA intake in early pregnancy but in the second
to fourth quintile in mid-late pregnancy. For postpartum depression, reductions
were observed in the second to fourth quintile for fish intake but only in the
first quintile for n-3 PUFA intake. As for paternal psychological distress, only 
the fourth quintile for fish intake showed a significant reduced risk but none
were shown for n-3 PUFA intake. In conclusion, fish intake was associated with
some reduced risk of psychological distress during pregnancy, even for male
partners. The associations were weaker for n-3 PUFA intake than for fish intake.

Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.11.013 
PMID: 29253720 


270. Poult Sci. 2018 Mar 1;97(3):901-909. doi: 10.3382/ps/pex385.

Supplementation with curcuminoids and tuna oil influenced skin yellowness,
carcass composition, oxidation status, and meat fatty acids of slow-growing
chickens.

Hang TTT(1), Molee W(1), Khempaka S(1), Paraksa N(2).

Author information: 
(1)School of Animal Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, 
Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.
(2)Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen,
Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand.

The present study aimed to determine the effects of dietary curcuminoids combined
with tuna oil on the growth performance, meat quality, thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances (TBARS) values in the plasma and raw meat, and fatty acid
profile of chicken meat. A total of 480 21-day-old mixed-sex slow-growing
chickens was assigned to a completely randomized design model with 6 treatments
and 4 replicates (pens) per treatment. The basal diet based on corn-soybean and
4% tuna oil was used as the negative control. The experimental diets comprised
the basal diet supplemented with curcumin removed turmeric oleoresin to provide
20, 40, 60, or 80 mg/kg curcuminoids (CUR-20, CUR-40, CUR-60, and CUR-80,
respectively) or dl-α-tocopheryl acetate at 200 ppm as the positive control
(E-200). Finally, the vacuum-packed carcasses were stored frozen at -20°C for 3
mo to examine the effect of curcuminoids on changes in the TBARS values and fatty
acid composition of the breast and thigh meat. Increasing the levels of
curcuminoids tended to improve the feed conversion ratio (linear, P = 0.065) and 
significantly increased the proportion of breast fillet (linear, P = 0.037) and
the yellowness of the skin of both the breast (linear, P = 0.016) and the thigh
(linear, P = 0.023). The curcuminoids exhibited antioxidant properties, but their
effect was not dose dependent. The CUR-20 and CUR-40 treatments increased the
linoleic acid content but decreased the C22:6n-3 (DHA) content of the breast
meat. The CUR-60 treatment inhibited oxidation (measured by TBARS) in the chicken
meat similarly to dl-α-tocopheryl acetate but had no effect on the proportion of 
DHA in the breast or thigh meat. Auto-oxidation occurred in the breast meat but
not in the thigh meat during the 3 mo of frozen storage. The present study showed
that a suitable level of curcuminoids in the diet of slow-growing chickens was
60 mg/kg.

DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex385 
PMID: 29253261 


271. Poult Sci. 2018 Mar 1;97(3):1073-1081. doi: 10.3382/ps/pex379.

Lipid profile and quality indices of ostrich meat and giblets.

Antunes IC(1)(2), Ribeiro MF(3), Pimentel FB(4), Alves SP(1), Oliveira MBPP(4),
Bessa RJB(1), Quaresma MAG(1).

Author information: 
(1)Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade 
de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Pólo Universitário Alto da
Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal.
(2)Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
(3)Escola Superior Agrária de Santarém, Instituto Politécnico de Santarém, Quinta
do Galinheiro - S. Pedro, 2001-904 Santarém, Portugal.
(4)REQUIMTE/Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia da
Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira n. 228, 4050-313 Porto,
Portugal.

In this study, the lipid profile of 5 different edible tissues (leg, thigh,
heart, gizzard, and liver) of ostrich was analyzed. Ostrich edible tissues
presented a low fat content (<5 g/100 g wet basis). Gizzard and heart revealed
the highest amounts of total cholesterol (1.77 and 1.47 mg/g wet basis,
respectively), differing significantly from all other tissues (which averaged
0.95 mg/g wet basis). The main tocochromanol in all tissues was α-tocopherol
(10.3 μg/g wet basis in heart and an average of 3.4 μg/g wet basis for all the
remaining tissues). All the samples presented a fatty acid profile, dominated by 
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (>38%), namely, linoleic and arachidonic
acids. The leg presented simultaneously the highest PUFA/saturated fatty acids
(SFA), the lowest n-6/n-3 ratios, and the most favorable lipid quality indices
among all tissues in comparison.

DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex379 
PMID: 29253211 


272. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):121-125. doi:
10.1097/MCO.0000000000000451.

Nutritional metabolomics in critical illness.

Christopher KB(1).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Renal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical
School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disruption of metabolic homeostasis is universal in the
critically ill. Macronutrients and micronutrients are major environmental
regulators of metabolite production through their gene regulation effects. The
study of large numbers of circulating metabolites is beginning to emerge through 
the comprehensive profiling of the critically ill. In the critically ill,
metabolomic studies consistently show that changes in fatty acids, lipids and
tryptophan metabolite pathways are common and are associated with disease state
and outcomes.
RECENT FINDINGS: Metabolomics is now being applied in research studies to
determine the critical illness response to nutrient deficiency and delivery.
Nutritional metabolomics approaches in nutrient deficiency, malnutrition and
nutrient delivery have included single time point studies and dynamic studies of 
critically ill patients over time. Integration of metabolomics and clinical
outcome data may create a more complete understanding of the control of
metabolism in critical illness.
SUMMARY: The integration of metabolomic profiling with transcription and genomic 
data may allow for a unique window into the mechanism of how nutrient deficiency 
and delivery alters cellular homeostasis during critical illness and modulates
the regain of cellular homeostasis during recovery. The progress and the
challenges of the study of nutritional metabolomics are reviewed here.

DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000451 
PMCID: PMC5826639 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29251691 


273. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2148-2157. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13225. Epub 2017
Dec 14.

Genetic analysis of predicted fatty acid profiles of milk from Danish Holstein
and Danish Jersey cattle populations.

Hein L(1), Sørensen LP(1), Kargo M(2), Buitenhuis AJ(3).

Author information: 
(1)SEGES, Agro Food Park 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.
(2)SEGES, Agro Food Park 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark; Aarhus University, Center
for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Department of Molecular Biology and
Genetics, Blichers Allé 20, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.
(3)Aarhus University, Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Department
of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Blichers Allé 20, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele,
Denmark. Electronic address: bart.buitenhuis@mbg.au.dk.

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability of the detailed
fatty acid (FA) profiles of Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) cattle
populations. We estimated genetic parameters for 11 FA or groups of FA in milk
samples from the Danish milk control system between May 2015 and October 2016.
Concentrations of different FA and FA groups in milk samples were measured by
mid-infrared spectroscopy. Data used for parameter estimation were from 132,732
first-parity DH cows and 21,966 first-parity DJ cows. We found the highest
heritabilities for test day measurements in both populations for short-chain FA
(DH = 0.16; DJ = 0.16) and C16:0 (DH = 0.14; DJ = 0.16). In DH, the highest
heritabilities were also found for saturated FA and monounsaturated FA (both
populations: 0.15). Genetic correlations between the fatty acid traits showed
large differences between DH and DJ for especially short-chain FA with the other 
FA traits measured. Furthermore, genetic correlations of total fat with
monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, short-chain FA, and C16:0 differed
markedly between DH and DJ populations. In conclusion, we found genetic variation
in the mid-infrared spectroscopy-predicted FA and FA groups of the DH and DJ
cattle populations. This finding opens the possibility of using genetic selection
to change the FA profiles of dairy cattle.

The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American
Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13225 
PMID: 29248226 


274. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Mar;42:28-39. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.12.005. Epub 2017 Dec 
13.

Role of microglia-neuron interactions in diabetic encephalopathy.

Liu Y(1), Li M(1), Zhang Z(2), Ye Y(3), Zhou J(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University,
Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China; National Drug Clinical Trial Institution, The
Second Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400037, China.
(2)Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University,
Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China.
(3)Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University,
Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China. Electronic address: yeyunluzhou@foxmail.com.
(4)National Drug Clinical Trial Institution, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Army
Medical University, Chongqing, 400037, China. Electronic address:
zhoujiyin@gmail.com.

In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent
pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption
is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the 
three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate
diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a
sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons
exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and
neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activators. Microglial
activation is also regulated by proinflammatory factors, caspase-3 activity, P2X7
receptor, interferon regulatory factor-8, and glucocorticoids. Modulation of
microglia in diabetic encephalopathy may involve CX3CL1, p38 MAPK, purinergic,
and CD200/CD200R signaling pathways, and pattern recognition receptors. The
microglia-neuron interactions play an important role in diabetic encephalopathy, 
and modulation of microglial activation may be a therapeutic target for diabetic 
encephalopathy.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.12.005 
PMID: 29247713 


275. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Mar;108:674-686. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.062.
Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Immobilization of lipases in hydrophobic chitosan for selective hydrolysis of
fish oil: The impact of support functionalization on lipase activity, selectivity
and stability.

Urrutia P(1), Arrieta R(2), Alvarez L(2), Cardenas C(3), Mesa M(4), Wilson L(5).

Author information: 
(1)Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Valparaíso, Chile.
Electronic address: purrutia@creas.cl.
(2)Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Valparaíso, Chile.
(3)Laboratorio de Síntesis de Péptidos e Inmunología Molecular, Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Núcleo de Biotecnología Curauma, Valparaíso, 
Chile.
(4)Grupo Ciencia de los Materiales, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín,
Colombia.
(5)Grupo de Biocatálisis, Escuela de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Facultad de
Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The objective of this paper was to carry out an integral study of the use of
hydrophobic chitosan as a low-cost support for immobilizing lipases and their
further application in the selective hydrolysis of fish oil. Chitosan
functionalized with different alkyl chains (C4, C8, C12) were characterized by
FTIR, TGA, SEM, and Rose Bengal adsorption. Lipase B from Candida antarctica
(CalB) and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were immobilized obtaining a
higher expressed activity at a longer alkyl chain length of support. Biocatalyst 
thermal stability showed that the impact of the alkyl chain length on enzyme
stabilization varied according to the lipase source. The biocatalysts were
applied in menhaden oil hydrolysis. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids released
after 30 h of reaction with lipases immobilized in butyl, octyl and
dodecyl-chitosan was 60, 107, and 90 mM for CalB biocatalysts, and 560, 392, and 
50 mM for RML biocatalysts, respectively. Selectivity of CalB was not affected by
the alkyl chain, while in the case of RML, a higher selectivity to
cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docohexaenoic acid release was obtained with
dodecyl-chitosan. In conclusion, the adequate functionalization of chitosan
varied according to lipase source, affecting their activity, stability and
performance in the hydrolysis of fish oil.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.062 
PMID: 29246872 


276. Chemosphere. 2018 Mar;194:692-700. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.024. Epub
2017 Dec 6.

Acidogenic fermentation of iron-enhanced primary sedimentation sludge under
different pH conditions for production of volatile fatty acids.

Lin L(1), Li XY(2).

Author information: 
(1)Environmental Engineering Research Centre, Department of Civil Engineering,
The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.
(2)Environmental Engineering Research Centre, Department of Civil Engineering,
The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Engineering
Research Laboratory for Sludge and Food Wastes, Graduate School at Shenzhen,
Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address: xlia@hku.hk.

Iron-based chemically enhanced primary sedimentation (CEPS) is increasingly
adopted for wastewater treatment in mega cities, producing a large amount of
sludge (Fe-sludge) with a high content of organics for potential organic resource
recovery. In this experimental study, acidogenic fermentation was applied treat
FeCl3-based CEPS sludge for production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at
different pHs. Batch fermentation tests on the Fe-sludge with an organic content 
of 10 g-COD/L showed that the maximum VFAs production reached 2782.2 mg-COD/L in 
the reactor without pH control, and it reached 688.4, 3095.3, and 2603.7 mg-COD/L
in reactors with pHs kept at 5.0, 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. Analysis of the
acidogenesis kinetics and enzymatic activity indicated that the alkaline pH could
accelerate the rate of organic hydrolysis but inhibited the further organic
conversion to VFAs. In semi-continuous sludge fermentation tests, the VFAs yield 
in the pH6 reactor was 20% higher than that in the control reactor without pH
regulation, while the VFAs yield in the pH8 reactor was 10% lower than the
control. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that key functional microorganisms
known for effective sludge fermentation, including Bacteroidia and
Erysipelotrichi, were enriched in the pH6 reactor with an enhanced VFAs
production, while Clostridia became more abundant in the pH8 reactor to stand the
unfavorable pH condition. The research presented acidogenic fermentation as an
effective process for CEPS sludge treatment and organic resource recovery and
provided the first insight into the related microbial community dynamics.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.024 
PMID: 29245135  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


277. Meat Sci. 2018 Mar;137:258-264. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.032. Epub 2017 Nov
27.

On-site evaluation of Wagyu beef carcasses based on the monounsaturated, oleic,
and saturated fatty acid composition using a handheld fiber-optic near-infrared
spectrometer.

Piao S(1), Okura T(1), Irie M(2).

Author information: 
(1)Soma Optics, Ltd., 23-6 Hirai, Hinode-cho, Tokyo 190-0182, Japan.
(2)National Livestock Breeding Center, 1 Odakurahara, Nishigo, Nishishirakawa,
Fukushima 961-8511, Japan. Electronic address: m0irie@nlbc.go.jp.

The fat quality is an important aspect, especially for Wagyu beef. A handheld
fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer for on-site evaluation of beef fat quality
was developed, and the interactance spectra of the intermuscular fat from 833
Wagyu carcasses at 12 markets were measured. The calibration model was
transferred to five slave instruments using twenty-six block samples. The
performance of one slave instrument was verified at five meat markets (n=360).
The coefficients of determination of the slave instrument for monounsaturated,
oleic, and saturated fatty acid compositions determined by gas chromatography and
near-infrared measurements were 0.69, 0.64, and 0.67, respectively. The standard 
error of prediction for the slave instrument was approximately 2%. The
fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometers were highly accurate in the fat quality
evaluation of Wagyu carcasses based on monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated
fatty acid composition with easy calibration model transfer.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.032 
PMID: 29245028 


278. Obes Rev. 2018 Mar;19(3):406-420. doi: 10.1111/obr.12646. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Causes and mechanisms of adipocyte enlargement and adipose expansion.

Haczeyni F(1), Bell-Anderson KS(2), Farrell GC(1).

Author information: 
(1)Liver Research Group, Australian National University Medical School at The
Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
(2)Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University 
of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Adipose tissue plays a significant role in whole body energy homeostasis.
Obesity-associated diabetes, fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are closely
linked to adipose stress and dysfunction. Genetic predisposition, overeating and 
physical inactivity influence the expansion of adipose tissues. Under conditions 
of constant energy surplus, adipocytes become hypertrophic and adipose tissues
undergo hyperplasia so as to increase their lipid storage capacity, thereby
keeping circulating blood glucose and fatty acids below toxic levels.
Nonetheless, adipocytes have a saturation point where they lose capacity to store
more lipids. At this stage, when adipocytes are fully lipid-engorged, they
express stress signals. Adipose depots (particularly visceral compartments) from 
obese individuals with a severe metabolic phenotype are characterized by the high
proportion of hypertrophic adipocytes. This review focuses on the mechanisms of
adipocyte enlargement in relation to adipose fatty acid and cholesterol
metabolism, and considers how this may be related to adipose dysfunction.

© 2017 World Obesity Federation.

DOI: 10.1111/obr.12646 
PMID: 29243339 


279. Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar;46(3):e206-e212. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002875.

Effects of Propofol on Cellular Bioenergetics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Krajčová A(1)(2)(3), Løvsletten NG(4), Waldauf P(1), Frič V(5), Elkalaf M(2)(3), 
Urban T(1), Anděl M(2), Trnka J(2)(3), Thoresen GH(4), Duška F(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care of Královské Vinohrady University
Hospital and The Third Faculty of Medicine, OXYLAB-Laboratory for Mitochondrial
Physiology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
(2)Centre for Research on Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition of Third Faculty of 
Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
(3)Laboratory for Metabolism and Bioenergetics, The Third Faculty of Medicine,
Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
(4)Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of
Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
(5)Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Královské Vinohrady University
Hospital and The Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech
Republic.

OBJECTIVES: Propofol may adversely affect the function of mitochondria and the
clinical features of propofol infusion syndrome suggest that this may be linked
to propofol-related bioenergetic failure. We aimed to assess the effect of
therapeutic propofol concentrations on energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle
cells.
DESIGN: In vitro study on human skeletal muscle cells.
SETTINGS: University research laboratories.
SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing hip surgery and healthy volunteers.
INTERVENTIONS: Vastus lateralis biopsies were processed to obtain cultured
myotubes, which were exposed to a range of 1-10 μg/mL propofol for 96 hours.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Extracellular flux analysis was used to measure
global mitochondrial functional indices, glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and
the functional capacities of individual complexes of electron transfer chain. In 
addition, we used [1-C]palmitate to measure fatty acid oxidation and
spectrophotometry to assess activities of individual electron transfer chain
complexes II-IV. Although cell survival and basal oxygen consumption rate were
only affected by 10 μg/mL of propofol, concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL reduced
spare electron transfer chain capacity. Uncoupling effects of propofol were mild,
and not dependent on concentration. There was no inhibition of any respiratory
complexes with low dose propofol, but we found a profound inhibition of fatty
acid oxidation. Addition of extra fatty acids into the media counteracted the
propofol effects on electron transfer chain, suggesting inhibition of fatty acid 
oxidation as the causative mechanism of reduced spare electron transfer chain
capacity. Whether these metabolic in vitro changes are observable in other organs
and at the whole-body level remains to be investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of propofol seen in plasma of sedated patients in ICU
cause a significant inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in human skeletal muscle
cells and reduce spare capacity of electron transfer chain in mitochondria.

DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002875 
PMID: 29240609 


280. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1863(3):235-246. doi:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.007. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

Identification of cytochrome b5 CYTB-5.1 and CYTB-5.2 in C. elegans; evidence for
differential regulation of SCD.

He B(1), Zhang J(2), Wang Y(3), Li Y(4), Zou X(5), Liang B(6).

Author information: 
(1)Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; Kunming College of Life Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, China.
(2)Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 
Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524001, China.
(3)Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.
(4)School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 
230036, China.
(5)Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Special
Biological Resource Development and Utilization of University in Yunnan Province,
Kunming University, Kunming 650214, China. Electronic address: xiaojuzou@163.com.
(6)Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 
Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524001, China.
Electronic address: liangb@mail.kiz.ac.cn.

Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) play crucial roles in living organisms regarding
development, energy metabolism, stress resistance, etc. The biosynthesis of UFAs 
starts from the introduction of the first double bond by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 
(SCD), converting saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to monounsaturated fatty acids
(MUFAs). This desaturation is considered to be an aerobic process that requires
cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome b5 and SCD. However, this enzyme system
remains elusive in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that inactivation by
RNAi knockdown or mutation (gk442189) of putative cytochrome b5 genes cytb-5.1
led to reduced conversion of C18:0 to C18:1(n-9) by SCD desaturases FAT-6/7 in C.
elegans. On the contrary, cytb-5.2RNAi and cytb-5.2(gk113588) mutant worms showed
decreased conversion of C16:0 to C16:1(n-7) by FAT-5 desaturase. Dietary
supplementation with C18:1(n-9) and C18:2(n-6) also showed that CYTB-5.1 is
likely required for the activity of FAT-6/7 desaturases, but not for FAT-1 to
FAT-4 desaturases. Interestingly, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) demonstrated
that either FAT-7 or FAT-5 has ability to interact with both CYTB-5.1 and
CYTB-5.2. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of cytb-5.1 upregulates the transcriptional
and translational expression of fat-5 to fat-7, which may be due to the feedback 
induction by reduced C18:1(n-9) and downstream fatty acids. Furthermore, both
CYTB-5.1 and CYTB-5.2 are involved in fat accumulation, fertility and lifespan in
worms, which may be independent of changes in fatty acid compositions.
Collectively, these findings for the first time reveal the differential
regulation of various SCDs by distinct cytochrome b5 CYTB-5.1 and CYTB-5.2 in the
biosynthesis of UFAs in C. elegans.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.007 
PMID: 29237573 


281. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2018 Mar;29(3):481-489. doi: 10.1007/s13361-017-1861-2.
Epub 2017 Dec 12.

UV Lamp as a Facile Ozone Source for Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Lipids
Via Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

Stinson CA(1)(2), Zhang W(1)(3), Xia Y(4)(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2084,
USA.
(2)Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR, 97214, USA.
(3)Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
(4)Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2084,
USA. xiayu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.
(5)Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
xiayu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.

Ozonolysis of alkene functional groups is a type of highly specific and effective
chemical reaction, which has found increasing applications in structural analysis
of unsaturated lipids via coupling with mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we 
utilized a low-pressure mercury lamp (6 W) to initiate ozonolysis inside
electrospray ionization (ESI) sources. By placing the lamp near a nanoESI emitter
that partially transmits 185 nm ultraviolet (UV) emission from the lamp,
dissolved dioxygen in the spray solution was converted into ozone, which
subsequently cleaved the double bonds within fatty acyls of lipids. Solvent
conditions, such as presence of water and acid solution pH, were found to be
critical in optimizing ozonolysis yields. Fast (on seconds time scale) and
efficient (50%-100% yield) ozonolysis was achieved for model unsaturated
phospholipids and fatty acids with UV lamp-induced ozonolysis incorporated on a
static and an infusion nanoESI source. The method was able to differentiate
double bond location isomers and identify the geometry of the double bond based
on yield. The analytical utility of UV lamp-induced ozonolysis was further
demonstrated by implementation on a liquid chromatography (LC)-MS platform.
Ozonolysis was effected in a flow microreactor that was made from ozone permeable
tubing, so that ambient ozone produced by the lamp irradiation could diffuse into
the reactor and induce online ozonolysis post-LC separation and before ESI-MS.
Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

DOI: 10.1007/s13361-017-1861-2 
PMCID: PMC5839981 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29235039 


282. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Mar;217:27-39. doi:
10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.12.004. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and differential nutritional
regulation of putative Elovl5 elongase in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus).

Nayak M(1), Pradhan A(1), Giri SS(1), Samanta M(2), Konkimalla VB(3), Saha A(4).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Fish Nutrition and Physiology, ICAR-Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
(2)Division of Fish Health Management, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater
Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
(3)School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education &
Research Bhubaneswar, Jatni, Khurda, Odisha, India.
(4)Division of Fish Nutrition and Physiology, ICAR-Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Electronic
address: Ashis.Saha@icar.gov.in.

Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) and elongase (Elovl) are two important enzymes
involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)
in fishes. Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp
species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. Earlier, Δ6 fads cDNA was
characterized to understand the molecular mechanism of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in
this species. In the present study elovl5-like elongase full-length cDNA was
cloned and characterized by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and analyzed
its basal expression in various organs/tissues by quantitative real time PCR
(qRT-PCR) assay. Differential expression of elovl5 cDNA in various tissues
following replacement of fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) in the diet also
studied. The full length cDNA sequence of silver barb elovl5-like elongase
consisted of 1853bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 876bp encoding a
precursor protein of 291 amino acids possessing the entire characteristic
features of Elovl protein. The elovl5 transcript was constitutively expressed in 
all the tissues examined: muscle, liver, brain, kidney, skin, intestine, gill and
eye. The expression of elovl5 gene was upregulated, whereas the serum biochemical
constituents were either remain unchanged or lowered following replacement of FO 
with LO in the diets. We report for the first time, an in silico 3D structure
model of elongase protein from silver barb. All these findings may contribute to 
a better understanding the potential regulatory mechanisms involved and may be
useful for enhancing endogenous LC-PUFA production in silver barb.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.12.004 
PMID: 29233754 


283. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):104-109. doi:
10.1097/MCO.0000000000000441.

Fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention and treatment
of sarcopenia.

Gray SR(1), Mittendorfer B(2).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular
Research Center, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
(2)Division of Geriatrics & Nutritional Sciences, Center for Human Nutrition,
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscle mass and function decline progressively starting in
middle age, which can result in sarcopenia and affect people's mobility and
independence later in life. Exercise training and increased protein intake are
typically recommended to counteract the age-associated decline in muscle mass and
function. However, few people comply with exercise recommendations and the
effectiveness of high-protein intake to halt the decline in muscle mass and
function has not been proven. This review aims to explore recent developments in 
the potential for fish-oil derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) to 
improve muscle mass and function in older people.
RECENT FINDINGS: The results from several recent studies demonstrate that dietary
supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA stimulates muscle protein
synthesis and improves muscle mass and function in sedentary older adults and
augments the resistance exercise training-induced increase in muscle strength in 
older adults. The exact mechanisms by which fish oil-derived n-3 PUFAs exert
their beneficial effects on muscle mass and function remain to be elucidated.
SUMMARY: Fish-oil supplementation has antisarcopenic effects and should be
considered in the clinical care of older adults.

DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000441 
PMID: 29232264 


284. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):83-89. doi:
10.1097/MCO.0000000000000439.

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and cancer: any cause for concern?

Serini S(1), Calviello G.

Author information: 
(1)Istituto di Patologia Generale, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università
Cattolica del S. Cuore, L.go F. Vito, Roma, Italia.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, concerns have been raised with regard to the
recommended doses of marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
(LC-omega-3 PUFAs) especially in relation to cancer risk and treatment. There is 
urgent need to clarify this point. This review considers the most recent evidence
related to the potential risk of developing cancer with high LC-omega-3 PUFA
intakes, and possible research strategies to better elucidate this matter.
RECENT FINDINGS: The latest published recommendations have still highlighted the 
usefulness of an increased dietary intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention 
of some cardiovascular diseases. However, LC-omega-3 PUFAs have been related to
the potential development and progression of cancer, and considerable debate
exists on this issue.
SUMMARY: The use of biomarkers reflecting the intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs as
cancer risk markers is discussed, as well as the possibility that the reported
beneficial/deleterious effects may be confined to specific subpopulations on the 
basis of genetic, metabolic, and nutritional characteristics. Recent advances on 
new strategies for a safer intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs will be considered, as
their dietary sources may be contaminated by toxic/carcinogenic compounds.
Potentially future directions in this important research area are also discussed.

DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000439 
PMID: 29232261 


285. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1863(3):247-265. doi:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.006. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids
protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

Jarc E(1), Kump A(1), Malavašič P(2), Eichmann TO(3), Zimmermann R(4), Petan
T(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute,
Ljubljana, Slovenia; Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana,
Slovenia.
(2)Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute,
Ljubljana, Slovenia.
(3)Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Center 
for Explorative Lipidomics, BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.
(4)Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria;
BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.
(5)Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute,
Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: toni.petan@ijs.si.

Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs)
from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted
phospholipase A2 (hGX sPLA2) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates
lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) 
cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of 
LDs, induced by hGX sPLA2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells
against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA2 releases a mixture of
unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC
cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar
concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with
protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)
contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the
pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar
concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell
death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD 
biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation
of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion
reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses
revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA2-induced TAG remodelling and 
retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect
from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that
guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive
targets for novel therapeutic interventions.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.12.006 
PMID: 29229414 


286. Exp Neurol. 2018 Mar;301(Pt A):39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.12.002. Epub 
2017 Dec 8.

Impact of DHA intake in a mouse model of synucleinopathy.

Coulombe K(1), Kerdiles O(1), Tremblay C(2), Emond V(2), Lebel M(3), Boulianne
AS(4), Plourde M(5), Cicchetti F(6), Calon F(7).

Author information: 
(1)Faculté de Pharmacie, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, Avenue de la Médecine, 
Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada; Centre de Recherche du CHU de
Québec-Université Laval, Axe Neurosciences, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, 
G1V 4G2, Canada; OptiNutriBrain International Associated Laboratory (NutriNeuro
France-INAF Canada), Canada.
(2)Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Neurosciences,
2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.
(3)Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Neurosciences,
2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada; Département de Psychiatrie 
& Neurosciences, Faculté de Médecine, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, Ave de la 
Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.
(4)Faculté de Pharmacie, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, Avenue de la Médecine, 
Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.
(5)Centre de Recherche sur le Vieillissement, Université de Sherbrooke,
Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.
(6)Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Neurosciences,
2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada; Département de Psychiatrie 
& Neurosciences, Faculté de Médecine, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, Ave de la 
Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address:
Francesca.Cicchetti@crchul.ulaval.ca.
(7)Faculté de Pharmacie, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050, Avenue de la Médecine, 
Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada; Centre de Recherche du CHU de
Québec-Université Laval, Axe Neurosciences, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, 
G1V 4G2, Canada; OptiNutriBrain International Associated Laboratory (NutriNeuro
France-INAF Canada), Canada. Electronic address: Frederic.Calon@crchul.ulaval.ca.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid
(DHA), have been shown to prevent, and partially reverse, neurotoxin-induced
nigrostriatal denervation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, 
the accumulation of α-synuclein (αSyn) in cerebral tissues is equally important
to the pathophysiology. To determine whether DHA intake improves various aspects 
related to synucleinopathy, ninety male mice overexpressing human αSyn under the 
Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-αSyn) were fed one of three diets (specially formulated
control, low n-3 PUFA or high DHA) and compared to non-transgenic C57/BL6
littermate mice exposed to a control diet. Thy1-αSyn mice displayed impaired
motor skills, lower dopaminergic neuronal counts within the substantia nigra
(-13%) in parallel to decreased levels of the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT)
(-24%), as well as reduced NeuN (-41%) and synaptic proteins PSD-95 (-51%),
synaptophysin (-80%) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VChAT) (-40%) in
the cerebral cortex compared to C57/BL6 mice. However, no significant difference 
in dopamine concentrations was observed by HPLC analysis between Thy1-αSyn and
non-transgenic C57/BL6 littermates under the control diet. The most striking
finding was a favorable effect of DHA on the survival/longevity of Thy1-αSyn mice
(+51% survival rate at 12months of age). However, dietary DHA supplementation did
not have a significant effect on other parameters examined in this study, despite
increased striatal dopamine concentrations. While human αSyn monomers and
oligomers were detected in the cortex of Thy1-αSyn mice, the effects of the diets
were limited to a small increase of 42kDa oligomers in insoluble protein
fractions upon n-3 PUFA deprivation. Overall, our data indicate that a diet rich 
in n-3 PUFA has a beneficial effect on the longevity of a murine model of
α-synucleinopathy without a major impact on the dopamine system and motor
impairments, nor αSyn levels.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.12.002 
PMID: 29229294 


287. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Mar;108:608-614. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.037.
Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Biosynthesis and structural characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 from long odd-chain fatty acids.

Impallomeni G(1), Ballistreri A(2), Carnemolla GM(2), Rizzo MG(3), Nicolò MS(3), 
Guglielmino SPP(3).

Author information: 
(1)Istituto per i Polimeri, Biomateriali e Compositi, Consiglio Nazionale delle
Ricerche, via P. Gaifami 18, 95126, Catania, Italy. Electronic address:
giuseppe.impallomeni@cnr.it.
(2)Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università di Catania, viale A. Doria 6, 
95125, Catania, Italy.
(3)Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali,
Università di Messina, v.le F. Stagno D'Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina, Italy.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was cultured on media containing long odd-chain
fatty acids. Heptadecanoic, nonadecanoic, and heneicosanoic acids sustained cell 
growth and resulted in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation when culturing was
conducted under nitrogen starvation conditions. No PHA was produced using a
complete or magnesium-deprived medium. The isolated polyesters were characterized
by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass
spectrometry (ESI-MS) of methanolyzed samples, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, gel
permeation chromatography, ESI MS of partially pyrolyzed samples, and
differential scanning calorimetry. These PHAs are composed of seven different
odd-chain repeating units starting from 3-hydroxyvalerate, with the highest
species being the, to date, unreported constituent 3-hydroxyheptadecanoate, and
minor amounts of 2 or 3 even-chain comonomers. The PHAs are soft, sticky,
rubber-like materials having glass transition temperatures between -45 and -39°C,
melting temperatures between 48 and 52°C, enthalpies of melting around 11J/g, and
molar masses ranging from 77 to 188kg/mol. Statistical analysis of the ESI mass
spectra of the products of their partial pyrolysis showed that they are pure
copolymers and not a blend of copolymers or homopolymers.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.037 
PMID: 29223758 


288. Chembiochem. 2018 Mar 2;19(5):513-520. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201700598. Epub 2018 Feb
5.

Characterisation of CYP102A25 from Bacillus marmarensis and CYP102A26 from
Pontibacillus halophilus: P450 Homologues of BM3 with Preference towards
Hydroxylation of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids.

Porter JL(1), Manning J(1), Sabatini S(1), Tavanti M(1), Turner NJ(1), Flitsch
SL(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Chemistry, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of 
Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are highly desired biocatalysts owing to their
ability to catalyse a wide variety of chemically challenging C-H activation
reactions. The CYP102A subfamily of enzymes are natural catalytically
self-sufficient proteins consisting of a haem and FMN-FAD reductase domain fused 
in a single-component system. They catalyse the oxygenation of saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids to produce primarily ω-1, ω-2 and ω-3 hydroxy acids.
These monooxygenases have potential applications in biotechnology; however, their
substrate range is still limited and there is a continued need to add diversity
to this class of biocatalysts. Herein, we present the characterisation of two new
members of this class of enzymes, CYP102A25 (BMar) from Bacillus marmarensis and 
CYP102A26 (PHal) from Pontibacillus halophilus, both of which express readily in 
a recombinant bacterial host. BMar exhibits the highest activity toward myristic 
acid and shows moderate activity towards unsaturated fatty acids. PHal exhibits
broader activity towards mid-chain-saturated (C14 -C18 ) and unsaturated fatty
acids. Furthermore, PHal shows good regioselectivity for the hydroxylation of
myristic acid, targeting the ω-2 position for C-H activation.

© 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201700598 
PMID: 29219229 


289. Acta Diabetol. 2018 Mar;55(3):219-226. doi: 10.1007/s00592-017-1078-7. Epub 2017 
Dec 7.

Intensive dietary intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet in people with
high cardiometabolic risk: a non-randomized study.

Grimaldi M(1), Ciano O(2), Manzo M(2), Rispoli M(1), Guglielmi M(1), Limardi
A(1), Calatola P(1), Lucibello M(2), Pardo S(2), Capaldo B(3), Riccardi G(2).

Author information: 
(1)Azienda Sanitaria Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
(2)Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Hospital, 
Via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
(3)Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Hospital, 
Via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy. bcapaldo@unina.it.

AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MD) is acknowledged to exert a number of beneficial
health effects. We assessed the efficacy and the durability of a 3-month
intensive dietary intervention aimed at implementing the MD on body weight and
cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects at high risk.
METHODS: One hundred and sixteen subjects participated in the study (71 assigned 
to the intensive intervention and 45 to the conventional intervention). The
intensive intervention consisted of 12 weekly group educational meetings and a
free-of-charge supply of meals prepared according to the MD model. The
conventional intervention consisted of an individual education session along with
monthly reinforcements of nutritional messages by the general practitioner. All
participants were followed up for 9 months.
RESULTS: The two groups had similar pre-intervention characteristics. After the
intervention, mean body weight decreased significantly in both groups
(p < 0.001). However, the intervention group lost more weight (6.8 ± 4.0 vs.
0.7 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001) and showed a greater reduction in plasma glucose,
triglycerides, blood pressure and an increase in HDL cholesterol than the control
group (p < 0.01-p < 0.002). In the subgroup of participants with type 2 diabetes,
there was a significant reduction in HbA1c level following the intensive
(p < 0.0001) but not the conventional intervention. At follow-up, weight loss
still persisted in the intervention group (p < 0.0001), while it was lost in the 
control group. Both interventions significantly reduced blood pressure in the
long term (p < 0.001). A significant reduction in daily total energy intake was
observed in both groups with a greater reduction in saturated fat and a higher
increase in fibre intake in the intervention than in the control group (p < 0.009
and p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: A 3-month intensive dietary intervention inspired to the traditional
MD produced greater and more durable weight loss and improvement in
cardiometabolic risk profile than the conventional intervention.

DOI: 10.1007/s00592-017-1078-7 
PMID: 29218417 


290. Exp Physiol. 2018 Mar 1;103(3):408-418. doi: 10.1113/EP086629. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Fibroblast growth factor 21 increases hepatic oxidative capacity but not physical
activity or energy expenditure in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor γ coactivator-1α-deficient mice.

Fletcher JA(1)(2)(3), Linden MA(1)(2), Sheldon RD(1)(2), Meers GM(2)(4), Morris
EM(5), Butterfield A(6), Perfield JW 2nd(6), Rector RS(1)(2)(4), Thyfault
JP(5)(7).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO, USA.
(2)Research Service, Harry S Truman Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Columbia,
MO, USA.
(3)University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
(4)Medicine - Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of
Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
(5)Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas
Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.
(6)Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
(7)Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, Kansas City,
MO, USA.

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does a reduction in
hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α),
which has been observed in an insulin-resistant obese state, impair the ability
of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) to modulate metabolism? What is the main
finding and its importance? A deficit in hepatic PGC-1α does not compromise the
ability of FGF21 to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation; however, the effects
of FGF21 to regulate whole-body metabolism (i.e. total and resting energy
expenditure), as well as ambulatory activity, were altered when hepatic PGC-1α
was reduced.
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) treatment drives metabolic
improvements, including increased metabolic flux and reduced hepatic steatosis,
but the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be elucidated fully.
We tested whether a targeted reduction in hepatic peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), which has been shown
to occur with obesity, had a negative impact on the metabolic effects of FGF21.
We infused FGF21 (1 mg kg-1  day-1 ) or saline in chow-fed wild-type (WT) and
liver-specific PGC-1α heterozygous (LPGC-1α) mice for 4 weeks. Administration of 
FGF21 lowered serum insulin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.05) and tended to lower free
fatty acids (P = 0.057). The LPGC-1α mice exhibited reduced complete hepatic
fatty acid oxidation (FAO; LPGC-1α, 1788 ± 165 nmol g-1  h-1 compared with WT,
2572 ± 437 nmol g-1  h-1 ; P < 0.001), which was normalized by FGF21 treatment
(2788 ± 519 nmol g-1  h-1 ; P < 0.001). FGF21 also increased hepatic incomplete
FAO by 12% in both groups and extramitochondrial FAO by 89 and 56% in WT and
LPGC-1α mice, respectfully (P = 0.001), and lowered hepatic triacylglycerol by
30-40% (P < 0.001). Chronic treatment with FGF21 lowered body weight and fat mass
(P < 0.05), while increasing food consumption (P < 0.05), total energy
expenditure [7.3 ± 0.60 versus 6.6 ± 0.39 kcal (12 h)-1 in WT mice; P = 0.009]
and resting energy expenditure [5.4 ± 0.89 versus 4.6 ± 0.21 kcal (12 h)-1 in WT 
mice; P = 0.005]. Interestingly, FGF21 only increased ambulatory activity in the 
WT mice (P = 0.03), without a concomitant increase in non-resting energy
expenditure. In conclusion, although reduced hepatic PGC-1α expression was not
necessary for FGF21 to increase FAO, it does appear to mediate FGF21-induced
changes in total and resting energy expenditure and ambulatory activity in lean
mice.

© 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

DOI: 10.1113/EP086629 
PMCID: PMC5832578 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29215172 


291. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Feb 28;28(2):267-274. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1702.02064.

Enhanced Production of Fatty Acids via Redirection of Carbon Flux in Marine
Microalga Tetraselmis sp.

Han MA(1), Hong SJ(1), Kim ZH(2), Cho BK(3), Lee H(4)(5), Choi HK(6), Lee CG(1).

Author information: 
(1)Marine Bioenergy R&D Center, Department of Biological Engineering, Inha
University, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea.
(2)Culture Techniques Research Division, Nakdonggang National Institute of
Biological Resources, Sangju 37242, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.
(4)Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, 
Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea.
(5)Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21565, Republic
of Korea.
(6)College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06911, Republic of Korea.

Lipids in microalgae are energy-rich compounds and considered as an attractive
feedstock for biodiesel production. To redirect carbon flux from competing
pathways to the fatty acid synthesis pathway of Tetraselmis sp., we used three
types of chemical inhibitors that can block the starch synthesis pathway or
photorespiration, under nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient conditions.
The starch synthesis pathway in chloroplasts and the cytosol can be inhibited by 
3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 1,2-cyclohexane diamine tetraacetic
acid (CDTA), respectively. Degradation of glycine into ammonia during
photorespiration was blocked by aminooxyacetate (AOA) to maintain biomass
concentration. Inhibition of starch synthesis pathways in the cytosol by CDTA
increased fatty acid productivity by 27% under nitrogen deficiency, whereas the
blocking of photorespiration in mitochondria by AOA was increased by 35% under
nitrogen-sufficient conditions. The results of this study indicate that blocking 
starch or photorespiration pathways may redirect the carbon flux to fatty acid
synthesis.

DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1702.02064 
PMID: 29212297 


292. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Mar;1860(3):664-672. doi:
10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.12.001. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Inhibition of mitochondrial UCP1 and UCP3 by purine nucleotides and phosphate.

Macher G(1), Koehler M(2), Rupprecht A(1), Kreiter J(1), Hinterdorfer P(2), Pohl 
EE(3).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, University of
Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.
(2)Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria.
(3)Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, University of
Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
elena.pohl@vetmeduni.ac.at.

Mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is not only expressed in
skeletal muscle and heart, but also in brown adipose tissue (BAT) alongside UCP1,
which facilitates a proton leak to support non-shivering thermogenesis. In
contrast to UCP1, the transport function and molecular mechanism of UCP3
regulation are poorly investigated, although it is generally agreed upon that
UCP3, analogous to UCP1, transports protons, is activated by free fatty acids
(FFAs) and is inhibited by purine nucleotides (PNs). Because the presence of two 
similar uncoupling proteins in BAT is surprising, we hypothesized that UCP1 and
UCP3 are differently regulated, which may lead to differences in their functions.
By combining atomic force microscopy and electrophysiological measurements of
recombinant proteins reconstituted in planar bilayer membranes, we compared the
level of protein activity with the bond lifetimes between UCPs and PNs. Our data 
revealed that, in contrast to UCP1, UCP3 can be fully inhibited by all PNs and
IC50 increases with a decrease in PN-phosphorylation. Experiments with mutant
proteins demonstrated that the conserved arginines in the PN-binding pocket are
involved in the inhibition of UCP1 and UCP3 to different extents. Fatty acids
compete with all PNs bound to UCP1, but only with ATP bound to UCP3. We
identified phosphate as a novel inhibitor of UCP3 and UCP1, which acts
independently of PNs. The differences in molecular mechanisms of the inhibition
between the highly homologous transporters UCP1 and UCP3 indicate that UCP3 has
adapted to fulfill a different role and possibly another transport function in
BAT.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.12.001 
PMID: 29212043 


293. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Mar;108:531-540. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.186.
Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Demonstration of bioprocess factors optimization for enhanced mono-rhamnolipid
production by a marine Pseudomonas guguanensis.

C RK(1), R LS(2), D A(3), V S(4), Vasudevan V(1), Krishnan MEG(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biotechnology, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai 600
116, India.
(2)Central Research Facility (CRF), Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai
600 116, India.
(3)Aquatic Animal Health and Environment Division, Central Institute of
Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR),
75, Santhome High Road, Raja Annamalai Puram, Chennai 600 028, India.
(4)PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Pachaiyappa's College, Chennai 600 030,
India.
(5)Department of Biotechnology, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai 600
116, India. Electronic address: drelizabethrajesh@sriramachandra.edu.in.

We identified that Pseudomonas guguanensis produced macromolecular
mono-rhamnolipid (1264.52 Da) upon sensing n-hexadecane/diesel/kerosene from its 
surroundings. Permutation experiments were done to improve the laboratory-scale
mono-rhamnolipid production (ie, a three-fold increase) using RSM validation.
Consequently, maximal mono-rhamnolipids production [40-50 mg/L] and
emulsification abilities [65-70%] were encountered on day 8 using vegetable oil, 
peptone + yeast extract. EI24 values for the rhamnolipids were found to be
78±1.75% at 12.5 mg/ mL. Production and secretion of rhamnolipids were
accompanied by aggregation of cells at day 6 as pictured in SEM. Pure
monorhamnolipids of P. guguanensis was found to lower the surface tension of
water to 32.98±0.3 mN/m than the crude and CFSs of P. aeruginosa indicating
efficient activity. Utilization and subsequent removal of hexadecane was 77.2%
and the breakdown products were fatty acids [decanoic, hexadecanoic, octadecanoic
acids and methyl stearates] as signified in Head-space GC-MS. The breakdown
products of hexadecane are also present in the synthesized rhamnolipids
suggesting their biosynthetic role. Rapid degradation of hexadecane, diesel and
kerosene by this emulsifier combined with non-pathogenic trait of P. guguanensis 
identifies this organism as a viable option to remove n-alkanes from aquatic
environments.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.186 
PMID: 29208557 


294. Chemosphere. 2018 Mar;194:211-219. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.170. Epub
2017 Dec 1.

Predicting acute toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater using UV
absorption and volatile fatty acids as surrogates.

Lv L(1), Li W(2), Yu Y(1), Meng L(1), Qin W(1), Wu C(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of
Technology, Harbin, 150090, PR China.
(2)School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of
Technology, Harbin, 150090, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Urban Water
Resource and Environment, Harbin, 150090, PR China. Electronic address:
lwghit@yahoo.com.

In this study, the applicability of UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) and volatile 
fatty acids (VFAs) to serve as reliable surrogates to predict acute toxicity of
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater was investigated. The medicine
residues and VFAs were identified as main components of the TCM wastewater, and
their individual and joint toxicity assays were operated with luminescent
bacteria. The median effective concentration (EC50) values of medicine residues
and VFAs were in the range of 26.46-165.55 mg/L and 11.45-20.58 g/L,
respectively. The joint toxicity action modes of medicine residues, VFAs and
medicine residues-VFAs were identified as additive, additive and synergistic
respectively. UV254 and VFAs showed better correlations with acute toxicity
according to the correlation analysis, compared with other conventional
parameters. The regression model was a good fit for toxic unit (TU50) as a
function of UV254 and VFAs according to the stepwise regression method (adjusted 
R2 = 0.836). Validation of the model to the pilot-scale samples provided
satisfactory prediction results in the influent and hydrolysis acidification
effluent samples tests, but for EGSB effluent and final effluent samples, the
model needed further optimization. Surrogates prediction using UV254 and VFAs
provided a valuable and cost-saving tool for rapid or on-line monitoring of acute
toxicity of TCM wastewater.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.170 
PMID: 29207353 


295. Theriogenology. 2018 Mar 1;108:97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.10.031.
Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 supplementations on phospholipid fatty acid
composition in mice uterus during window of pre-implantation.

Fattahi A(1), Darabi M(2), Farzadi L(3), Salmassi A(4), Latifi Z(2), Mehdizadeh
A(5), Shaaker M(2), Ghasemnejad T(3), Roshangar L(6), Nouri M(7).

Author information: 
(1)Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical
Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories,
Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(2)Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine,
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(3)Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical
Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(4)Department of Reproductive Biology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences,
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(5)Endocrine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
Iran.
(6)Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
Iran. Electronic address: Lroshangar@yahoo.com.
(7)Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical
Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories,
Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Electronic address: nourimd@yahoo.com.

Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence
embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of
dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine
phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty
female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2)
omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6
(standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids). Uterine phospholipid fatty
acid composition during the pre-implantation window (days 1-5 of pregnancy) was
analyzed using gas-chromatography. The implantation rate on the fifth day of
pregnancy was also determined. Our results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of
pregnancy, the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as total omega-6 fatty
acids were significantly higher and the levels of linolenic acid and total
omega-3 fatty acids were statistically lower in the omega-6 group compared to the
omega-3 group (p < 0.05). On the fourth day of pregnancy, only the ARA, total
omega-6 fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids levels were significantly
different between the two dietary supplemented groups (p < 0.05). There were
positive correlations between the levels of omega-6 fatty acids, especially ARA, 
with the implantation rate. The present study showed that diets rich in omega-3
and -6 fatty acids could differently modify uterine phospholipid fatty acid
composition and uterine levels of phospholipid ARA, and that the total omega-6
fatty acids had a positive association with the implantation rate.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.10.031 
PMID: 29207295 


296. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):78-82. doi:
10.1097/MCO.0000000000000443.

Placental fatty acid transfer.

Lewis RM(1), Wadsack C(2), Desoye G(3).

Author information: 
(1)Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, 
England, UK.
(2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Graz.
(3)BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review outlines recent advances in placental lipid
transport in relation to maternal metabolic status and pregnancy outcome. A
particular focus of this review will be on the way these findings may influence
our understanding of placental transfer of the essential fatty acid
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is crucial for fetal neurodevelopment and of
lipid transfer as a predisposing factor for childhood obesity.
RECENT FINDINGS: Placental metabolism may determine the quantity and composition 
of fatty acids delivered to the fetus. Maternal factors, such as obesity, appear 
to regulate placental lipid metabolism and may influence fatty acids delivery to 
the fetus. Although the role of placental metabolism is now recognized, new
evidence also suggests important roles for nontraditional fatty acid transporters
such as Mfsd2a which facilitates transfer of DHA.
SUMMARY: Placental lipid metabolism is likely to be a determinant of placental
transfer of fatty acids to the fetus. Maternal conditions, such as obesity, have 
now been shown to regulate placental lipid metabolism and thus may influence
fatty acid transfer and fetal development. However, it is not yet clear how
regulation of placental lipid metabolism affects fatty acid delivery to the fetus
and its long-term health.

DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000443 
PMID: 29206689 


297. Anim Sci J. 2018 Mar;89(3):606-615. doi: 10.1111/asj.12958. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Effect of fermented total mixed rations on the growth performance, carcass and
meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

Kim TI(1), Mayakrishnan V(1), Lim DH(1), Yeon JH(1), Baek KS(1).

Author information: 
(1)Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural
Development Administration, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

This study was conducted to assess the effects of fermented total mixed ration
(FTMR) on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of Hanwoo
steers. The present study evidenced that the FTMR had a strong effect on dry
matter intake, body weight, daily gain, slaughter weight and carcass
characteristics compared with control animals. The results showed that the dry
matter intake (7.17 ± 0.13 kg), average body weight (615.20 ± 112.82 kg), and
daily gain (0.56 ± 0.16 kg) were greater in animals receiving FTMR than in
control animals (P < 0.05). The meat quality characteristics indicated that
cooking loss and the pH values did not vary between control and FTMR treated
animals; however, animals in the treated groups (FTMR) had higher meat quality
grades, carcass weight (396.13 ± 18.35), fat thickness (13.25 ± 1.75), marbling
score (5.63 ± 0.56), meat color (40.06 ± 1.23), crude fat (18.39 ± 1.32) and
sensory characteristics (flavor 5.03 ± 0.17; tenderness 4.42 ± 0.33; juiciness
5.10 ± 0.16). Nevertheless, the shear force values decreased significantly in
FTMR-treated animals compared with control group steers. Overall, FTMR may not
only improve the growth performance, biochemical metabolites, and fatty and
acetic acid profiles of steers, but may also enhance the carcass and meat quality
characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Regarding economics, our research findings
suggest that FTMR-based feeds may enhance Hanwoo steer meat quality at a low
cost.

© 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

DOI: 10.1111/asj.12958 
PMID: 29205706 


298. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Mar;129:526-534. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.11.034. Epub 2017
Dec 5.

N-3 PUFA diet enrichment prevents amyloid beta-induced depressive-like phenotype.

Morgese MG(1), Schiavone S(1), Mhillaj E(2), Bove M(2), Tucci P(1), Trabace L(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Italy.
(2)Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, V. Erspamer University of Rome
Sapienza, Italy.
(3)Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Italy.
Electronic address: luigia.trabace@unifg.it.

Among neuropsychiatric diseases, depression is one of the most prevalent. Many
pathologies have been indicated as comorbid with depression and in particular,
neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD). In this regard,
several evidences endorse a strong relationship between depression and AD, so
much that this mental illness has been proposed either as a risk factor for AD or
as a prodromic AD phase. Furthermore, amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the main
constituent of amyloid plaques commonly considered the principal hallmark of AD
brains, has been shown to be increased, in its soluble form, in depressed
patients. Accordingly, we have previously found that Aβ,
intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected, is able to evoke a depressive-like
profile in rats accompanied by low cortical serotonin and reduced neurotrophin
content. Taking into account the great increase in AD and depression prevalence, 
many environmental factors have been under study, particularly dietary factors,
and the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is becoming central in this
field of research. Thus, aim of the present study was to evaluate the
neurobehavioral effects of lifelong exposure to either n-3 PUFA rich or n-3 PUFA 
poor diet after Aβ central administration. Results showed that n-3 PUFA enriched 
diet prevented the Aβ- induced depressive-like behaviors, as reveled by the
reduction in the immobility time in the FST test. Furthermore, n-3 PUFA rich diet
exposure reverted also serotonin and neurotrophin level reduction in prefrontal
cortex of Aβ treated rats. Taken together, our data support the concept that
supplementation of diet with n-3 PUFA represents a valid approach to reduce the
risk of developing depressive symptoms, as well as reducing the risk of
Aβ-related pathologies, such as AD.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.11.034 
PMID: 29203442 


299. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Mar;53:72-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.10.009. Epub 2017 
Nov 2.

Effects of fish oils on ex vivo B-cell responses of obese subjects upon BCR/TLR
stimulation: a pilot study.

Guesdon W(1), Kosaraju R(1), Brophy P(2), Clark A(2), Dillingham S(3), Aziz S(4),
Moyer F(4), Willson K(5), Dick JR(6), Patil SP(7), Balestrieri N(8), Armstrong
M(9), Reisdroph N(9), Shaikh SR(10).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East
Carolina University; East Carolina Diabetes & Obesity Institute, East Carolina
University.
(2)East Carolina Diabetes & Obesity Institute, East Carolina University.
(3)Organic Technologies.
(4)Department of Psychology, East Carolina University.
(5)Department of Nutrition Science, East Carolina University.
(6)Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK.
(7)Department of Family Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina
University.
(8)Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East
Carolina University.
(9)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Denver, CO.
(10)Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Brody School of Medicine,
East Carolina University; East Carolina Diabetes & Obesity Institute, East
Carolina University; Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public
Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Electronic address:
shaikhsa@email.unc.edu.

The long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil have immunomodulatory properties. B
cells are a poorly studied target of EPA/DHA in humans. Therefore, in this pilot 
study, we tested how n-3 LC-PUFAs influence B-cell responses of obese humans.
Obese men and women were assigned to consume four 1-g capsules per day of olive
oil (OO, n=12), fish oil (FO, n=12) concentrate or high-DHA-FO concentrate (n=10)
for 12 weeks in a parallel design. Relative to baseline, FO (n=9) lowered the
percentage of circulating memory and plasma B cells, whereas the other
supplements had no effect. There were no postintervention differences between the
three supplements. Next, ex vivo B-cell cytokines were assayed after stimulation 
of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and/or the B-cell receptor (BCR) to determine if
the effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs were pathway-dependent. B-cell IL-10 and TNFα
secretion was respectively increased with high DHA-FO (n=10), relative to
baseline, with respective TLR9 and TLR9+BCR stimulation. OO (n=12) and FO (n=12) 
had no influence on B-cell cytokines compared to baseline, and there were no
differences in postintervention cytokine levels between treatment groups.
Finally, ex vivo antibody levels were assayed with FO (n=7) after TLR9+BCR
stimulation. Compared to baseline, FO lowered IgM but not IgG levels accompanied 
by select modifications to the plasma lipidome. Altogether, the results suggest
that n-3 LC-PUFAs could modulate B-cell activity in humans, which will require
further testing in a larger cohort.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.10.009 
PMCID: PMC5820214 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 29195133 


300. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Mar;53:39-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.10.006. Epub 2017 
Nov 27.

Supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant rats with mild
diabetes normalizes placental PPARγ and mTOR signaling in female offspring
developing gestational diabetes.

Capobianco E(1), Fornes D(1), Roberti SL(1), Powell TL(2), Jansson T(3),
Jawerbaum A(4).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Reproduction and Metabolism, CEFYBO, CONICET, School of
Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
(2)Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado
Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Division of Reproductive
Sciences, Department of OB/GYN, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical
Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
(3)Division of Reproductive Sciences, Department of OB/GYN, University of
Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
(4)Laboratory of Reproduction and Metabolism, CEFYBO, CONICET, School of
Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
a.jawerbaum@gmail.com.

Maternal diabetes impairs fetoplacental development and programs metabolic
diseases in the offspring. We have previously reported that female offspring of
pregnant rats with mild diabetes develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when
they become pregnant. Here, we studied the effects of supplementation with
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pregnant mild diabetic rats (F0) by
feeding a 6% safflower-oil-enriched diet from day 1 to 14 followed by a 6%
chia-oil-enriched diet from day 14 of pregnancy to term. We analyzed maternal
metabolic parameters and placental signaling at term in pregnant offspring (F1). 
The offspring of both PUFAs-treated and untreated mild diabetic rats developed
GDM. Although gestational hyperglycemia was not prevented by dietary PUFAs
treatment in F0, triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia in F1 mothers were
normalized by F0 PUFAs dietary treatment. In the placenta of F1 GDM rats, PPARγ
levels were reduced and lipoperoxidation was increased, changes that were
prevented by the maternal diets enriched in PUFAs in the F0 generation. Moreover,
fetal overgrowth and placental activation of mTOR signaling pathways were reduced
in F1 GDM rats whose mothers were treated with PUFAs diets. These results suggest
that F0 PUFAs dietary treatment in pregnancies with mild diabetes improves
maternal dyslipidemia, fetal overgrowth and placental signaling in female
offspring when they become pregnant. We speculate that an increased PUFAs intake 
in pregnancies complicated by diabetes may prove effective to ameliorate
metabolic programming in the offspring, thereby improving the health of future
generations.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.10.006 
PMID: 29190548 


301. J Med Entomol. 2018 Feb 28;55(2):408-416. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjx208.

Effects of Fatty Acid and Geraniol Repellent-Oil Mixtures Applied to Cattle on
Blood Feeding and Reproductive Parameters in Field Populations of Haematobia
irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

Mullens BA(1), Soto D(1), Gerry AC(1), Fowler FE(1), Diniz AN(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA.

California pastured cattle were treated with 250 ml of a 15% mixture of fatty
acids (C8-C9-C10) or 125 ml of 2% geraniol in a mineral oil carrier to assess
impacts on horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) over two
summers. Horn flies were netted from cattle every 3-4 d for 2 wk before
treatment, 2 wk during treatment (four treatments, with flies collected before
each treatment), and 2 wk after treatments ceased. Blood meal weights were
estimated by hemoglobin assay of excised abdomens. Other females were dissected
to determine the number of active ovarioles and the stage of primary follicle
development. Depending on year and herd, pretreatment males contained an average 
of 0.6-1.0 mg of blood, while females contained 1.7-2.7 mg. Pretreatment egg
development (least developed oocytes were stage 1 and fully developed eggs were
stage 5) averaged 3.7-4.3, and number of active ovarioles averaged 18.1 to
19.6/female. During treatment periods, significant reductions in blood weight
were noted for females, but usually not for males, and females also often
exhibited reduced mean oocyte stage and number of active ovarioles. Peaks in
proportions of young nulliparous females (oocyte stages 1 or 2) were seen during 
some repellent application periods. This suggested older females had been killed 
or driven off from the local population by the treatments, and flies on cattle
included more young flies that likely were recent arrivals. The repellent-oil
mixture thus impacted blood feeding, reproductive fitness, and probably age
structure in the field.

DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx208 
PMID: 29186519 


302. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Mar 1;213:350-358. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.11.027. Epub
2017 Nov 26.

Assessment of the anti-snakebite properties of extracts of Aniba fragrans Ducke
(Lauraceae) used in folk medicine as complementary treatment in cases of
envenomation by Bothrops atrox.

de Moura VM(1), da Costa Guimarães N(2), Batista LT(3), Freitas-de-Sousa LA(4),
de Sousa Martins J(5), de Souza MCS(6), Oliveira de Almeida PD(7), Monteiro
WM(8), de Oliveira RB(9), Dos-Santos MC(10), Mourão RHV(11).

Author information: 
(1)Programa de Pós-graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia-PPGRNA,
Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Universidade 
Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia
Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em
Medicina Tropical -PPGMT, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas-UEA, Fundação de
Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado-FMT/HVD, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Electronic address: mouraovm@yahoo.com.br.
(2)Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e
Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:
norah.costa@hotmail.com.
(3)Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e
Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Programa
Multi-institucional de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia-PPGBIOTEC, Laboratório de
Imunoquímica, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas,
Universidade Federal do Amazonas, UFAM, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Electronic address:
luana_travassos@yahoo.com.br.
(4)Programa de Pós-graduação em Toxinologia, Laboratório de Imunopatologia -
Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
Luciana.sousa@butantan.gov.br.
(5)Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e
Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:
donto_2005@hotmail.com.
(6)Programa Multi-institucional de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia-PPGBIOTEC,
Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências
Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, UFAM, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Electronic address: mcarol.biotec@gmail.com.
(7)Laboratório de Atividade Biológica - Biophar, Faculdade de Ciências
Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, AM, Brazil. Electronic address: 
patt_danielle@hotmail.com.
(8)Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina Tropical -PPGMT, Universidade do Estado 
do Amazonas-UEA, Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado-FMT/HVD,
Manaus, AM, Brazil. Electronic address: wueltonmm@gmail.com.
(9)Programa de Pós-graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia-PPGRNA,
Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Universidade 
Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia
Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address: rbo@ufopa.br.
(10)Programa Multi-institucional de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia-PPGBIOTEC,
Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências
Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, UFAM, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Electronic address: mcsantos1957@yahoo.com.br.
(11)Programa de Pós-graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia-PPGRNA,
Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Universidade 
Federal do Oeste do Pará- UFOPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia
Experimental -LabBBEx, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:
mouraorhv@yahoo.com.br.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Extracts of leaves and bark of Aniba fragrans are
used as tea (decoction) to treat snakebites in communities in the Brazilian
Amazon. The aqueous extract of the leaves of A. fragrans has been proven to be
effective against Bothrops venom, but only when pre-incubated with the venom.
This study sought to assess the potential of different types of extract of this
species to inhibit the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) when
used the same way as in folk medicine. The main classes of secondary metabolites 
and the concentrations of phenolics in the extracts were also determined.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four types of extract of A. fragrans were prepared:
aqueous extract of the leaf (AEL), aqueous extract of the bark (AEB),
hydroalcoholic leaf extract (HLE) and extract of the residue from
hydrodistillation of the leaf (ERHL). The phytochemical profiles of the aqueous
extracts were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the
concentrations of phenolics were measured by colorimetric assays. To investigate 
the potential of the extracts to inhibit the biological activities of BaV, in
vitro tests for antiphospholipase and antifibrinolytic activities were performed.
In vivo tests for antihemorrhagic and antidefibrinating activities were also
carried out, as well as antimicrobial tests for activity against the main
bacteria found in the oral cavity of snakes. Interaction between the extracts and
the proteins in BaV was assessed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot
(WB). The cytotoxicity of the extracts was assessed in a strain of MRC-5 human
fibroblasts.
RESULTS: Terpenoids, flavonoids and condensed and hydrolysable tannins were
detected in all the extracts. Metabolites such as coumarins, fatty acids and
alkaloids were present in some extracts but not in others, indicating different
phytochemical profiles. Phenolics content varied between extracts, and there were
more tannins in AEB and HLE. In the in vitro tests, the extracts inhibited the
phospholipase and fibrinolytic activities of BaV in the two ratios of venom to
extract used. HLE exhibited effective antimicrobial action as it inhibited growth
of 11 of the 15 bacteria investigated, including Morganella morganii, the main
bacteria described in the oral cavity of snakes. The extracts failed to inhibit
the defibrinating activity of BaV, and only the Bothrops antivenom had a
significant effect (96.1%) on this activity. BaV-induced hemorrhage was
completely inhibited by AEL and AEB when the pre-incubation (venom:extract)
protocol was used. When administered orally, as in folk medicine, both AEB and
AEL produced significant inhibition of hemorrhagic activity (maximum inhibition
46.5% and 39.2%, respectively). SDS-PAGE and WB of the extracts pre-incubated
with BaV showed that the main proteins in the venom had been precipitated by the 
extracts. None of the four extracts showed cytotoxic effects in the tests carried
out with a human fibroblast cell line.
CONCLUSION: In addition to being effective in reducing hemorrhage when
administered orally, the extracts displayed a high antimicrobial potential
against microorganisms involved in secondary infections at the site of the
snakebite. Once the extracts have been tested in accordance with the appropriate 
regulations, this species could potentially be used to produce a phytomedicine
for complementary treatment of the secondary infections due to bacteria that
aggravate the local signs and symptoms after snakebite envenomation.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.11.027 
PMID: 29183746 


303. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018 Mar 1;114:155-165. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.11.022. Epub
2017 Nov 24.

Overexpressing cell systems are a competitive option to primary adipocytes when
predicting in vivo potency of dual GPR81/GPR109A agonists.

Almquist J(1), Hovdal D(2), Ahlström C(2), Fjellström O(3), Gennemark P(2),
Sundqvist M(2).

Author information: 
(1)Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden; Systems
and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers
University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; DMPK, Cardiovascular and Metabolic 
Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:
joachim.almquist@fcc.chalmers.se.
(2)DMPK, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca,
Gothenburg, Sweden.
(3)Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca,
Gothenburg, Sweden.

Mathematical models predicting in vivo pharmacodynamic effects from in vitro data
can accelerate drug discovery, and reduce costs and animal use. However, data
integration and modeling is non-trivial when more than one drug-target receptor
is involved in the biological response. We modeled the inhibition of
non-esterified fatty acid release by dual G-protein-coupled receptor 81/109A
(GPR81/GPR109A) agonists in vivo in the rat, to estimate the in vivo EC50 values 
for 12 different compounds. We subsequently predicted those potency estimates
using EC50 values obtained from concentration-response data in isolated primary
adipocytes and cell systems overexpressing GPR81 or GPR109A in vitro. A simple
linear regression model based on data from primary adipocytes predicted the in
vivo EC50 better than simple linear regression models based on in vitro data from
either of the cell systems. Three models combining the data from the
overexpressing cell systems were also evaluated: two piecewise linear models
defining logical OR- and AND-circuits, and a multivariate linear regression
model. All three models performed better than the simple linear regression model 
based on data from primary adipocytes. The OR-model was favored since it is
likely that activation of either GPR81 or GPR109A is sufficient to deactivate the
cAMP pathway, and thereby inhibit non-esterified fatty acid release. The OR-model
was also able to predict the in vivo selectivity between the two receptors.
Finally, the OR-model was used to predict the in vivo potency of 1651 new
compounds. This work suggests that data from the overexpressing cell systems are 
sufficient to predict in vivo potency of GPR81/GPR109A agonists, an approach
contributing to faster and leaner drug discovery.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.11.022 
PMID: 29180298 


304. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2018 Mar;73(1):61-67. doi: 10.1007/s11130-017-0648-8.

Effect of Acrocomia aculeata Kernel Oil on Adiposity in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

Nunes ÂA(1)(2), Buccini DF(3)(4), Jaques JAS(5), Portugal LC(5), Guimarães
RCA(6), Favaro SP(7), Caldas RA(8), Carvalho CME(4).

Author information: 
(1)Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity Pro-Midwest Network,
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, 79070-900, Brazil. 
nunysnutri@yahoo.com.br.
(2)Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo
Grande, MS, Brazil. nunysnutri@yahoo.com.br.
(3)Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity Pro-Midwest Network,
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, 79070-900, Brazil.
(4)Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo
Grande, MS, Brazil.
(5)Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo
Grande, MS, Brazil.
(6)Post-Graduate Program in Health and Development in the Mid-West Region,
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.
(7)Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa, PqEB, W3 Norte - Asa
Norte, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
(8)Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

The macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native of tropical America and is found 
mostly in the Cerrados and Pantanal biomes. The fruits provide an oily pulp, rich
in long chain fatty acids, and a kernel that encompass more than 50% of lipids
rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Based on biochemical and nutritional
evidences MCFA is readily catabolized and can reduce body fat accumulation. In
this study, an animal model was employed to evaluate the effect of Acrocomia
aculeata kernel oil (AKO) on the blood glucose level and the fatty acid deposit
in the epididymal adipose tissue. The A. aculeata kernel oil obtained by cold
pressing presented suitable quality as edible oil. Its fatty acid profile
indicates high concentration of MCFA, mainly lauric, capric and caprilic. Type 2 
diabetic rats fed with that kernel oil showed reduction of blood glucose level in
comparison with the diabetic control group. Acrocomia aculeata kernel oil showed 
hypoglycemic effect. A small fraction of total dietary medium chain fatty acid
was accumulated in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed with AKO at both low
and high doses and caprilic acid did not deposit at all.

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-017-0648-8 
PMID: 29177992 


305. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Mar;53:9-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.015. Epub 2017
Oct 18.

Flaxseed oil rich in omega-3 protects aorta against inflammation and endoplasmic 
reticulum stress partially mediated by GPR120 receptor in obese, diabetic and
dyslipidemic mice models.

Moura-Assis A(1), Afonso MS(2), de Oliveira V(1), Morari J(3), Dos Santos GA(4), 
Koike M(2), Lottenberg AM(2), Ramos Catharino R(4), Velloso LA(3), Sanchez Ramos 
da Silva A(5), de Moura LP(6), Ropelle ER(6), Pauli JR(6), Cintra DEC(7).

Author information: 
(1)Laboratory of Nutritional Genomics, School of Applied Sciences of University
of Campinas Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil.
(2)Lipids Laboratory (LIM10), Faculty of Medical Sciences of University of São
Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
(3)Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Faculty of Medical Sciences of University of
Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
(4)INNOVARE Biomarkers Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Sciences of University of
Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
(5)School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto, University of São
Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
(6)Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Exercise, School of Applied Sciences of
University of Campinas Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil.
(7)Laboratory of Nutritional Genomics, School of Applied Sciences of University
of Campinas Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil; Nutrigenomics and Lipids Center, School
of Applied Sciences of University of Campinas Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil.
Electronic address: dcintra@yahoo.com.

The "first hit" to atherogenesis is driven by toll-like receptor 4, endoplasmic
reticulum stress and ultimately metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we
hypothesized that a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (FS) abolishes these inflammatory 
signaling pathway and restore metabolic homeostasis by activating the fatty acid 
receptor GPR120 in aorta of obese mice. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by GTT
and ITT; lipidomics was performed using a Hybrid Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass
Spectrometer; serum lipids were measured using colorimetric assays; GPR120 and
infiltrating macrophages were analyzed by immunofluorescence; protein
immunoprecipitation and gene expression were evaluated by Western blot and
RT-PCR, respectively. There were no differences in body weight and food intake
between the groups from both strains (Swiss and LDLr-KO mice). GTT and
cholesterol levels were improved by FS in both mice models. Lipidomics showed an 
increase in ω3 (C18:3) content, meanwhile stearic acid (C18:0) was not detected
in endothelial tissue in response to FS. Moreover, FS markedly decreased
pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, pIκBα, pIKKβ) and unfolded protein response
markers (ATF6 and GRP78) in aorta. In Swiss mice, GPR120 was partially involved
in the ω3-mediated anti-inflammatory actions, disrupting TLR4 pathway, but not in
LDLr-KO mice. Partial replacement of dietary saturated by unsaturated ω3 fatty
acids contributes to inhibition of cardiovascular risk markers, pro-inflammatory 
cytokines and ER stress sensors and effectors in the aorta. However,
downregulation of inflammation is not mediated by arterial GPR120 activation.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.015 
PMID: 29175142 


306. J Ren Nutr. 2018 Mar;28(2):110-117. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2017.08.007. Epub 2017 Nov
22.

Different Dietary Patterns and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Kidney
Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Centenaro A(1), Pedrollo EF(2), Nicoletto BB(3), Manfro RC(4), Gonçalves LFS(5), 
Leitão CB(6), Souza GC(7).

Author information: 
(1)Nutrition Graduate Course, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(2)Post Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Endocrinology, Federal University of
Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(3)Nutrition Course, Knowledge Area of Life Sciences, University of Caxias do
Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(4)Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Post Graduate Program in 
Medicine: Medical Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto
Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(5)Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(6)Post Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Endocrinology, Federal University of
Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Department of
Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul,
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
(7)Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande 
do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Food and Nutrition Research
Center, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brazil; Post Graduation Program in Food, Nutrition and Health,
School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address: gabriela.souza@ufrgs.br.

OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of dietary patterns and dietary components
with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT).
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SUBJECTS: Adult kidney transplant recipients, without history of diabetes before 
transplantation, who received a kidney transplant and were followed up for at
least 1 year. One hundred and sixteen subjects recruited between January 2013 and
August 2014. Diagnosis of NODAT was established according to the American
Diabetes Association criteria for type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected. Dietary
intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, administered by a registered
dietitian. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Chi-square test 
was used to verify the association between dietary patterns and NODAT. Total
energy, fiber, and cholesterol intake were calculated. Consumption of
macronutrients, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (total fats and saturated,
monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids), were expressed in
percentage of total energy intake.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients developed NODAT in the follow-up period. They
presented higher body mass index and body fat percentage, as well as higher
levels of triglycerides and urinary protein/creatinine ratio than the non-NODAT
group. Two dietary patterns, I and II, were identified. Pattern II was
characterized by higher intake of total, saturated, monounsaturated, and trans
fats than pattern I. No association between the dietary patterns and NODAT was
identified (P = .905), and there was no difference in the distribution of
macronutrients, dietary fiber, and dietary cholesterol between the groups with
and without NODAT.
CONCLUSION: Posttransplant dietary patterns were not different between patients
with and without NODAT. Further larger and prospective studies are needed to
evaluate a possible relationship between dietary components and NODAT incidence
in kidney transplant recipients.

Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All 
rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2017.08.007 
PMID: 29174319 


307. Public Health Nutr. 2018 Mar;21(4):777-784. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017003147. Epub 
2017 Nov 27.

Quantity and species of fish consumed shape breast-milk fatty acid concentrations
around Lake Victoria, Kenya.

Fiorella KJ(1), Milner EM(2), Bukusi E(3), Fernald LC(2).

Author information: 
(1)1Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future,Cornell University,340J Warren
Hall,Ithaca,NY 14853,USA.
(2)3School of Public Health,University of California-Berkeley,Berkeley,CA,USA.
(3)4Centre for Microbiology Research,Kenya Medical Research
Institute,Kisumu,Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) found in breast milk are derived from dietary
sources and critical for optimal infant development. We examined associations
between fish consumption and concentrations of LCPUFA and essential n-3 and n-6
fatty acids in breast milk among mothers living around Lake Victoria.
DESIGN: We used cross-sectional analyses of associations between recent fish
consumption and breast-milk fatty acid concentrations.
SETTING: The study was conducted around Lake Victoria on Mfangano Island, Kenya, 
where multiple fish species are key dietary components and also are widely
exported.
SUBJECTS: Breast-feeding mothers (n 60) provided breast-milk samples,
anthropometric measurements and questionnaire responses.
RESULTS: In the previous 3 d, 97 % of women consumed a mean of 178 (sd 111) g
fish (~2 servings/3 d). Mean breast-milk concentrations included DHA (0·75 % of
total fatty acids), EPA (0·16 %), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 0·54 %), arachidonic
acid (AA; 0·44 %) and linoleic acid (LA; 12·7 %). Breast-milk DHA concentrations 
exceeded the global average of 0·32 % in fifty-nine of sixty samples. We found
native cichlids (Cichlidae) and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) contributed high
levels of DHA, EPA and AA to local diets. We also found evidence for associations
between fish species consumed and breast-milk LCPUFA concentrations when
controlling for intake of other fish species, maternal body mass, maternal age,
child age and exclusive breast-feeding.
CONCLUSIONS: The fatty acid composition of breast milk was influenced by the fish
species consumed. Ensuring access to diverse fish and particularly inexpensive,
locally available species, may be important for diet quality as well as infant
growth and development.

DOI: 10.1017/S1368980017003147 
PMID: 29173215 


308. Planta. 2018 Mar;247(3):679-692. doi: 10.1007/s00425-017-2816-3. Epub 2017 Nov
23.

Bioenergetic reprogramming plasticity under nitrogen depletion by the unicellular
green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

Papazi A(1), Korelidou A(1), Andronis E(1), Parasyri A(1), Stamatis N(2),
Kotzabasis K(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology, University of Crete, Voutes University Campus, 70013,
Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
(2)Hellenic Agricultural Research Foundation "Demeter", Fisheries Research
Institute, 64007, Nea Peramos, Kavala, Greece.
(3)Department of Biology, University of Crete, Voutes University Campus, 70013,
Heraklion, Crete, Greece. kotzab@biology.uoc.gr.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Simultaneous nitrogen depletion and 3,4-dichlorophenol addition 
induce a bioenergetic microalgal reprogramming, through strong Cyt b 6 f
synthesis, that quench excess electrons from dichlorophenol's biodegradation to
an overactivated photosynthetic electron flow and H 2 -productivity. Cellular
energy management includes "rational" planning and operation of energy production
and energy consumption units. Microalgae seem to have the ability to calculate
their energy reserves and select the most profitable bioenergetic pathways. Under
oxygenic mixotrophic conditions, microalgae invest the exogenously supplied
carbon source (glucose) to biomass increase. If 3,4-dichlorophenol is added in
the culture medium, then glucose is invested more to biodegradation rather than
to growth. The biodegradation yield is enhanced in nitrogen-depleted conditions, 
because of an increase in the starch accumulation and a delay in the
establishment of oxygen-depleted conditions in a closed system. In
nitrogen-depleted conditions, starch cannot be invested in PSII-dependent and
PSII-independent pathways for H2-production, mainly because of a strong decrease 
of the cytochrome b 6 f complex of the photosynthetic electron flow. For this
reason, it seems more profitable for the microalga under these conditions to
direct the metabolism to the synthesis of lipids as cellular energy reserves.
Nitrogen-depleted conditions with exogenously supplied 3,4-dichlorophenol induce 
reprogramming of the microalgal bioenergetic strategy. Cytochrome b 6 f is
strongly synthesized (mainly through catabolism of polyamines) to manage the
electron bypass from the dichlorophenol biodegradation procedure to the
photosynthetic electron flow (at the level of PQ pool) and consequently through
cytochrome b 6 f and PSI to hydrogenase and H2-production. All the above showed
that the selection of the appropriate cultivation conditions is the key for the
manipulation of microalgal bioenergetic strategy that leads to different
metabolic products and paves the way for a future microalgal "smart"
biotechnology.

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-017-2816-3 
PMID: 29170910 


309. Arch Microbiol. 2018 Mar;200(2):343-348. doi: 10.1007/s00203-017-1449-z. Epub
2017 Nov 23.

Caenispirillum humi sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the soil of Korean pine
garden.

Huq MA(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Biotechnology and Natural
Resource, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17546, Republic of
Korea. amdadbge@gmail.com.

A novel bacterial strain MAH-8T was isolated from a soil sample of a Korean pine 
garden and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells were
Gram-staining negative, pinkish yellow colored, motile and vibrio-shaped. The
strain was aerobic and catalase, oxidase positive, optimum growth temperature and
pH were 28-30 °C and 7.0, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence
analysis, strain MAH-8T belongs to the genus Caenispirillum and is most closely
related to Caenispirillum bisanense KCTC 12839T (98.14%), Caenispirillum deserti 
KCTC 42064T (96.35%), and Caenispirillum salinarum JCM 17360T (95.76%). In
DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the DNA relatedness between strain MAH-8T and its
closest phylogenetic neighbor was below 45.0%. The DNA G + C content was
70.5 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10.
Flexirubin-type pigments were present and the major cellular fatty acids were
C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c, C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c and C16:0. The results of DNA-DNA
hybridization and genotypic analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and
physiological data demonstrated that strain MAH-8T represented a novel species
within the genus Caenispirillum, for which the name Caenispirillum humi, is
proposed. The type strain is MAH-8T (= KACC 19294T = CGMCC 1.16224T). The NCBI
GenBank Accession Number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MAH-8T is
KY964275.

DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1449-z 
PMID: 29170803 


310. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Feb 28;28(2):236-245. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1707.07061.

Fermented Soymilk Alleviates Lipid Accumulation by Inhibition of SREBP-1 and
Activation of NRF-2 in the Hepatocellular Steatosis Model.

Ahn SB(1), Wu WH(2), Lee JH(2)(3), Jun DW(4), Kim J(5), Kim R(5), Lee TB(5)(6),
Jun JH(2)(5)(7).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 
34824, Republic of Korea.
(2)Eulji Medi-Bio Research Institute (EMBRI), Eulji University, Daejeon 34824,
Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eulji University School of
Medicine, Daejeon 34824, Republic of Korea.
(4)Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul
04763, Republic of Korea.
(5)Department of Senior Healthcare, BK21 Plus Program, Graduate School of Eulji
University, Daejeon 34824, Republic of Korea.
(6)Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul
03080, Republic of Korea.
(7)Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135,
Republic of Korea.

Ingredients of soy and fermented soy products have been widely utilized as food
supplements for health-enhancing properties. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the effects of fermented soymilk (FSM) and soymilk (SM) on free fatty
acid-induced lipogenesis in the hepatocellular steatosis model. HepG2 cells were 
incubated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h to induce lipogenesis and accumulation
of intracellular lipid contents. The PA-treated cells were co-incubated with FSM,
SM, genistein, and estrogen, respectively. Lipid accumulation in the PA-treated
HpG2 cells was significantly decreased by co-incubation with FSM. Treatment of
HepG2 cells with PA combined with genistein or estrogen significantly increased
the expression of SREBP-1. However, FSM co-incubation significantly attenuated
SREBP-1 expression in the PA-treated HepG2 cells; in addition, expression of
NRF-2 and phosphorylation of ERK were significantly increased in the PA and FSM
co-incubated cells. PA-induced ROS production was significantly reduced by FSM
and SM. Our results suggested that the bioactive components of FSM could protect 
hepatocytes against the lipid accumulation and ROS production induced by free
fatty acids. These effects may be mediated by the inhibition of SREBP-1 and the
activation of NRF-2 via the ERK pathway in HepG2 cells.

DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1707.07061 
PMID: 29169220 


311. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(5):1647-1652. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8789. Epub 2017 Dec
6.

Innovative food products for cancer patients: future directions.

Tueros I(1), Uriarte M(1).

Author information: 
(1)AZTI, Food and Health, Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain.

One of the main challenges for cancer patients under treatment is to prevent and 
tackle malnutrition. The current clinical nutrition market offers different food 
supplements or oral nutritional support products (mainly milkshakes or modified
texture products) for cancer patients under risk of malnutrition. However, it is 
worth mentioning that these products do not address the pleasure of eating, since
they do not meet sensory requirements, such as taste and smell alterations, nor
patients' food preferences, leading to a big impact on their quality of life
(QOL). Still, controversy remains regarding the specific nutritional requirements
for cancer patients during the disease. Several randomized controlled clinical
trials yield opposite results when using different bioactive compounds such as
omega-3 fatty acids or antioxidants in order to prevent malnutrition or improve
QOL. The use of 'omics' technologies in oncology, such as membrane lipidomics, as
a powerful tool to provide new insights for the understanding of diet and cancer 
and their interacting metabolic pathways, will be discussed. The better knowledge
of specific requirements (nutrients, sensory parameters and food preferences) for
cancer patients provides valuable information for the food industry in the design
of customized food products capable of preventing malnutrition, alleviating
symptoms and improving QOL. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8789 
PMID: 29168190 


312. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Mar 1;213:183-190. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.11.022. Epub
2017 Nov 21.

The beneficial health aspects of sea buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.)
A.Nelson) oil.

Olas B(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental
Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/3, 90-236 Lodz, Poland. Electronic
address: beata.olas@biol.uni.lodz.pl.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Plant oils are known to have biological activity.
This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of the composition of sea
buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson) seed and pulp oil and its
beneficial health aspects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies on humans and animals have
found sea buckthorn oil to have a variety of beneficial properties to human
health, and indicate that it may be a valuable component of human and animal
nutrition. Various bioactive substances are present in all parts of sea
buckthorn, and these are used traditionally as raw material for health foods and 
as nutritional supplements. The oil, berries, leaves and bark have medicinal
properties, and the fruits have a unique taste; these parts can be processed to
make oil, juice, jam, jellies and candies, as well as alcoholic and non-alcoholic
beverages.
RESULTS: Sea buckthorn oil may be extracted from the seed or the pulp. The mature
seeds contain 8-20% oil and the dried fruit pulp about 20-25%, while the fruit
residue contains about 15-20% oil after juice extraction. These oils have high
concentrations of lipophilic constituents, most commonly unsaturated fatty acids 
(UFAs), phytosterols and vitamins A and E. These components have a
multifunctional effect on human health, with the fatty acids playing an important
function in modifying cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders. The oil also 
has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressive properties.
CONCLUSION: Sea buckthorn is a unique plant. Its beneficial properties against
cardiovascular disorders have been attributed to its high UFA content and range
of phytosterols, especially beta-sitosterol. However, its different action on the
human organism remain unclear, and further well-controlled, high-quality
experiments with human subjects are required to determine the prophylactic and
therapeutic doses of sea buckthorn oil for use in clinical studies. Additional
studies are also needed to understand the action by which the oil exerts its
beneficial properties, i.e. its cardioprotective and anti-cancer activity.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.11.022 
PMID: 29166576 


313. Planta. 2018 Mar;247(3):635-648. doi: 10.1007/s00425-017-2813-6. Epub 2017 Nov
21.

Contrasting survival and physiological responses of sub-Arctic plant types to
extreme winter warming and nitrogen.

Bokhorst S(1)(2), Jaakola L(3)(4), Karppinen K(3)(5), Edvinsen GK(6), Mæhre
HK(6), Bjerke JW(7).

Author information: 
(1)Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), FRAM - High North Research
Centre for Climate and the Environment, Langnes, PO Box 6606, 9296, Tromsø,
Norway. s.f.bokhorst@vu.nl.
(2)Department of Ecological Science, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 
1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. s.f.bokhorst@vu.nl.
(3)Climate Laboratory Holt, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UIT The
Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.
(4)Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), PO Box 115, 1431, Ås,
Norway.
(5)Genetics and Physiology Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu,
Finland.
(6)Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Norwegian College of Fishery 
Science, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.
(7)Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), FRAM - High North Research
Centre for Climate and the Environment, Langnes, PO Box 6606, 9296, Tromsø,
Norway.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Evergreen plants are more vulnerable than grasses and birch to
snow and temperature variability in the sub-Arctic. Most Arctic climate impact
studies focus on single factors, such as summer warming, while ecosystems are
exposed to changes in all seasons. Through a combination of field and laboratory 
manipulations, we compared physiological and growth responses of dominant
sub-Arctic plant types to midwinter warming events (6 °C for 7 days) in
combination with freezing, simulated snow thaw and nitrogen additions. We aimed
to identify if different plant types showed consistent physiological, cellular,
growth and mortality responses to these abiotic stressors. Evergreen dwarf shrubs
and tree seedlings showed higher mortality (40-100%) following extreme winter
warming events than Betula pubescens tree seedlings and grasses (0-27%). All
species had growth reductions following exposure to - 20 °C, but not all species 
suffered from - 10 °C irrespective of other treatments. Winter warming followed
by - 20 °C resulted in the greatest mortality and was strongest among evergreen
plants. Snow removal reduced the biomass for most species and this was
exacerbated by subsequent freezing. Nitrogen increased the growth of B. pubescens
and grasses, but not the evergreens, and interaction effects with the warming,
freezing and snow treatments were minor and few. Physiological activity during
the winter warming and freezing treatments was inconsistent with growth and
mortality rates across the plants types. However, changes in the membrane fatty
acids were associated with reduced mortality of grasses. Sub-Arctic plant
communities may become dominated by grasses and deciduous plants if winter
snowpack diminishes and plants are exposed to greater temperature variability in 
the near future.

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-017-2813-6 
PMCID: PMC5809542
PMID: 29164366 


314. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Mar;15(3):182-193. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610.

Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, 
and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains Western United States.

Davidson ME(1)(2)(3), Schaeffer J(1)(2), Clark ML(1)(2), Magzamen S(1)(2), Brooks
EJ(1)(2), Keefe TJ(1)(2), Bradford M(1)(2), Roman-Muniz N(1)(4), Mehaffy J(1)(2),
Dooley G(1)(2), Poole JA(5), Mitloehner FM(6), Reed S(3), Schenker MB(6),
Reynolds SJ(1)(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences , Colorado State 
University , Fort Collins , Colorado.
(2)b High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety ,
Colorado State University , Fort Collins , Colorado.
(3)f Edith Cowan University , Perth , Western Australila , Australia.
(4)c Department of Animal Science , Colorado State University, Colorado State
University , Fort Collins , Colorado.
(5)d University of Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha , Nebraska.
(6)e Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety , UC Davis , Davis ,
California.

Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an
array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse
health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and
composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection
strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers 
grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains Western
United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin,
3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia through one
work shift. Eighty-nine percent of dairy workers were exposed to endotoxin at
concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure guidelines (adjusted for a long
work shift). The proportion of workers with exposures exceeding recommended
guidelines was lower for inhalable dust (12%), and ammonia (1%). Ergosterol
exposures were only measurable on 28% of samples, primarily among medical workers
and feed handlers. Milking parlor workers were exposed to significantly higher
inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, ammonia, and muramic acid concentrations
compared to workers performing other tasks. Development of large modern dairies
has successfully made progress in reducing worker exposures and lung disease
prevalence. However, exposure to endotoxin, dust, and ammonia continues to
present a significant risk to worker health on North American dairies, especially
for workers in milking parlors. This study was among the first to concurrently
evaluate occupational exposure to assayable endotoxin (lipid A), 3-hydroxy fatty 
acids or 3-OHFA (a chemical measure of cell bound and noncell-bound endotoxins), 
muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia among workers on Western U.S. dairies.
There remains a need for cost-effective, culturally acceptable intervention
strategies integrated in OHS Risk Management and production systems to further
optimize worker health and farm productivity.

DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610 
PMID: 29157144 


315. Meat Sci. 2018 Mar;137:106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.007. Epub 2017 Nov
6.

Differential partitioning of rumen-protected n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into muscles
with different metabolism.

Wolf C(1), Ulbrich SE(2), Kreuzer M(1), Berard J(3), Giller K(2).

Author information: 
(1)Animal Nutrition, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich,
Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
(2)Animal Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich,
Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
(3)Animal Nutrition, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich,
Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
joel.berard@usys.ethz.ch.

Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by
their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil
important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different
incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with
different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with
rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA)
in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6
(docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil. Contents and
proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA of total fatty acids were elevated in the muscles
of the respective diet group but they were partitioned differently into the
muscles. For EPA and DHA, but not for LA, the diet effect was more distinct in
the extensor carpi radialis compared to longissimus thoracis and biceps femoris. 
Partitioning of PUFA in metabolism could be related to muscle function. This has 
to be confirmed in other muscles, adipose tissues and organs.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.007 
PMID: 29156325 


316. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018 Mar;47:94-102. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.11.008. Epub 2017
Nov 15.

Nervonoylceramide (C24:1Cer), a lipid biomarker for ocular irritants released
from the 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium, MCTT HCE™.

Lee M(1), Joo KM(2), Choi S(1), Lee SH(3), Kim SY(3), Chun YJ(4), Choi D(5), Lim 
KM(6).

Author information: 
(1)College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.
(2)AMOREPACIFIC Corp. R&D Center, Yongin 17074, Republic of Korea.
(3)Biosolution Co., Seoul 101811, Republic of Korea.
(4)College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea.
(5)Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 
02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: aahhhh@paran.com.
(6)College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.
Electronic address: kmlim@ewha.ac.kr.

Due to invasive and painful procedures during in vivo rabbit eye irritation test,
in vitro alternative methods have been widely investigated. Recently, 3D
reconstructed human cornea-like epitheliums (RhCEs) garner a huge attention.
RhCEs employ the tissue viability as a primary endpoint to determine ocular
irritancy but additional biomarkers may improve its predictive capacity. Here, we
explored lipid biomarkers for ocular irritants in MCTT HCE™ RhCE model. Three
irritants; sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100 were
selected to represent anionic, cationic and non-ionic detergent respectively.
After treating MCTT HCE™ with irritants, the alteration of lipids in the treated 
tissues was examined with Nile Red staining, which revealed the depletion of
corneal lipids. We further quantitated the release of ceramides and free fatty
acids, major lipid components of cornea, into the medium during the
post-treatment incubation, employing a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method. Among 44
lipid species, nervonoylceramide (C24:1Cer) was found to be released commonly by 
all three irritants in a concentration-dependent manner. Tests with 10 additional
reference substances further supported that C24:1Cer release was significantly
correlated with viability. Examination of the genes involved in the biosynthetic 
pathway for C24:1Cer revealed that stearoylCoA desaturase (SCD) and elongase1
(ELOVL1) were upregulated, suggesting that lipids and related genes may be
employed as biomarkers for ocular irritants.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.11.008 
PMID: 29155129 


317. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Mar;27(3):e54-e57. doi:
10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.10.008. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Embolic Stroke due to Carotidynia Potentially Associated with Moving Carotid
Artery Caused by Swallowing.

Yamaguchi Y(1), Hayakawa M(2), Kinoshita N(3), Yokota C(2), Ishihara T(2), Toyoda
K(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular
Center, Suita, Japan. Electronic address: y.yamaguchi830@gmail.com.
(2)Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular
Center, Suita, Japan.
(3)Department of Neurology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita,
Japan.

A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis
discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and
azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness
disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal
lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography 
showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left 
common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue. The tissue
was identified as an isodense lesion on noncontrast computed tomography (CT) and 
as a high-intensity lesion on fat-saturated T2-weighted MRI. From her symptoms
and radiological findings, she was diagnosed with carotidynia. Cervical MRI also 
showed that the LCCA was transposed to a retropharyngeal location, suggesting a
moving carotid artery. Carotid ultrasonography revealed that the LCCA moved to
and from the retropharyngeal position with swallowing and was thus being
compressed by the hyoid bone. After corticosteroid therapy was initiated with
30 mg of prednisolone, her symptoms and radiological findings improved. To our
knowledge, this is the first report of a case of cerebral embolism due to
carotidynia. The repetitive compressions by the hyoid bone during swallowing were
presumed to have provoked shear stress and inflammation of the carotid vessel
wall, which was aggravated by discontinuation of steroid therapy in our case.
These mechanical and inflammatory stresses might cause dysfunction of endothelial
cells, hypercoagulation, platelet hyperaggregation, and vulnerability and rupture
of carotid plaques, and may subsequently result in embolic strokes.

Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.10.008 
PMID: 29153397 


318. J Ren Nutr. 2018 Mar;28(2):118-124. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Nov
14.

Development of Kidney Transplant Fibrosis Is Inversely Associated With Plasma
Marine Fatty Acid Level.

Eide IA(1), Dörje C(2), Svensson M(3), Jenssen T(4), Hammarstrøm C(5), Scott
H(5), Bjerve KS(6), Christensen JH(7), Schmidt EB(8), Hartmann A(9), Åsberg
A(10), Reisæter AV(11), Reinholt FP(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Renal Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway;
Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet,
Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: Ivar.Anders.Eide@ahus.no.
(2)Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital,
Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
(3)Department of Renal Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway;
Institute of Clinical Medicine, The University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
(4)Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital,
Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Metabolic and Renal Research Group, UiT The Arctic 
University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
(5)Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo,
Norway.
(6)Department of Medical Biochemistry, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University
Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and
Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim,
Norway.
(7)Department of Nephrology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
(8)Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
(9)Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital,
Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, The University of
Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
(10)Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital,
Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of
Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; The Norwegian Renal Registry, Oslo
University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
(11)Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital,
Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; The Norwegian Renal Registry, Oslo University
Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

OBJECTIVE(S): We assessed associations between plasma levels of polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFAs) and degree of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis in
transplanted kidneys.
DESIGN: The design of the study was single center cohort study.
SUBJECTS: A study population of 156 patients who received a kidney transplant at 
Oslo University Hospital during 2010.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Kidney transplant biopsies were obtained at 2 months and
1 year after transplantation. Degree of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis in
the cortex of transplanted kidneys were estimated semi-quantitatively. Plasma
phospholipid fatty acids levels were measured in a stable phase 2 months
posttransplant. We used multivariate linear regression to assess associations
between plasma levels of PUFAs and degree of inflammation and interstitial
fibrosis at 2 months and 1 year postoperatively and change in degree of
interstitial fibrosis during the first year after transplantation, adjusting for 
inflammation and fibrosis risk factors.
RESULTS: Higher plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels were associated with less
development of interstitial fibrosis in the kidney transplant (unstandardized
β-coefficient -1.12, standardized β-coefficient -0.18, P = .03) during the first 
year after transplantation. Plasma levels of alpha linoleic acid, linoleic acid, 
and arachidonic acid were not associated with development of interstitial
fibrosis. No associations were found between plasma levels of PUFAs and
inflammation inside fibrotic areas or outside fibrotic areas in the kidney
transplant at neither 2 months nor 1 year postoperatively. Linolenic acid levels 
in plasma were positively associated with change in renal function during the
first year after transplantation.
CONCLUSION: The inverse association between plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels and
development of interstitial fibrosis during the first year after kidney
transplantation suggests that marine fatty acid consumption might halt
progression of fibrosis.

Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All 
rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2017.09.001 
PMID: 29146138 


319. J Investig Med. 2018 Mar;66(3):641-647. doi: 10.1136/jim-2017-000582. Epub 2017
Nov 14.

Potential approaches to prevent hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure.

Lontchi-Yimagou E(1), You JY(1), Carey M(1)(2), Gabriely I(1), Shamoon H(1),
Hawkins M(1).

Author information: 
(1)Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine,
Bronx, New York, USA.
(2)Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Clear health benefits are associated with intensive glucose control in type 1
diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, maintaining near-normal glycemia remains an
elusive goal for many patients, in large part owing to the risk of severe
hypoglycemia. In fact, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to
'hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure' (HAAF), characterized by defective
counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Extensive studies to understand the
mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies,
suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF. In this review,
we present an overview of the literature focused on pharmacological approaches
that may prevent the development of HAAF. The purported underlying mechanisms of 
HAAF include: 1) central mechanisms (opioid receptors, ATP-sensitive K+(KATP)
channels, adrenergic receptors, serotonin selective receptor inhibitors,
γ-aminobuyric acid receptors, N-methyl D-aspartate receptors); 2) hormones
(cortisol, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or DHEA sulfate, glucagon-like
peptide-1) and 3) nutrients (fructose, free fatty acids, ketones), all of which
have been studied vis-à-vis their ability to impact the development of HAAF. A
careful review of the current literature reveals many promising therapeutic
approaches to treat or reduce this important limitation to optimal glycemic
control.

© American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text
of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless 
otherwise expressly granted.

DOI: 10.1136/jim-2017-000582 
PMID: 29141871 

Conflict of interest statement: Competing interests: None declared.


320. Glia. 2018 Mar;66(3):522-537. doi: 10.1002/glia.23263. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Sex differences in the phagocytic and migratory activity of microglia and their
impairment by palmitic acid.

Yanguas-Casás N(1), Crespo-Castrillo A(1), de Ceballos ML(1), Chowen JA(2)(3),
Azcoitia I(4)(5), Arevalo MA(1)(5), Garcia-Segura LM(1)(5).

Author information: 
(1)Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, 28002, Spain.
(2)Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús,
Instituto de Investigación la Princesa, Madrid, 28009, Spain.
(3)CIBER de Investigación Biomédica en Red: Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y
Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
(4)Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense,
Madrid, 28040, Spain.
(5)CIBER de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento
Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Sex differences in the incidence, clinical manifestation, disease course, and
prognosis of neurological diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders or
Alzheimer's disease, have been reported. Obesity has been postulated as a risk
factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease and, during pregnancy,
increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Obesity is
associated with increased serum and brain levels of free fatty acids, such as
palmitic acid, which activate microglial cells triggering a potent inflammatory
cascade. In this study, we have determined the effect of palmitic acid in the
inflammatory profile, motility, and phagocytosis of primary male and female
microglia, both in basal conditions and in the presence of a pro-inflammatory
stimulus (interferon-γ). Male microglia in vitro showed higher migration than
female microglia under basal and stimulated conditions. In contrast, female
microglia had higher basal and stimulated phagocytic activity than male
microglia. Palmitic acid did not affect basal migration or phagocytosis, but
abolished the migration and phagocytic activity of male and female microglia in
response to interferon-γ. These findings extend previous observations of sex
differences in microglia and suggest that palmitic acid impairs the protective
responses of these cells.

© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/glia.23263 
PMID: 29139169 


321. Mol Pharmacol. 2018 Mar;93(3):228-238. doi: 10.1124/mol.117.110841. Epub 2017 Nov
14.

N-Acyl Amino Acids (Elmiric Acids): Endogenous Signaling Molecules with
Therapeutic Potential.

Burstein SH(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of
Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts
sumner.burstein@umassmed.edu.

The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent
years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions.
The field comprises a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance 
is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is
N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the
endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom 
even as the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this
minireview are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for
N-acyl amino acids, physiologic actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological
effects of N-acyl amino acids, and molecular mechanisms believed to be
responsible for their effects. On the subject of mechanisms, we propose several
possibilities whose basis is the currently available information. Four putative
pathways can be suggested: 1) inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase-induced
increases in anandamide or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels, resulting in
analgesic activity; 2) binding to GPR18, initiating the production of
anti-inflammatory eicosanoids (specifically, the data suggest roles for
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin-J2 and lipoxin A4, both of which are potent
inflammation-resolving molecules); 3) inactivation of T-type Cav3 channels; and
4) inhibition of the GLYT2 glycine transporter. Each pathway would produce
analgesic effects. Also, the N-acyl amino acids do not bind to either cannabinoid
or opioid receptors, thus reducing adverse actions and making them good templates
for novel drug candidate molecules.

Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental
Therapeutics.

DOI: 10.1124/mol.117.110841 
PMID: 29138268 


322. SLAS Discov. 2018 Mar;23(3):274-282. doi: 10.1177/2472555217741077. Epub 2017 Nov
13.

A Cell-Based Assay to Investigate Hypolipidemic Effects of Nonalcoholic Fatty
Liver Disease Therapeutics.

Dave T(1), Tilles AW(1), Vemula M(1).

Author information: 
(1)1 Nivarta, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

In the recent past, there has been a growing interest in developing nonalcoholic 
fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) therapeutics.
As a result, a need for in vitro cell models of human hepatic steatosis and
high-throughput assays to measure intracellular lipid levels has arisen. To
address this growing need, we optimized the conditions based on the current
literature to fatten HepG2 hepatocytes by adding a mixture of saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids (oleate/palmitate, 2:1 molar ratio) without inducing any 
overt cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that hepatocytes fatten in a
concentration- (0.75-1.5 mM of fatty acids) and time-dependent manner, with a
substantial increase in intracellular lipid levels seen within 6 h. Additionally,
a method to quantify lipid levels in cells using a fluorescent reagent that is
more sensitive than that in conventional assays and adaptable for high-throughput
screening is presented. Lastly, the utility of the in vitro cell model and an
assay based on AdipoRed to measure hypolipidemic effects of therapeutic drugs is 
demonstrated using fenofibrate, a molecule that was previously shown to lower
lipid levels in the liver.

DOI: 10.1177/2472555217741077 
PMID: 29132235 


323. Indoor Air. 2018 Mar;28(2):258-265. doi: 10.1111/ina.12439. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Skin squames contribute to ammonia and volatile fatty acid production from
bacteria colonizing in air-cooling units with odor complaints.

Ng TW(1), Chan PY(1), Chan TT(1), Wu H(1), Lai KM(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region, China.

One of the most notable Indoor Air Quality problems is odor emission. This study 
investigated the potential contribution of skin squames to the production of
ammonia (NH3 ) and volatile organic acids (VFAs) by 7 bacteria isolated from
air-cooling (AC) units with complaints of urine and body odors. Our previous
study showed that keratinolytic activity is higher in AC units with odor
complaints than those without. In the offices where these units are located, the 
most likely source of keratins is from human skin squames. Most bacteria can
produce NH3 and VFAs in the skin squame culture. Some correlations between the
levels of NH3 , NH4+, VFAs, and keratinolytic activity were found. The odor
production pathway with skin squames was proposed. Staphylococcus haemolyticus
was abundant in the AC units with odor problems and had a high level of
keratinolytic activity in addition to odor production. For long-term odor
control, it is important to reduce the level of skin squames entering the AC
units.

© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/ina.12439 
PMID: 29130534 


324. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar;37(3):615-622. doi: 10.1007/s10067-017-3896-y. Epub 2017
Nov 11.

High levels of oxidized fatty acids in HDL are associated with impaired HDL
function in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

Charles-Schoeman C(1), Meriwether D(2), Lee YY(2), Shahbazian A(2), Reddy ST(2).

Author information: 
(1)David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles,
10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. ccharles@mednet.ucla.edu.
(2)David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles,
10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation products of arachidonic
acid and linoleic acid in lipoproteins and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with
active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to non-RA controls. High-density
lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated from plasma
using fast protein liquid chromatography and HDL was isolated from SF using
dextran sulfate precipitation. 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE,
15-HETE, 9 hydroxyoctadecadienoic (HODE), and 13-HODE levels were measured in
HDL, LDL, and SF by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. HDL's
anti-inflammatory function, cholesterol levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and
paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities were determined as previously. 5-HETE, 15-HETE,
9-HODE, and 13-HODE levels were significantly increased in HDL and LDL from
patients with active RA (n = 10) compared to healthy controls (n = 8) and
correlated significantly with measures of systemic inflammation, particularly in 
HDL (r = 0.65-0.80, p values < 0.004). Higher HETES and HODES in HDL were also
significantly correlated with impaired HDL function as measured by the HDL
inflammatory index (HII) (r = 0.54-0.58; p values < 0.03). 15-HETE levels and MPO
activity were higher in RA SF (n = 10) compared to osteoarthritis (OA)
SF(n = 11), and HDL from RA SF had worse function compared to OA SF HDL
(HII = 2.1 ± 1.9 and 0.5 ± 0.1), respectively (p < 0.05). Oxidation products of
arachidonic acid and linoleic acid are increased in HDL and LDL from patients
with active RA compared to healthy controls, and are associated with worse
anti-oxidant function of HDL. These results suggest a potential mechanism by
which oxidative stress from active RA increases oxidized fatty acids in HDL,
promoting HDL dysfunction, and thereby increasing atherosclerotic risk.

DOI: 10.1007/s10067-017-3896-y 
PMID: 29129008 


325. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):E214-E223. doi:
10.1152/ajpendo.00218.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Restricting glycolysis impairs brown adipocyte glucose and oxygen consumption.

Winther S(1), Isidor MS(1)(2), Basse AL(1), Skjoldborg N(1), Cheung A(1),
Quistorff B(3), Hansen JB(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.
(2)Section of Integrative Physiology, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic
Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.
(3)Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen ,
Denmark.

During thermogenic activation, brown adipocytes take up large amounts of glucose.
In addition, cold stimulation leads to an upregulation of glycolytic enzymes.
Here we have investigated the importance of glycolysis for brown adipocyte
glucose consumption and thermogenesis. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown in mature
adipocytes, we explored the effect of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes
on brown adipocyte functions such as consumption of glucose and oxygen. Basal
oxygen consumption in brown adipocytes was equally dependent on glucose and fatty
acid oxidation, whereas isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated respiration was fueled
mainly by fatty acids, with a significant contribution from glucose oxidation.
Knockdown of glucose transporters in brown adipocytes not only impaired
ISO-stimulated glycolytic flux but also oxygen consumption. Diminishing
glycolytic flux by knockdown of the first and final enzyme of glycolysis, i.e.,
hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M (PKM), respectively, decreased glucose
uptake and ISO-stimulated oxygen consumption. HK2 knockdown had a more severe
effect, which, in contrast to PKM knockdown, could not be rescued by
supplementation with pyruvate. Hence, brown adipocytes rely on glucose
consumption and glycolytic flux to achieve maximum thermogenic output, with
glycolysis likely supporting thermogenesis not only by pyruvate formation but
also by supplying intermediates for efferent metabolic pathways.

DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00218.2017 
PMID: 29118013 


326. Curr Microbiol. 2018 Mar;75(3):328-335. doi: 10.1007/s00284-017-1384-x. Epub 2017
Nov 8.

Spirosoma humi sp. nov., Isolated from Soil in South Korea.

Weilan L(1), Lee JJ(1), Lee SY(1), Park S(1), Ten LN(1), Jung HY(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea.
(2)School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea. heeyoung@knu.ac.kr.
(3)Institute of Plant Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea. heeyoung@knu.ac.kr.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain,
designated S7-4-1T, was isolated from soil in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea and
characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position.
Phylogenic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain
S7-4-1T belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to
Spirosoma fluviale MSd3T (96.2%), 'Spirosoma radiotolerans' DG5A (96.0%),
Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14T (95.9%), and Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T (95.8%). The 
G+C content of the genomic DNA of the isolate was 49.0 mol%. The strain contained
summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c; 41.0%), C16:1 ω5c (24.9%), and C15:0 iso
(9.3%) as the major fatty acids, menaquinone MK-7 as the predominant respiratory 
quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminophospholipid as
the main polar lipids, which supported its affiliation with the genus Spirosoma. 
The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and
phenotypic differentiation of the isolate from recognized Spirosoma species. On
the basis of its phenotypic properties, genotypic distinctiveness, and
chemotaxonomic features, strain S7-4-1T represents a novel species of the genus
Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type
strain is S7-4-1T (= KCTC 52729T = JCM 32132T).

DOI: 10.1007/s00284-017-1384-x 
PMID: 29116346 


327. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Mar;43(3):299-302. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0533.
Epub 2017 Nov 6.

A multi-ingredient nutritional supplement enhances exercise training-related
reductions in markers of systemic inflammation in healthy older men.

Bell KE(1), Snijders T(1), Zulyniak MA(2), Kumbhare D(2), Parise G(1), Chabowski 
A(3), Phillips SM(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8,
Canada.
(2)b Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada.
(3)c Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok,
Poland.

We evaluated whether twice-daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional
supplement (SUPP) would reduce systemic inflammatory markers following 6 weeks of
supplementation alone (phase 1), and the subsequent addition of 12 weeks of
exercise training (phase 2) in healthy older men, in comparison with a
carbohydrate-based control (CON). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and
interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were progressively reduced (P-time < 0.05) in
the SUPP group. No change in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations was observed in the CON
group.

DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0533 
PMID: 29106814 


328. J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2737-2752. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13340. Epub 2017
Nov 6.

Symposium review: Modulating adipose tissue lipolysis and remodeling to improve
immune function during the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows.

Contreras GA(1), Strieder-Barboza C(2), De Koster J(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East 
Lansing 48824. Electronic address: contre28@msu.edu.
(2)Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East 
Lansing 48824.

Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow
physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at
least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half 
of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis,
usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major
risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and 
metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance. Lipolysis triggers
adipose tissue (AT) remodeling that is characterized by enhanced humoral and
cell-mediated inflammatory responses and changes in its distribution of cellular 
populations and extracellular matrix composition. Uncontrolled AT inflammation
could perpetuate lipolysis, as we have observed in cows with displaced abomasum, 
especially in those animals with genetic predisposition for excessive lipolysis
responses. Efficient transition cow management ensures a moderate rate of
lipolysis that is rapidly reduced as lactation progresses. Limiting FFA release
from AT benefits immune function as several FFA are known to promote
dysregulation of inflammation. Adequate formulation of pre- and postpartum diet
reduces the intensity of AT lipolysis. Additionally, supplementation with niacin,
monensin, and rumen-protected methyl donors (choline and methionine) during the
transition period is reported to minimize FFA release into systemic circulation. 
Targeted supplementation of energy sources during early lactation improves energy
balance and increases insulin concentration, which limits AT lipolytic responses.
This review elaborates on the mechanisms by which uncontrolled lipolysis triggers
inflammatory disorders. Details on current nutritional and pharmacological
interventions that aid the modulation of FFA release from AT and their effect on 
immune function are provided. Understanding the inherent characteristics of AT
biology in transition and early lactation cows will reduce disease incidence and 
improve lactation performance.

Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13340 
PMID: 29102145 


329. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):L421-L431. doi:
10.1152/ajplung.00273.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Docosahexaenoic acid enhances amphiregulin-mediated bronchial epithelial cell
repair processes following organic dust exposure.

Nordgren TM(1)(2), Heires AJ(1), Bailey KL(3)(1), Katafiasz DM(1), Toews ML(4),
Wichman CS(5), Romberger DJ(3)(1).

Author information: 
(1)Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, Department of Internal
Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha, Nebraska.
(2)Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California 
Riverside , Riverside, California.
(3)Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, Nebraska.
(4)Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of
Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha, Nebraska.
(5)Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha,
Nebraska.

Injurious dust exposures in the agricultural workplace involve the release of
inflammatory mediators and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 
in the respiratory epithelium. Amphiregulin (AREG), an EGFR ligand, mediates
tissue repair and wound healing in the lung epithelium. Omega-3 fatty acids such 
as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known modulators of repair and resolution 
of inflammatory injury. This study investigated how AREG, DHA, and EGFR modulate 
lung repair processes following dust-induced injury. Primary human bronchial
epithelial (BEC) and BEAS-2B cells were treated with an aqueous extract of swine 
confinement facility dust (DE) in the presence of DHA and AREG or EGFR
inhibitors. Mice were exposed to DE intranasally with or without EGFR inhibition 
and DHA. Using a decellularized lung scaffolding tissue repair model, BEC
recolonization of human lung scaffolds was analyzed in the context of DE, DHA,
and AREG treatments. Through these investigations, we identified an important
role for AREG in mediating BEC repair processes. DE-induced AREG release from
BEC, and DHA treatment following DE exposure, enhanced this release. Both DHA and
AREG also enhanced BEC repair capacities and rescued DE-induced recellularization
deficits. In vivo, DHA treatment enhanced AREG production following DE exposure, 
whereas EGFR inhibitor-treated mice exhibited reduced AREG in their lung
homogenates. These data indicate a role for AREG in the process of tissue repair 
after inflammatory lung injury caused by environmental dust exposure and
implicate a role for DHA in regulating AREG-mediated repair signaling in BEC.

DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00273.2017 
PMID: 29097425 


330. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):L333-L348. doi:
10.1152/ajplung.00129.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

The free fatty acid receptor 1 promotes airway smooth muscle cell proliferation
through MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

Matoba A(1), Matsuyama N(1), Shibata S(1), Masaki E(1), Emala CW Sr.(2), Mizuta
K(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Dento-oral Anesthesiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of 
Dentistry , Sendai , Japan.
(2)Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia
University , New York, New York.

Obesity is a risk factor for asthma and influences airway hyperresponsiveness,
which is in part modulated by airway smooth muscle proliferative remodeling.
Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) levels are elevated in obese individuals, and
long-chain FFAs act as endogenous ligands for the free fatty acid receptor 1
(FFAR1), which couples to both Gq and Gi proteins. We examined whether
stimulation of FFAR1 induces airway smooth muscle cell proliferation through
classical MEK/ERK and/or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways.
The long-chain FFAs (oleic acid and linoleic acid) and a FFAR1 agonist (GW9508)
induced human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cell proliferation, which was inhibited
by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 . The long-chain FFAs 
and GW9508 increased phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6K in HASM cells and
freshly isolated rat airway smooth muscle. Downregulation of FFAR1 in HASM cells 
by siRNA significantly attenuated oleic acid-induced phosphorylation of ERK and
Akt. Oleic acid-induced ERK phosphorylation was blocked by either the Gαi-protein
inhibitor pertussis toxin or U0126 and was partially inhibited by either the
Gαq-specific inhibitor YM-254890 or the Gβγ signaling inhibitor gallein. Oleic
acid significantly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP activity, which was
attenuated by pertussis toxin. Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by pertussis
toxin, the ras inhibitor manumycin A, the Src inhibitor PP1, or LY294002 .
Phosphorylation of p70S6K by oleic acid or GW9508 was significantly inhibited by 
LY294002 , U0126, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor
rapamycin. In conclusion, the FFAR1 promoted airway smooth muscle cell
proliferation and p70S6K phosphorylation through MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling
pathways.

DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00129.2017 
PMID: 29097424 


331. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar;616-617:863-874. doi:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.236. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Cooking and co-ingested polyphenols reduce in vitro methylmercury
bioaccessibility from fish and may alter exposure in humans.

Girard C(1), Charette T(2), Leclerc M(2), Shapiro BJ(3), Amyot M(4).

Author information: 
(1)Center for Northern Studies (CEN), Département de Sciences Biologiques,
Université de Montréal, 90 Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada.
(2)ÉcoLac, Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, 90
Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada; Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire
en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences
Biologiques, Université de Montréal, 90 Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada.
(3)Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement
Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, 90
Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada.
(4)Center for Northern Studies (CEN), Département de Sciences Biologiques,
Université de Montréal, 90 Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada; ÉcoLac,
Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, 90 Vincent-d'Indy,
Montreal H2V2S9, Canada; Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et 
en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques,
Université de Montréal, 90 Vincent-d'Indy, Montreal H2V2S9, Canada. Electronic
address: m.amyot@umontreal.ca.

Fish consumption is a major pathway for mercury exposure in humans. Current
guidelines and risk assessments assume that 100% of methylmercury (MeHg) in fish 
is absorbed by the human body after ingestion. However, a growing body of
literature suggests that this absorption rate may be overestimated. We used an in
vitro digestion method to measure MeHg bioaccessibility in commercially-purchased
fish, and investigated the effects of dietary practices on MeHg bioaccessibility.
Cooking had the greatest effect, decreasing bioaccessibility on average to
12.5±5.6%. Polyphenol-rich beverages also significantly reduced bioaccessibility 
to 22.7±3.8% and 28.6±13.9%, for green and black tea respectively. We confirmed
the suspected role of polyphenols in tea as being a driver of MeHg's reduced
bioaccessibility, and found that epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, rutin and
cafeic acid could individually decrease MeHg bioaccessibility by up to 55%. When 
both cooking and polyphenol-rich beverage treatments were combined, only 1% of
MeHg remained bioaccessible. These results call for in vivo validation, and
suggest that dietary practices should be considered when setting consumer
guidelines for MeHg. More realistic risk assessments could promote consumption of
fish as a source of fatty acids, which can play a protective role against
cardiovascular disease.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.236 
PMID: 29096961 


332. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Mar;53:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.018. Epub 2017
Oct 4.

Protective properties of n-3 fatty acids and implications in obesity-associated
breast cancer.

Al-Jawadi A(1), Moussa H(2), Ramalingam L(1), Dharmawardhane S(3), Gollahon L(4),
Gunaratne P(5), Layeequr Rahman R(6), Moustaid-Moussa N(7).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX;
Obesity Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.
(2)Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX;
Obesity Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.
(3)Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico
Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR.
(4)Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX;
Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX; Obesity
Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.
(5)University of Houston, Department of Biology and Biochemistry.
(6)Texas Tech University Health Science Center and Breast Cancer Center of
Excellence, Amarillo, TX.
(7)Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX;
Obesity Research Cluster, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. Electronic address:
naima.moustaid-moussa@ttu.edu.

Obesity is well documented as a risk factor for developing breast cancer,
especially in postmenopausal women. Adipose tissue in the breast under obese
conditions induces inflammation by increasing macrophage infiltration and
pro-inflammatory cytokines that in turn up-regulates genes and signaling
pathways, resulting in increased inflammation, cell proliferation and tumor
growth in the breast. Due to their potent anti-inflammatory effects, n-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a promising and safe dietary
intervention in reducing breast cancer risk. Here, we briefly review current
status of breast cancer and its relationship with obesity. We then review in
depth, current research and knowledge on the role of n-3 PUFA in
reducing/preventing breast cancer cell growth in vitro, in vivo and in human
studies, and how n-3 PUFA may modulate signaling pathways mitigating their
effects on breast cancer development.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.018 
PMID: 29096149 


333. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):471-478. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0968-6.
Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Cellulomonas macrotermitis sp. nov., a chitinolytic and cellulolytic bacterium
isolated from the hindgut of a fungus-growing termite.

Sun X(1), Li J(1), Du J(1), Xiao H(2), Ni J(3).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,
250100, People's Republic of China.
(2)Hengyang Management Center of Termite Control, Hengyang, 421000, People's
Republic of China.
(3)State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,
250100, People's Republic of China. jinfgni@sdu.edu.cn.

To investigate the symbiotic roles of the gut microbiota in the fungus-growing
termite Macrotermes barneyi, a novel strain with chitinolytic and cellulolytic
activity, designated strain an-chi-1T, was isolated from the hindgut of M.
barneyi. Strain an-chi-1T grows optimally at 28-30 °C, pH 8.0 in PYG medium. On
the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this isolate belongs to the genus
Cellulomonas with high sequence similarity to Cellulomonas iranensis (99.4%),
followed by Cellulomonas flavigena (98.4%), Cellulomonas phragmiteti (97.4%),
Cellulomonas oligotrophica (97.2%) and Cellulomonas terrae (97.0%). The DNA-DNA
relatedness between an-chi-1T and the type strains of C. iranensis and C.
flavigena DSM20109T are 35.4% and 23.7%, respectively. The major cellular fatty
acids are anteiso-C15:0 and C14:0. The polar lipid profile consists of
diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol
dimannosides and one unidentified phospholipid. The cell-wall sugar is ribose.
The peptidoglycan contains glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine. The DNA G+C 
content is 67.3 mol%. Based on its distinctive phenotypic, phylogenetic, and
chemotaxonomic characteristics, an-chi-1T represents a novel species of the genus
Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas macrotermitis sp. nov. is proposed.
The type strain is an-chi-1T (= JCM 31923T = CICC 24195T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0968-6 
PMID: 29090357 


334. Curr Microbiol. 2018 Mar;75(3):278-283. doi: 10.1007/s00284-017-1376-x. Epub 2017
Oct 31.

Vibrio hannami sp. nov., Isolated from Seawater.

Lee GE(1), Im WT(2), Park JS(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University
Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34430, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Biotechnology, Hankyong National University, 327 Chungang-no
Anseong-si, Kyonggi-do, 456-749, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University
Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34430, Republic of Korea. jspark@hnu.kr.

A Gram-reaction negative, aerobic, motile, non-pigmented and rod-shaped
bacterium, designated as 168GH5-2-16T, was isolated from seawater Jeju island.
Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that
the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Vibrio and was most closely
related to Vibrio variabilis R-40492T (96.0%). The DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%.
The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and
phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The predominant quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The
major fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c)
and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) supported the affiliation of
168GH5-2-16T to the genus Vibrio. Moreover, the physiological, biochemical, and
taxonomic analysis allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain
168GH5-2-16T from the recognized species of the genus Vibrio. Therefore, strain
168GH5-2-16T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name
Vibrio hannami sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 168GH5-2-16T (=KACC
19277T = DSM105032T).

DOI: 10.1007/s00284-017-1376-x 
PMID: 29090323 


335. Arch Microbiol. 2018 Mar;200(2):291-297. doi: 10.1007/s00203-017-1443-5. Epub
2017 Oct 28.

Description of Deinococcus populi sp. nov. from the trunk surface of a Japanese
aspen tree.

Li J(1), Kudo C(2), Tonouchi A(3).

Author information: 
(1)United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 18-8 Ueda
3-chome, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8550, Japan.
(2)Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho,
Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan.
(3)Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho,
Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan. symbio@hirosaki-u.ac.jp.

A bacterial strain designated PtRA-8T was isolated from the trunk surface of a
Japanese aspen tree (Populus tremula var. sieboldii). Cells of strain PtRA-8T
were aerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-stain-negative rods, 1.0‒2.0 µm
in width and 3.0‒10.0 µm in length. The pH range for growth was between 5.5 and
7.5, with an optimum at 6.5. The temperature range for growth was between 10 and 
37 °C, with an optimum at around 25‒30 °C. Strain PtRA-8T was highly resistant to
UV irradiation, similar to its Deinococcus relatives. The respiratory quinone was
menaquinone MK-8. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10% of the total fatty acid
content) were iso-C15:0 (17.8%), C16:0 (15.0%), iso-C17:0 (10.4%), and iso-C17:1 
ω9c/C16:010-methyl (22.2%). The polar lipids consisted of four unidentified
glycolipids, two unidentified aminolipids, two unidentified phospholipids, and
three unidentified polar lipids. The peptidoglycan was A3β-type containing
glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, and ornithine. The DNA G + C content of strain
PtRA-8T was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences
showed that strain PtRA-8T was closely related to "Deinococcus radioresistens"
8AT (97.4%), Deinococcus metalli DSM 27521T (95.7%), and Deinococcus yunweiensis 
YIM 007T (94.5%). The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between strain PtRA-8T
and its relatives yielded relatedness values below 70%. Based on the polyphasic
evidence, we concluded that strain PtRA-8T represents a novel species within the 
genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus populi is proposed. The type
strain of D. populi is PtRA-8T (= DSM 29820T= NBRC 110763T; DPD TaxonNumber
TA00271).

DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1443-5 
PMID: 29080938 


336. Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Mar;183:177-204. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.10.016. Epub
2017 Nov 7.

Therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acid-derived epoxyeicosanoids in
cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

Schunck WH(1), Konkel A(2), Fischer R(2), Weylandt KH(3).

Author information: 
(1)Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany. Electronic
address: schunck@mdc-berlin.de.
(2)OMEICOS Therapeutics GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
(3)Department of Gastroenterology, Diabetes, Oncology and Rheumatology, Ruppiner 
Kliniken, Brandenburg Medical School, Neuruppin, Germany; Lipid Clinic,
Experimental and Clinical Research Centre (ECRC), Charité University Medicine and
Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Numerous benefits have been attributed to dietary long-chain omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), including protection against cardiac 
arrhythmia, triglyceride-lowering, amelioration of inflammatory, and
neurodegenerative disorders. This review covers recent findings indicating that a
variety of these beneficial effects are mediated by "omega-3 epoxyeicosanoids", a
class of novel n-3 LC-PUFA-derived lipid mediators, which are generated via the
cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase pathway. CYP enzymes, previously identified as 
arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; AA) epoxygenases, accept eicosapentaenoic acid
(20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA), the major fish oil n-3
LC-PUFAs, as efficient alternative substrates. In humans and rodents, dietary
EPA/DHA supplementation causes a profound shift of the endogenous CYP-eicosanoid 
profile from AA- to EPA- and DHA-derived metabolites, increasing, in particular, 
the plasma and tissue levels of 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 
19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP). Based on preclinical studies, these
omega-3 epoxyeicosanoids display cardioprotective, vasodilatory,
anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic properties that contribute to the beneficial
effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs in diverse disease conditions ranging from cardiac
disease, bronchial disorders, and intraocular neovascularization, to allergic
intestinal inflammation and inflammatory pain. Increasing evidence also suggests 
that background nutrition as well as genetic and disease state-related factors
could limit the response to EPA/DHA-supplementation by reducing the formation
and/or enhancing the degradation of omega-3 epoxyeicosanoids. Recently,
metabolically robust synthetic analogs mimicking the biological activities of
17,18-EEQ have been developed. These drug candidates may overcome limitations of 
dietary EPA/DHA supplementation and provide novel options for the treatment of
cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.10.016 
PMID: 29080699 


337. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Mar;75(5):921-938. doi: 10.1007/s00018-017-2677-8. Epub
2017 Oct 23.

Resculpting the binding pocket of APC superfamily LeuT-fold amino acid
transporters.

Edwards N(1), Anderson CMH(1), Conlon NJ(1), Watson AK(1), Hall RJ(1), Cheek
TR(1), Embley TM(1), Thwaites DT(2).

Author information: 
(1)Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences,
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
(2)Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences,
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK. d.t.thwaites@ncl.ac.uk.

Amino acid transporters are essential components of prokaryote and eukaryote
cells, possess distinct physiological functions, and differ markedly in substrate
specificity. Amino acid transporters can be both drug targets and drug
transporters (bioavailability, targeting) with many monogenic disorders resulting
from dysfunctional membrane transport. The largest collection of amino acid
transporters (including the mammalian SLC6, SLC7, SLC32, SLC36, and SLC38
families), across all kingdoms of life, is within the Amino
acid-Polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily. The LeuT-fold is a paradigm
structure for APC superfamily amino acid transporters and carriers of sugars,
neurotransmitters, electrolytes, osmolytes, vitamins, micronutrients, signalling 
molecules, and organic and fatty acids. Each transporter is specific for a unique
sub-set of solutes, specificity being determined by how well a substrate fits
into each binding pocket. However, the molecular basis of substrate selectivity
remains, by and large, elusive. Using an integrated computational and
experimental approach, we demonstrate that a single position within the LeuT-fold
can play a crucial role in determining substrate specificity in mammalian and
arthropod amino acid transporters within the APC superfamily. Systematic mutation
of the amino acid residue occupying the equivalent position to LeuT V104 titrates
binding pocket space resulting in dramatic changes in substrate selectivity in
exemplar APC amino acid transporters including PAT2 (SLC36A2) and SNAT5
(SLC38A5). Our work demonstrates how a single residue/site within an archetypal
structural motif can alter substrate affinity and selectivity within this
important superfamily of diverse membrane transporters.

DOI: 10.1007/s00018-017-2677-8 
PMCID: PMC5809530
PMID: 29058016 


338. J Biophotonics. 2018 Mar;11(3). doi: 10.1002/jbio.201700242. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Label-free imaging of redox status and collagen deposition showing metabolic
differences in the heart.

Morrison JL(1), Sorvina A(2), Darby JRT(1), Bader CA(2), Lock MC(1), Seed M(3),
Kuchel T(4), Plush SE(2), Brooks DA(2).

Author information: 
(1)Early Origins of Adult Health Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Medical
Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia,
Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
(2)Mechanisms in Cell Biology and Disease Research Group, School of Pharmacy and 
Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South
Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
(3)The Hospital for Sick Kids, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
(4)Preclinical Imaging and Research Laboratories, South Australian Health and
Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

The heart has high metabolic demand to maintain function. The primary source of
energy supply to support correct contractile muscle function differs between a
fetus and an adult. In fetal life, ATP is primarily generated by glycolysis and
lactate oxidation, whereas following birth, there is a shift towards a reliance
on mitochondrial metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. This change in metabolic
status is an adaptation to different fuel availability, oxygenation and growth
patterns. In this study, we have employed 2-photon excitation fluorescence
microscopy to define the relationship between two critical metabolic cofactors
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide,
effectively utilizing a redox ratio to differentiate between the metabolic status
in fetal (proliferative) and adult (quiescent/hypertrophic) hearts. Two-photon
imaging was also used to visually confirm the known increase in collagen
deposition in the adult heart. The changes observed were consistent with a
hypertrophic growth profile and greater availability of fatty acids in the adult 
heart, compared to the proliferative fetal heart. Two-photon excitation
fluorescence microscopy is therefore a convenient imaging technology that enables
the monitoring of striated muscle architecture and the metabolic status of heart 
tissue. This imaging technology can potentially be employed to visualize cardiac 
and other muscle pathologies.

© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201700242 
PMID: 29057578 


339. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2018 Mar;44(3):407-420. doi: 10.1080/03639045.2017.1395459.
Epub 2017 Nov 8.

QbD-driven development and evaluation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of 
Olmesartan medoxomil employing multivariate statistical techniques.

Beg S(1), Saini S(1), Bandopadhyay S(1), Katare OP(1), Singh B(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)a UGC Centre of Advanced Studies , University Institute of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Panjab University , Chandigarh , India.
(2)b UGC-Centre of Excellence in Applications of Nanomaterials, Nanoparticles and
Nanocomposites (Biomedical Sciences), Panjab University , Chandigarh , India.

PURPOSE: This research work entails quality by design (QbD)-based systematic
development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM)
with improved biopharmaceutical attributes.
METHODS: Quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined and critical quality
attributes (CQAs) were earmarked. Solubility of drug was performed in various
lipids for screening of them. NLCs were prepared by hot-microemulsion method
using solid lipids, liquid lipids and surfactants with maximal solubility.
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was carried out for identifying high risk
formulation and process parameters. Further, principal component analysis (PCA)
was applied on high risk parameters for evaluating the effect of type and
concentration of lipids and surfactants on CQAs. Further, systematic optimization
of critical material attributes (CMAs) was carried out using face centered cubic 
design and optimized formulation was identified in the design space.
RESULTS: FMEA and PCA suggested suitability of stearic acid, oleic acid and Tween
80 as the CMAs for NLCs. Response surface optimization helped in identifying the 
optimized NLC formulation with particle size ∼250 nm, zeta potential <25 mV,
entrapment efficiency >75%, in vitro drug release >80% within 6 h. Release
kinetic modeling indicated drug release through Fickian-diffusion mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these studies indicated successful development of NLCs
using multivariate statistical approaches for improved product and process
understanding.

DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2017.1395459 
PMID: 29048242  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


340. Food Chem. 2018 Mar 1;242:466-474. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.082. Epub 2017
Sep 18.

Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of
Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

Petropoulos S(1), Fernandes Â(2), Barros L(2), Ferreira ICFR(3).

Author information: 
(1)Universityof Thessaly, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural
Environment, 38446 N. Ionia, Magnissia, Greece. Electronic address:
fangio57gr@gmail.com.
(2)Centrode Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança,
Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.
(3)Centrode Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança,
Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address:
iferreira@ipb.pt.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on
nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of
Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and
local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four
commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5
and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for
both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a
higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype
dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when
harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent
impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common 
practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to
increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.082 
PMID: 29037716 


341. Food Chem. 2018 Mar 1;242:352-361. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.084. Epub 2017
Sep 18.

Effect of methyl jasmonate on the aroma of Sangiovese grapes and wines.

D'Onofrio C(1), Matarese F(2), Cuzzola A(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del
Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa, Italy; Nutraceuticals and Food for Health -
Nutrafood, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa, Italy.
Electronic address: claudio.donofrio@unipi.it.
(2)Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del
Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa, Italy.

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was applied in a vineyard on leaves and grape clusters of
cv Sangiovese to test its ability to stimulate the production of aromas and
identify the main genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways switched on by the 
elicitor. MeJA application led to a delay in grape technological maturity and a
significant increase in the concentration of several berry aroma classes (about
twice the total aroma: from around 3 to 6μg/g of berry). Of these, monoterpenes
showed the most significant increase. An analysis of the expression of terpenoid 
biosynthesis genes confirmed that the MeJA application activated the related
biosynthetic pathway. The expression of all the TPS genes analyzedwas higher in
samples treated with MeJA. Also the wines produced by microvinification of
Sangiovese treated and untreated grapes showed a rise in the aroma concentration 
as in berries, with an important impact on longevity and sensorial characters of 
wines.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.084 
PMID: 29037700  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


342. Food Chem. 2018 Mar 1;242:338-344. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.069. Epub 2017
Sep 14.

Rapid and sensitive detection of free fatty acids in edible oils based on
chemical derivatization coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass
spectrometry.

Liu M(1), Wei F(2), Lv X(1), Dong XY(1), Chen H(1).

Author information: 
(1)Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key 
Laboratory of Oilseeds Processing of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of
Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China; 
Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition, PR China.
(2)Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key 
Laboratory of Oilseeds Processing of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of
Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China; 
Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition, PR China. Electronic
address: willasa@163.com.

In this study, a strategy based on chemical derivatization coupled with
electrospray ionizationtandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for rapid 
and sensitive detection of FFAs in edible oils was developed. A derivative
reagent (N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine, DEEA) was employed to selectively label
carboxyl groups of FFAs to form an amino compound with a tertiary amino group.
The DEEA derivative products could lose a characteristic neutral loss fragment of
73Da in collision-induced dissociation (CID), which enabled to discriminate and
analyze the DEEA derived FFAs with neutral loss scan (NLS 73Da)under the positive
ion mode of mass spectrometry. The assay was linear over the concentration range 
0.5-200nmol/L with satisfactory correlation coefficients (R2≥0.9942), whilst the 
limit of detection and quantitation were 0.1-0.3nmol/L and 0.3-1.0nmol/L,
respectively. Finally, the established method was applied to determine dynamic
FFA formation in seven types of edible oils subjected to a microwave heating
treatment test.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.069 
PMID: 29037698  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


343. Food Chem. 2018 Mar 1;242:29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.005. Epub 2017
Sep 6.

Evaluation of sn-2 fatty acid composition in commercial infant formulas on the
Chinese market: A comparative study based on fat source and stage.

Sun C(1), Wei W(1), Su H(1), Zou X(1), Wang X(2).

Author information: 
(1)Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu 
Province, National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, School of
Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122,
Jiangsu Province, PR China.
(2)Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu 
Province, National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, School of
Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122,
Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address: wangxg1002@gmail.com.

The sn-2 fatty acid composition of 180 commercial infant, follow-on and
growing-up formulas with three fat sources (plant oil, cows' milk and goats'
milk) was investigated and compared with mature human milk (MHM). Sn-2 fatty
acids in formulas were mostly dependent on fat source and stage. Compared with
MHM, all types of formulas contained lower levels of palmitic acid (PA),
saturated fatty acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and
higher levels of oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA)
at the sn-2 position. Even some formulas were supplemented with
1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, the proportions of relative PA at the sn-2
position in formulas were much lower than that in MHM. Moreover, formulas had
higher proportions of relative OA, LA and LNA, and lower LC-PUFAs at the sn-2
position. This study indicated that there were significant differences in the
positional distribution of fatty acids between formulas and MHM.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.005 
PMID: 29037692 


344. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):323-331. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0954-z.
Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Sphingorhabdus buctiana sp. nov., isolated from fresh water, and reclassification
of Sphingopyxis contaminans as Sphingorhabdus contaminans comb. nov.

Chen H(1), Piao AL(1), Tan X(2), Nogi Y(3), Yeo J(4), Lu H(1), Feng QQ(1), Lv
J(5).

Author information: 
(1)College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical
Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.
(2)Food and Health Food R&D Center, Research Institute of Tasly Holding Group
Co., LTD., Tianjin, 300410, People's Republic of China.
(3)Research and Development Center for Marine Biosciences, Japan Agency for
Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka,
237-0061, Japan.
(4)Beijing NO. 80 Middle School, Beijing, 100102, People's Republic of China.
(5)College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical
Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China. lvjie@mail.buct.edu.cn.

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial
strain, designated T5T, was isolated from the Chishui River in Maotai town,
Guizhou Province, Southwest of China. Strain T5T was found to grow optimally at
pH 9.0 and 25 °C. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain T5T
belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria; the
strain T5T clustered with the type strains of Sphingopyxis contaminans,
Sphingorhabdus wooponensis and Sphingorhabdus rigui, with which it exhibits 16S
rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.2-96.9%. The DNA G+C content was
58.5 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the major polar lipid was
phosphatidylethanolamine. The major polyamine was homospermidine and the major
fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c (37.5%) and C16:1 ω7c (30.1%). On the basis of
phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data, strain T5T represents a novel species 
of the genus Sphingorhabdus, for which the name Sphingorhabdus buctiana sp. nov. 
is proposed. The type strain is T5T (= CGMCC 1.12929T = JCM 30114T). It is also
proposed that Sphingopyxis contaminans should be reclassified as a member of the 
genus Sphingorhabdus.

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0954-z 
PMID: 29030752 


345. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):361-372. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0958-8.
Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov., a novel
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) accumulating bacterium isolated from
the Malaysian environment.

Ramachandran H(1)(2), Shafie NAH(3), Sudesh K(1), Azizan MN(4), Majid MIA(5),
Amirul AA(6)(7)(8).

Author information: 
(1)School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang,
Malaysia.
(2)Quest International University Perak, 30250, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
(3)Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Sains@USM, 11900,
Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
(4)Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL-MICET) Taboh Naning, 78000, Alor Gajah, Melaka,
Malaysia.
(5)National Poison Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
(6)School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang,
Malaysia. amirul@usm.my.
(7)Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Sains@USM, 11900,
Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. amirul@usm.my.
(8)Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals (IPharm), National
Institutes of Biotechnology Malaysia (NIBM), MOSTI, 11700, Penang, Malaysia.
amirul@usm.my.

Erratum in
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2017 Dec 28;:.

Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on
three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating
bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian
environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The
Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria
were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the
basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value
with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413T, was 98.5%.
However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both
enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with 
validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also
revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a
clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains
included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic
(C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major
isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain
USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation
that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also
showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes
that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4,
respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16
(7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the
strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species.
On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are
considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus
malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is USMAA1020T
(= DSM 19416T = KCTC 32390T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0958-8 
PMID: 29022146 


346. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):333-341. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0955-y.
Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Larkinella terrae sp. nov., isolated from soil on Jeju Island, South Korea.

Ten LN(1), Jeon J(1), Park SJ(1), Park S(1), Lee SY(1), Kim MK(2), Jung HY(3)(4).

Author information: 
(1)School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Bio and Environmental Technology, Seoul Women's University,
Seoul, 01797, Republic of Korea.
(3)School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea. heeyoung@knu.ac.kr.
(4)Institute of Plant Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566,
Republic of Korea. heeyoung@knu.ac.kr.

A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated
15J8-8T, was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jeju Island, South Korea,
and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA
gene sequence analysis showed that strain 15J8-8T belongs to the family
Cytophagaceae and is related to Larkinella bovis M2TB15T (95.0%), 'Larkinella
harenae' 15J9-9 (94.5%), Larkinella arboricola Z0532T (93.2%), and Larkinella
insperata LMG 22510T (93.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain 15J8-8T was
50.5 mol%. The detection of phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified polar
lipids as major polar lipids; menaquinone-7 as the predominant quinone; and C16:1
ω5c, C16:0 N alcohol, and iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acids also supported the
affiliation of the isolate to the genus Larkinella. Based on its phenotypic
properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 15J8-8T should be classified 
in the genus Larkinella as representative of a novel species, for which the name 
Larkinella terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 15J8-8T (= KCTC
52001T = JCM 31990T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0955-y 
PMID: 29019013 


347. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):353-360. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0957-9.
Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Deinococcus petrolearius sp. nov. isolated from crude oil recovery water in
China.

Xi L(1), Qiao N(2), Zhang J(2), Li J(3), Liu D(2), You J(4)(5), Liu J(2).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Centre for Bioengineering &
Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum, 266580, Qingdao, China.
xilj@upc.edu.cn.
(2)State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Centre for Bioengineering &
Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum, 266580, Qingdao, China.
(3)State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing and Centre for Bioengineering &
Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum, 266580, Qingdao, China.
Lijing@upc.edu.cn.
(4)Petroleum Production Engineering Institute of Huabei Oilfield Ltd, 062552,
Renqiu, China.
(5)School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of
Science and Technology, 200237, Shanghai, China.

A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, spherical, red-pigmented and facultatively
anaerobic bacterium, designated strain 6.1T, was isolated from a crude oil
recovery water sample from the Huabei oil field in China. The novel strain
exhibited tolerance of UV irradiation (> 1000 J m-2). Based on 16S rRNA gene
sequence comparisons, strain 6.1T shows high similarity to Deinococcus citri DSM 
24791T (98.1%) and Deinococcus gobiensis I-0T (97.8%), with less than 93.5%
similarity to other closely related taxa. The major cellular fatty acids were
identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), followed by
iso-C17:1 ω9c and C16:0. The polar lipid profile was found to contain
phospholipids, glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids and aminophospholipids. The
predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-8. The DNA G + C content was
determined to be 68.3 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain 6.1T and D.
citri DSM 24791T was 45.6 ± 7.1% and with D. gobiensis I-OT was 36.6 ± 4.7%. On
the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, we conclude strain
6.1T represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which we propose
the name Deinococcus petrolearius sp. nov. The type strain is 6.1T (= CGMCC
1.15053T = KCTC 33744T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0957-9 
PMID: 28993919 


348. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2018 Mar;111(3):343-351. doi: 10.1007/s10482-017-0956-x.
Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Roseomonas aeriglobus sp. nov., isolated from an air-conditioning system.

Lee Y(1), Jeon CO(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, 84, HeukSeok-Ro, Dongjak-Gu,
Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, 84, HeukSeok-Ro, Dongjak-Gu,
Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea. cojeon@cau.ac.kr.

A novel pale pink-coloured, strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative bacterial
strain, designated strain KER25-12T, was isolated from a laboratory
air-conditioning system in South Korea. Cells were observed to be non-motile
cocci showing positive catalase and oxidase reactions. Strain KER25-12T was found
to grow at 10-30 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and 
in the presence of 0-2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0%). Ubiquinone-10 and spermidine
were detected as the sole respiratory quinone and the predominant polyamine,
respectively. The major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 8
(comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c
and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:0 and C18:0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain
KER25-12T was determined to be 70.0 mol%. The major polar lipids were identified 
as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine,
phosphatidylcholine and an unidentified aminolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based
on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain KER25-12T belongs to
the genus Roseomonas and shows high sequence similarity to Roseomonas aerilata
5420S-30T (98.57%), Roseomonas pecuniae N75T (97.44%) and Roseomonas vinacea CPCC
100056T (97.40%). Based on the morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and
phylogenetic features, strain KER25-12T is concluded to represent a novel species
of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aeriglobus sp. nov. is
proposed. The type strain is KER25-12T (= KACC 19282T = JCM 32049T).

DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0956-x 
PMID: 28983692 


349. Invest Radiol. 2018 Mar;53(3):158-166. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000422.

Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Neurography in Cervical Radiculopathy:
Plexus Patterns and Peripheral Nerve Lesions.

Schwarz D, Kele H, Kronlage M, Godel T, Hilgenfeld T, Bendszus M, Bäumer P.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the imaging appearance and
diagnostic value of plexus and peripheral nerve magnetic resonance neurography
(MRN) in cervical radiculopathy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by our institutional
ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
A total of 24 patients were included with a diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy
based on clinical examination, supporting electrophysiological examinations and
spinal imaging consistent with the clinical syndrome. All patients then underwent
a high-resolution MRN protocol including the brachial plexus from nerve roots to 
plexus cords using a 3-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip angle short
tau inversion recovery and sagittal-oblique T2-weighted spectral adiabatic
inversion recovery sequence, and ulnar, median, and radial nerves at the upper
arm and elbow in T2-weighted fat saturated sequences. Two readers independently
rated plexus elements regarding the presence of lesions at neuroforaminal levels,
roots, trunks, and cord segments. Median, ulnar, and radial nerves were likewise 
rated. Findings were then compared to a referenced standard of cervical
radiculopathy that was defined as the combined diagnosis of clinical syndrome
including supporting electrophysiological exams and matching positive spinal
imaging, and diagnostic performance parameters were calculated. Additional
quantitative and qualitative analysis assessed peripheral nerve caliber and
normalized T2-signal at arm level in cervical radiculopathy and compared them to 
25 inflammatory neuropathy controls.
RESULTS: Cervical radiculopathy resulted in distinct plexus lesion patterns for
each level of neuroforaminal stenosis. Overall, brachial plexus MRN in cervical
radiculopathy reached a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 96%, a positive
predictive value of 87%, and overall diagnostic accuracy of 87%. Initial spinal
magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple positive findings for clinically
unaffected root levels and resulted in a specificity of 69%, a positive
predictive value of 54%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 78%.T2-weighted
peripheral nerve lesions were detected in 79% of cervical radiculopathy cases and
imitated imaging appearance of inflammatory neuropathies both quantitatively and 
qualitatively.
CONCLUSIONS: Complementing spine imaging in cervical radiculopathy with brachial 
plexus MRN can improve diagnostic accuracy by increasing specificity and positive
predictive value. T2-weighted lesions of peripheral nerves can be caused by
cervical radiculopathy, which must be considered a relevant diagnostic pitfall in
MRN of peripheral neuropathies.

DOI: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000422 
PMID: 28976477 


350. Biomed Chromatogr. 2018 Mar;32(3). doi: 10.1002/bmc.4102. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Simultaneous LC-MS/MS analysis of eicosanoids and related metabolites in human
serum, sputum and BALF.

Thakare R(1), Chhonker YS(1), Gautam N(1), Nelson A(2), Casaburi R(3), Criner
G(4), Dransfield MT(5)(6)(7), Make B(8), Schmid KK(9), Rennard SI(2)(10), Alnouti
Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of
Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
(2)Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Section, Department of Internal Medicine,
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
(3)Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research
Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.
(4)Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Temple University,
Philadelphia, PA, USA.
(5)Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of
Alabama Birmingham, AL, USA.
(6)Lung Health Center University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
(7)Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA.
(8)Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, National Jewish
Health, Denver, CO, USA.
(9)College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE,
USA.
(10)Clinical Development Unit, Early Clinical Development, AstraZeneca,
Cambridge, UK.

The differences among individual eicosanoids in eliciting different physiological
and pathological responses are largely unknown because of the lack of valid and
simple analytical methods for the quantification of individual eicosanoids and
their metabolites in serum, sputum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF).
Therefore, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous
quantification of 34 eicosanoids in human serum, sputum and BALF was developed
and validated. This method is valid and sensitive with a limit of quantification 
ranging from 0.2 to 3 ng/mL for the various analytes, and has a large dynamic
range (500 ng/mL) and a short run time (25 min). The intra- and inter-day
accuracy and precision values met the acceptance criteria according to US Food
and Drug Administration guidelines. Using this method, detailed eicosanoid
profiles were quantified in serum, sputum and BALF from a pilot human study. In
summary, a reliable and simple LC-MS/MS method to quantify major eicosanoids and 
their metabolites was developed and applied to quantify eicosanoids in human
various fluids, demonstrating its suitability to assess eicosanoid biomarkers in 
human clinical trials.

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI: 10.1002/bmc.4102 
PMID: 28975688  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


351. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2018 Mar;10(2). doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1405. Epub
2017 Sep 28.

Small molecule signaling, regulation, and potential applications in cellular
therapeutics.

McNerney MP(1), Styczynski MP(1).

Author information: 
(1)School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Small molecules have many important roles across the tree of life: they regulate 
processes from metabolism to transcription, they enable signaling within and
between species, and they serve as the biochemical building blocks for cells.
They also represent valuable phenotypic endpoints that are promising for use as
biomarkers of disease states. In the context of engineering cell-based
therapeutics, they hold particularly great promise for enabling finer control
over the therapeutic cells and allowing them to be responsive to extracellular
cues. The natural signaling and regulatory functions of small molecules can be
harnessed and rewired to control cell activity and delivery of therapeutic
payloads, potentially increasing efficacy while decreasing toxicity. To that end,
this review considers small molecule-mediated regulation and signaling in
bacteria. We first discuss some of the most prominent applications and
aspirations for responsive cell-based therapeutics. We then describe the
transport, signaling, and regulation associated with three classes of molecules
that may be exploited in the engineering of therapeutic bacteria: amino acids,
fatty acids, and quorum-sensing signaling molecules. We also present examples of 
existing engineering efforts to generate cells that sense and respond to levels
of different small molecules. Finally, we discuss future directions for how small
molecule-mediated regulation could be harnessed for therapeutic applications, as 
well as some critical considerations for the ultimate success of such endeavors. 
WIREs Syst Biol Med 2018, 10:e1405. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1405 This article is
categorized under: Biological Mechanisms > Cell Signaling Biological Mechanisms >
Metabolism Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine > Therapeutic Methods.

© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/wsbm.1405 
PMID: 28960879 


352. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2018 Mar;222(3). doi: 10.1111/apha.12975. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 is a myokine induced by palmitate and is
required for myogenesis in mouse satellite cells.

Masuda S(1), Tanaka M(1), Inoue T(1), Ohue-Kitano R(1), Yamakage H(1), Muranaka
K(1), Kusakabe T(1), Shimatsu A(2), Hasegawa K(3), Satoh-Asahara N(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Hypertension Research, Clinical
Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto,
Japan.
(2)Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical
Center, Kyoto, Japan.
(3)Department of Translational Research, Clinical Research Institute, National
Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

AIM: The functional significance of the myokines, cytokines and peptides produced
and released by muscle cells has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this
study was to identify a myokine with increased secretion levels in muscle cells
due to saturated fatty acids and to examine the role of the identified myokine in
the regulation of myogenesis.
METHODS: Human primary myotubes and mouse C2C12 myotubes were used to identify
the myokine; its secretion was stimulated by palmitate loading. The role of the
identified myokine in the regulation of the activation, proliferation,
differentiation and self-renewal was examined in mouse satellite cells (skeletal 
muscle stem cells).
RESULTS: Palmitate loading promoted the secretion of chemokine (C-X-C motif)
ligand 1 (CXCL1) in human primary myotubes, and it also increased CXCL1 gene
expression level in C2C12 myotubes in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Palmitate loading increased the production of reactive oxygen species along with 
the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. Pharmacological
inhibition of NF-κB signalling attenuated the increase in CXCL1 gene expression
induced by palmitate and hydrogen peroxide. Palmitate loading significantly
increased CXC receptor 2 gene expression in undifferentiated cells. CXCL1
knockdown attenuated proliferation and myotube formation by satellite cells, with
reduced self-renewal. CXCL1 knockdown also significantly decreased the Notch
intracellular domain protein level.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that secretion of the myokine CXCL1 is
stimulated by saturated fatty acids and that CXCL1 promotes myogenesis from
satellite cells to maintain skeletal muscle homeostasis.

© 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/apha.12975 
PMID: 28960786 


353. Hepatology. 2018 Mar;67(3):1071-1087. doi: 10.1002/hep.29562. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Distinct role of nuclear receptor corepressor 1 regulated de novo fatty acids
synthesis in liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

Ou-Yang Q(1)(2)(3), Lin XM(1), Zhu YJ(1)(4), Zheng B(1)(4), Li L(1)(4), Yang
YC(1), Hou GJ(1), Chen X(1)(4), Luo GJ(1)(4), Huo F(3), Leng QB(5), Gonzalez
FJ(6), Jiang XQ(2), Wang HY(1)(4), Chen L(1)(4)(7).

Author information: 
(1)The International Cooperation Laboratory on Signal Transduction, Eastern
Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai,
China.
(2)Department of Biliary Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second 
Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
(3)Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Center of Liver Transplantation, General 
Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou, China.
(4)National Center for Liver Cancer, Shanghai, China.
(5)Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of
Shanghai, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Shanghai, China.
(6)Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer
Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
(7)Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; Department of Oncology, Shanghai
Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

It is urgent that the means to improve liver regeneration (LR) be found, while
mitigating the concurrent risk of hepatocarcinogenesis (HCG). Nuclear receptor
corepressor 1 (NCoR1) is a co-repressor of nuclear receptors, which regulates the
expression level of metabolic genes; however, little is known about its potential
contribution for LR and HCG. Here, we found that liver-specific NCoR1 knockout in
mice (NCoR1Δhep ) dramatically enhances LR after partial hepatectomy and,
surprisingly, blocks the process of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCG. Both
RNA-sequencing and metabolic assay results revealed improved expression of Fasn
and Acc2 in NCoR1Δhep mice, suggesting the critical role of de novo fatty acid
synthesis (FAS) in LR. Continual enhanced de novo FAS in NCoR1Δhep mice resulted 
in overwhelmed adenosine triphosphate ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate (NADPH) consumption and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
production, which subsequently attenuated HCG through inducing apoptosis of
hepatocytes at an early stage after DEN administration.CONCLUSION: NCoR1
functions as a negative modulator for hepatic de novo FAS and mitochondria energy
adaptation, playing distinct roles in regeneration or carcinogenesis. (Hepatology
2018;67:1071-1087).

© 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

DOI: 10.1002/hep.29562 
PMID: 28960380 


354. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Mar;47(3):329-339. doi: 10.1007/s00256-017-2771-x. Epub
2017 Sep 24.

Hyperintense signal alteration in the suprapatellar fat pad on MRI is associated 
with degeneration of the patellofemoral joint over 48 months: data from the
Osteoarthritis Initiative.

Schwaiger BJ(1)(2), Mbapte Wamba J(3), Gersing AS(3)(4), Nevitt MC(5), Facchetti 
L(3), McCulloch CE(5), Link TM(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San 
Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA, 94107, USA.
bschwaiger@gmx.com.
(2)Department of Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of
Munich, Munich, Germany. bschwaiger@gmx.com.
(3)Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San 
Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA, 94107, USA.
(4)Department of Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of
Munich, Munich, Germany.
(5)Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San
Francisco, CA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze associations of suprapatellar fat pad (SPFP) hyperintense
signal alterations and mass effect with progression of patellofemoral
osteoarthritis (OA) and clinical symptoms over 48 months.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 426;
51.8 ± 3.8 years; 49.8% women) without radiographic tibiofemoral OA underwent
3T-MRI of their right knees and clinical evaluation using the Knee Injury and
Osteoarthritis Outcome Score at baseline and at 48 months. Elevated SPFP signal
was assessed on intermediate-weighted, fat-saturated turbo spin-echo (TSE)
images. Mass effect was defined as a convex posterior contour. Patellofemoral
cartilage, bone marrow lesions (BML), and subchondral cysts were assessed using
the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Associations of SPFP
imaging findings with MRI and clinical progression were assessed using general
linear models and logistic regressions.
RESULTS: Baseline SPFP signal alterations were found in 51% of the subjects
(n = 217), of whom 11% (n = 23) additionally had a mass effect. Progression of
cartilage lesions was significantly higher in subjects with signal alteration
versus without (adjusted mean increases, 95% CI; patella: 0.29, -0.07 to 0.64 vs 
-0.04, -0.40 to 0.31; p < 0.001; trochlea: 0.47, 0.16 to 0.77 vs 0.31, 0.01 to
0.61; p = 0.007). BML progression was also more likely in subjects with signal
alteration (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.82; p = 0.021). Mass effect was not
associated with joint degeneration and SPFP findings were not associated with
clinical worsening (p > 0.18 for all).
CONCLUSION: Patellofemoral joint degeneration over 48 months was significantly
increased in subjects with SPFP signal alteration, suggesting an association
between SPFP abnormalities and the progression of patellofemoral OA.

DOI: 10.1007/s00256-017-2771-x 
PMID: 28944439 


355. Immunology. 2018 Mar;153(3):342-356. doi: 10.1111/imm.12844. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Lipid homeostasis and inflammatory activation are disturbed in classically
activated macrophages with peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency.

Geric I(1), Tyurina YY(2), Krysko O(3), Krysko DV(4)(5), De Schryver E(6), Kagan 
VE(2), Van Veldhoven PP(6), Baes M(1), Verheijden S(7).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Cell Metabolism, KU
Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
(2)Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical
and Antioxidant Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
(3)Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, The Upper Airway Research Laboratory,
Hospital, Ghent University Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
(4)Molecular Signalling and Cell Death Unit, VIB, Centre for Inflammation
Research, Ghent, Belgium.
(5)Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
(6)Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, LIPIT, KU Leuven - University
of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
(7)Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Translational Research
Centre for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven - University of Leuven,
Leuven, Belgium.

Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation.
Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty
acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state
together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively
activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty
acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that 
mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and
essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of 
peroxisomal β-oxidation during macrophage activation. In this study, we show that
peroxisomal β-oxidation is strongly decreased in classically activated
bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and mildly induced in alternatively
activated BMDM. To examine the role of peroxisomal β-oxidation in macrophages, we
used Mfp2-/- BMDM lacking the key enzyme of this pathway. Impairment of
peroxisomal β-oxidation in Mfp2-/- BMDM did not cause lipid accumulation but
rather an altered distribution of lipid species with very-long-chain fatty acids 
accumulating in the triglyceride and phospholipid fraction. These lipid
alterations in Mfp2-/- macrophages led to decreased inflammatory activation of
Mfp2-/- BMDM and peritoneal macrophages evidenced by impaired production of
several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but did not affect
anti-inflammatory polarization. The disturbed inflammatory responses of Mfp2-/-
macrophages did not affect immune cell infiltration, as mice with selective
elimination of MFP2 from myeloid cells showed normal monocyte and neutrophil
influx upon challenge with zymosan. Together, these data demonstrate that
peroxisomal β-oxidation is involved in fine-tuning the phenotype of macrophages, 
probably by influencing the dynamic lipid profile during macrophage polarization.

© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/imm.12844 
PMCID: PMC5795189 [Available on 2019-03-01]
PMID: 28940384 


356. J Nucl Med. 2018 Mar;59(3):516-522. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.190546. Epub 2017 Sep
14.

Thermal Imaging Is a Noninvasive Alternative to PET/CT for Measurement of Brown
Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans.

Law J(1), Morris DE(2), Izzi-Engbeaya C(3), Salem V(3), Coello C(4), Robinson
L(1), Jayasinghe M(3), Scott R(3), Gunn R(4), Rabiner E(4)(5), Tan T(3), Dhillo
WS(3), Bloom S(3), Budge H(1), Symonds ME(6)(7).

Author information: 
(1)Early Life Research Unit, Division of Child Health, Obstetrics, and
Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United
Kingdom.
(2)Bioengineering Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
(3)Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Imperial College, London,
United Kingdom.
(4)Imanova Centre for Imaging Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
(5)Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, King's College, London, United Kingdom; and.
(6)Early Life Research Unit, Division of Child Health, Obstetrics, and
Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United
Kingdom michael.symonds@nottingham.ac.uk.
(7)Nottingham Digestive Disease Centre and Biomedical Research Centre, School of 
Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major cause of morbidity and
mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) utilizes glucose and free fatty acids to
produce heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Effective evaluation of
human BAT stimulators is constrained by the current standard method of assessing 
BAT-PET/CT-as it requires exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Infrared 
thermography (IRT) is a potential noninvasive, safe alternative, although direct 
corroboration with PET/CT has not been established. Methods: IRT and 18F-FDG
PET/CT data from 8 healthy men subjected to water-jacket cooling were directly
compared. Thermal images were geometrically transformed to overlay PET/CT-derived
maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from each subject, and the areas with
the most intense temperature and glucose uptake within the supraclavicular
regions were compared. Relationships between supraclavicular temperatures (TSCR) 
from IRT and the metabolic rate of glucose uptake (MR(gluc)) from PET/CT were
determined. Results: Glucose uptake on MR(gluc)MIP was found to correlate
positively with a change in TSCR relative to a reference region (r2 = 0.721; P = 
0.008). Spatial overlap between areas of maximal MR(gluc)MIP and maximal TSCR was
29.5% ± 5.1%. Prolonged cooling, for 60 min, was associated with a further TSCR
rise, compared with cooling for 10 min. Conclusion: The supraclavicular hotspot
identified on IRT closely corresponded to the area of maximal uptake on
PET/CT-derived MR(gluc)MIP images. Greater increases in relative TSCR were
associated with raised glucose uptake. IRT should now be considered a suitable
method for measuring BAT activation, especially in populations for whom PET/CT is
not feasible, practical, or repeatable.

© 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.117.190546 
PMID: 28912148 


357. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(5):1813-1820. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8657. Epub 2017 Oct
13.

Effect of roasting conditions on the composition and antioxidant properties of
defatted walnut flour.

Santos J(1), Alvarez-Ortí M(2), Sena-Moreno E(2), Rabadán A(2), Pardo JE(2),
Beatriz Pp Oliveira M(1).

Author information: 
(1)LAQV/REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia,
Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
(2)Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos y de Montes, Albacete, Spain.

BACKGROUND: Walnut oil extraction by pressure systems produces a press cake as a 
by-product, with many of the beneficial walnut properties. The objective of this 
work was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant properties of walnut flours 
submitted to different roasting protocols (50, 100 and 150 °C during 30, 60 and
120 min).
RESULTS: All walnut flours had about 42% protein and a significant amount of
dietary fibre (17%), not being affected by the roasting process. Nonetheless, the
fat content increased around 50% in walnuts flours subjected to longer and higher
roasting temperatures (150 °C). The lipid fraction showed a good nutritional
quality with a high vitamin E content (mainly γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid
profile rich in linoleic and linolenic acids. The high phenolic content also
provides great antioxidant capacity to the flours.
CONCLUSION: Mild roasting of walnuts did not affect the quality of the flours
that could be used as a functional ingredient in the food industry. © 2017
Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8657 
PMID: 28873230 


358. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(5):1821-1831. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8658. Epub 2017 Oct
12.

Analysis of moisture, oil, and fatty acid composition of olives by near-infrared 
spectroscopy: development and validation calibration models.

Saha U(1), Jackson D(1).

Author information: 
(1)Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories, The University of
Georgia Cooperative Extension, Athens, GA, USA.

BACKGROUND: Olive is a new, expanding crop in Georgia. Its oil content steadily
increases with maturity, but eventually plateaus at the maximum when the olives
should be promptly harvested, avoiding overripening and quality degradation. This
requires frequent testing. However, olive quality analysis by wet chemistry is
laborious, slow and costly, whereas near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy
(NIRS), being precise, accurate, rapid and cheap, could be suitable. We developed
and validated NIRS calibration models for moisture, fresh-matter-oil (oil-FMO),
dry-matter-oil (oil-DMO) and major fatty acid composition analyses.
RESULTS: Of the12 models developed, seven constituents - moisture, oil-FMO,
oil-DMO, and palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids (representing 88-97%
of the total fatty acids) had low standard errors and high coefficients of
determination (R2 = 0.81-0.98; 1 - VR = 0.74-0.86) for both calibration and
cross-validation. For these seven constituents, predictions of an independent
validation set yielded excellent agreement between the NIRS predicted values and 
the reference values with low standard error of prediction (SEP), low bias, high 
coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.80-0.93) and high ratios of performance to
deviation (RPD = SD/SEP; 2.21-3.85).
CONCLUSION: Precise, accurate and rapid analysis of fresh olives for moisture,
oil and major fatty acid composition can be done at a low cost using NIRS,
meeting the analytical needs of the industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical
Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8658 
PMID: 28873227 


359. Mitochondrion. 2018 Mar;39:51-59. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2017.08.013. Epub 2017 Sep 
1.

Mitochondrial disruption in peroxisome deficient cells is hepatocyte selective
but is not mediated by common hepatic peroxisomal metabolites.

Shinde AB(1), Baboota RK(1), Denis S(2), Loizides-Mangold U(3), Peeters A(1),
Espeel M(4), Malheiro AR(5), Riezman H(3), Vinckier S(6), Vaz FM(2), Brites P(5),
Ferdinandusse S(2), Van Veldhoven PP(7), Baes M(8).

Author information: 
(1)KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical and
Pharmacological Sciences, Laboratory of Cell Metabolism, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
(2)Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry,
Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
(3)Department of Biochemistry, NCCR Chemical Biology, University of Geneva, 1211 
Geneva, Switzerland.
(4)Dept Basic Medical Sciences, UGhent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
(5)Neurolipid Biology group, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular - IBMC,
Instituto de Inovação e Investigação em Saúde, University of Porto, 4200-135
Porto, Portugal.
(6)VIB-KU Leuven Centre for Cancer Biology, Laboratory of Angiogenesis and
Vascular Metabolism, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
(7)KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Cellular and Molecular
Medicine, Laboratory for Lipid Biochemistry and Protein Interactions, KU Leuven, 
B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: Paul.Vanveldhoven@kuleuven.be.
(8)KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical and
Pharmacological Sciences, Laboratory of Cell Metabolism, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. 
Electronic address: Myriam.Baes@kuleuven.be.

The structural disruption of the mitochondrial inner membrane in hepatocytes
lacking functional peroxisomes along with selective impairment of respiratory
complexes and depletion of mitochondrial DNA was previously reported. In search
for the molecular origin of these mitochondrial alterations, we here show that
these are tissue selective as they do neither occur in peroxisome deficient brain
nor in peroxisome deficient striated muscle. Given the hepatocyte selectivity, we
investigated the potential involvement of metabolites that are primarily handled 
by hepatic peroxisomes. Levels of these metabolites were manipulated in L-Pex5
knockout mice and/or compared with levels in different mouse models with a
peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency. We show that neither the deficiency of
docosahexaenoic acid nor the accumulation of branched chain fatty acids,
dicarboxylic acids or C27 bile acid intermediates are solely responsible for the 
mitochondrial anomalies. In conclusion, we demonstrate that peroxisomal
inactivity differentially impacts mitochondria depending on the cell type but the
cause of the mitochondrial destruction needs to be further explored.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights
reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2017.08.013 
PMID: 28866057 


360. Plant Cell Environ. 2018 Mar;41(3):533-547. doi: 10.1111/pce.13063. Epub 2017 Nov
10.

Glycerolipid analysis during desiccation and recovery of the resurrection plant
Xerophyta humilis (Bak) Dur and Schinz.

Tshabuse F(1), Farrant JM(1), Humbert L(2), Moura D(3), Rainteau D(2), Espinasse 
C(3), Idrissi A(4), Merlier F(4), Acket S(4), Rafudeen MS(1), Thomasset B(4),
Ruelland E(3)(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag
X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa.
(2)Laboratoire des BioMolécules, CNRS UMR7203, Université Pierre et Marie
Curie-Faculté de Médecine-Saint Antoine, 184 rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine,
75571, Paris Cedex 12, France.
(3)Université Paris-Est, UPEC, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences
Environnementales de Paris, 94010, Créteil Cedex, France.
(4)Sorbonne Universités, Université Technologique de Compiegne (UTC), Génie
Enzymatique et Cellulaire (GEC), FRE-CNRS 3580, CS 60319, 60203, Compiègne Cedex,
France.
(5)CNRS, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences Environnementales de Paris, UMR7618,
94010, Créteil cedex, France.

Xerophyta humilis is a poikilochlorophyllous monocot resurrection plant used as a
model to study vegetative desiccation tolerance. Dehydration imposes tension and 
ultimate loss of integrity of membranes in desiccation sensitive species. We
investigated the predominant molecular species of glycerolipids present in root
and leaf tissues, using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, and then 
analysed changes therein during dehydration and subsequent rehydration of whole
plants. The presence of fatty acids with long carbon chains and with odd numbers 
of carbons were detected and confirmed by gas chromatography. Dehydration of both
leaves and roots resulted in an increase in species containing polyunsaturated
fatty acids and a decrease in disaturated species. Upon rehydration, lipid
saturation was reversed, with this being initiated immediately upon watering in
roots but only 12-24 hr later in leaves. Relative levels of species with
short-chained odd-numbered saturated fatty acids decreased during dehydration and
increased during rehydration, whereas the reverse trend was observed for
long-chained fatty acids. X. humilis has a unique lipid composition, this report 
being one of the few to demonstrate the presence of odd-numbered fatty acids in
plant phosphoglycerolipids.

© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/pce.13063 
PMID: 28865108 


361. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):E241-E250. doi:
10.1152/ajpendo.00209.2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Short-term changes in diet composition do not affect in vivo hepatic protein
synthesis in rats.

Estrada AL(1), Hudson WM(1), Kim PY(2), Stewart CM(1), Peelor FF(3), Wei Y(1),
Wang D(1), Hamilton KL(3), Miller BF(3), Pagliassotti MJ(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University ,
Fort Collins, Colorado.
(2)Department of Biology, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana.
(3)Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University , Fort
Collins, Colorado.

Protein synthesis is critical to protein homeostasis (proteostasis), and
modifications in protein synthesis influence lifespan and the development of
comorbidities associated with obesity. In the present study, we examined the
acute response of liver protein synthesis to either high-fat or high-sucrose
diets in order to elucidate nutrient-mediated regulation of hepatic protein
synthesis in the absence of body fat accumulation. Total and endoplasmic
reticulum-associated protein syntheses were assessed by use of the stable
isotope, deuterium oxide (2H2O), in rats provided a control diet or diets
enriched in polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, or sucrose for 2, 4, or 7 days.
The three experimental diets increased hepatic triglycerides 46-91% on day 7 and 
fasting insulin levels 83-117% on day 7, but did not result in differences in
body weight when compared with control ( n = 6/diet/time). The fraction of newly 
synthesized proteins in total liver lysates and microsomes was not significantly 
different among dietary groups ( n = 3/diet/time). To determine whether the
experimental diets provoked a transcriptional response to enhance the capacity
for protein synthesis, we also measured a panel of genes linked to amino acid
transport, synthesis, and processing. There were no significant differences in
any of the genes measured among groups. Therefore, dietary treatments that have
been linked to impaired proteostasis and that promote hepatic steatosis and
insulin resistance, did not result in significant changes in total or
ER-associated protein synthesis in the liver over a 7-day period.

DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00209.2017 
PMID: 28851736 


362. Mitochondrion. 2018 Mar;39:20-25. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2017.08.008. Epub 2017 Aug 
24.

Microbe-mitochondrion crosstalk and health: An emerging paradigm.

Bajpai P(1), Darra A(1), Agrawal A(2).

Author information: 
(1)CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; Academy of
Scientific and Innovative Research, India.
(2)CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; Academy of
Scientific and Innovative Research, India. Electronic address: a.agrawal@igib.in.

Human mitochondria are descendants of microbes and altered mitochondrial function
has been implicated in processes ranging from ageing to diabetes. Recent work has
highlighted the importance of gut microbial communities in human health and
disease. While the spotlight has been on the influence of such communities on the
human immune system and the extraction of calories from otherwise indigestible
food, an important but less investigated link between the microbes and
mitochondria remains unexplored. Microbial metabolites including short chain
fatty acids as well as other molecules such as pyrroloquinoline quinone,
fermentation gases, and modified fatty acids influence mitochondrial function.
This review focuses on the known direct and indirect effects of microbes upon
mitochondria and speculates regarding additional links for which there is
circumstantial evidence. Overall, while there is compelling evidence that a
microbiota-mitochondria link exists, explicit and holistic mechanistic studies
are warranted to advance this nascent field.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights
reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2017.08.008 
PMID: 28838618 


363. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(4):1584-1590. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8631. Epub 2017 Sep
21.

Plant growth-promoting bacteria elevate the nutritional and functional properties
of black cumin and flaxseed fixed oil.

Dimitrijević S(1), Pavlović M(2), Maksimović S(2), Ristić M(1), Filipović V(1),
Antonović D(2), Dimitrijević-Branković S(2).

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Medicinal Plants Research 'Dr Josif Pančić', Tadeuša Košćuška 1, 
Belgrade, Serbia.
(2)University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4,
Belgrade, Serbia.

BACKGROUND: In order to study the influence of plant growth-promoting bacteria
(PGPB) belonging to Streptomyces sp., Paenibacillus sp., and Hymenobacter sp. on 
fixed oil content of flaxseed and black cumin, 2-year field experiments were
conducted. PGPB was applied during seedtime of plants. The extraction of oil from
seeds was performed using supercritical CO2 .
RESULTS: The addition of PGPB significantly increases the content of C18:1 (from 
16.06 ± 0.03% to 16.97 ± 0.03%) and C18:3 (from 42.97 ± 0.2% to 45.42 ± 0.5%) in 
flaxseed oil and C18:2 (from 52.68 ± 0.50% to 57.11 ± 0.40%) and C20:2 (from
4.34 ± 0.02% to 4.54 ± 0.03%) in black cumin seed oil. The contents of total
polyphenols, flavonoids, and carotenoids, as well as antioxidant activity
measured by ferric-reducing ability of plasma assay, were found to be greater in 
the oil from the seeds of plants treated with the PGPB, compared with the
respective non-treated samples.
CONCLUSION: The use of PGPB enhances plant nutritive properties; these represent 
a great source for obtaining valuable functional food ingredients. © 2017 Society
of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8631 
PMID: 28833158  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


364. Waste Manag. 2018 Mar;73:447-463. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.08.010. Epub 2017
Aug 18.

Thermochemical conversion of animal by-products and rendering products.

Leon M(1), Garcia AN(2), Marcilla A(2), Martinez-Castellanos I(2), Navarro R(2), 
Catala L(2).

Author information: 
(1)Ap. Correus 99, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante,
E-03080 Alicante, Spain. Electronic address: milagros.leon@ua.es.
(2)Ap. Correus 99, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante,
E-03080 Alicante, Spain.

This paper presents a preliminary study of the characterization of real waste
from slaughterhouses as well as their rendering products (protein and fat)
through different pyrolytic techniques: thermogravimetric analysis (TG),
analytical pyrolysis in a pyroprobe equipment and hydrothermal liquefaction
process (HTL). The experiments have allowed a deeper knowledge about the thermal 
behavior of these wastes under different conditions: slow pyrolysis up to 800°C
(TG), flash pyrolysis at 500°C and room pressure (pyroprobe) and slow pyrolysis
at 290°C and 110-130bar (HTL batch reactor). Experiments with each one of the
materials (real waste, PAP and fat) as well as some mixtures have been performed.
Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify the
pyrolytic products obtained. The results indicate that fatty acids and fatty
esters are the major group obtained in the pyrolysis of fat samples, followed by 
aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the case of PAP pyrolysis, heterocyclic aromatic
compounds, which includes typical products coming from protein degradation, is
the major group obtained. Oxygenated aliphatics are also obtained in high
amounts. In the case of the HTL experiments, significant glycerine amounts were
detected in the aqueous phase. The yield of biocrude obtained under HTL
conditions is about 30%, with a high proportion of nitrogenated compounds
(amides, pyrrole and pyridine derivatives). Generation of amides is much higher
under HTL conditions than in the analytical pyrolysis runs while the proportion
of acids is reduced.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.08.010 
PMID: 28826808 


365. Animal. 2018 Mar;12(3):501-507. doi: 10.1017/S1751731117002014. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Linseed plus nitrate in the diet for fattening bulls: effects on methane
emission, animal health and residues in offal.

Doreau M(1), Arbre M(1), Popova M(1), Rochette Y(1), Martin C(1).

Author information: 
(1)UMR1213 Herbivores, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique,Université
Clermont Auvergne,F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle,France.

The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane
emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle 
for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence 
of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a
control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into 
two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to
receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed
and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered. On a dry matter
(DM) basis, the C diet contained 70% baled grass silage and 30% concentrate
mainly made of maize, wheat and rapeseed meal. In the LN diet, rapeseed meal and 
a fraction of cereals were replaced by 35% extruded linseed and 6% calcium
nitrate; linseed fatty acids and nitrate supply in the LN diet were 1.9% and
1.0%, respectively. Methane emission was measured continuously using the
GreenFeed system. Methaemoglobin was determined every week in peripheral blood
from bulls receiving the LN diet. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were
determined in rumen, liver and tongue sampled at slaughter. Dry matter intake
tended to be lower for LN diet (P=0.10). Body weight gain was lower for LN diet
(P=0.01; 1.60 and 1.26 kg/day for C and LN diet, respectively). Daily methane
emission was 9% lower (P<0.001) for LN than C diet (249 and 271 g/day,
respectively) but methane yield did not differ between diets (24.1 and 23.2 g/kg 
DM intake for C and LN diet, respectively, P=0.34). Methaemoglobin was under the 
limit of detection (<2% of total haemoglobin) for most animals and was always
lower than 5.6%, suggesting an absence of risk to animal health. Nitrite and
nitrate concentrations in offal did not differ between C and LN diets. In
conclusion, a moderate supply of linseed and nitrate in bull feed failed to
decrease enteric methane yield and impaired bull liveweight gain but without
adverse effects for animal health and food safety.

DOI: 10.1017/S1751731117002014 
PMID: 28807084 


366. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2018 Mar;65(2):191-199. doi: 10.1111/jeu.12454. Epub 2017
Aug 28.

Apoptosis of Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites Induced by Oleic Acid.

Wu D(1), Qiao K(1), Feng M(1), Fu Y(1), Cai J(1), Deng Y(1), Tachibana H(2),
Cheng X(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Fudan University School
of Medicine, Shanghai, 200032, China.
(2)Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokai University School of Medicine,
Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

Acanthamoeba spp. can be parasitic in certain situations and are responsible for 
serious human infections, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic
encephalitis, and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis. We analyzed the fatty acid
composition of Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and tested the inhibitory
activity of the main fatty acids, oleic acid and arachidonic acid, in vitro.
Oleic acid markedly inhibited the growth of A. castellanii, with trophozoite
viability of 57.4% at a concentration of 200 μM. Caspase-3 staining and annexin V
assays showed that apoptotic death occurred in A. castellanii trophozoites.
Quantitative PCR and dot blot analysis showed increased levels of metacaspase and
interleukin-1β converting enzyme, which is also an indication of apoptosis. In
contrast, arachidonic acid showed negligible inhibition of growth of
A. castellanii trophozoites. Stimulated expression of Atg3, Atg8 and LC3A/B genes
and monodansylcadaverine labeling suggested that oleic acid induces apoptosis by 
triggering autophagy of trophozoites.

© 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International
Society of Protistologists.

DOI: 10.1111/jeu.12454 
PMID: 28787535 


367. Endocrine. 2018 Mar;59(3):602-613. doi: 10.1007/s12020-017-1378-2. Epub 2017 Aug 
7.

The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor tadalafil regulates lipidic homeostasis in
human skeletal muscle cell metabolism.

Marampon F(1), Antinozzi C(1), Corinaldesi C(1)(2), Vannelli GB(3), Sarchielli
E(3), Migliaccio S(1), Di Luigi L(1), Lenzi A(4), Crescioli C(5).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Università di Roma "Foro
Italico", Rome, Italy.
(2)Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of
Leeds, Leeds, UK.
(3)Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence,
Florence, Italy.
(4)Department of Experimental Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome,
Italy.
(5)Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Università di Roma "Foro
Italico", Rome, Italy. clara.crescioli@uniroma4.it.

PURPOSE: Tadalafil seems to ameliorate insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis
in humans. We have previously reported that tadalafil targets human skeletal
muscle cells with an insulin (I)-like effect. We aim to evaluate in human fetal
skeletal muscle cells after tadalafil or I: (i) expression profile of I-regulated
genes dedicated to cellular energy control, glycolitic activity or microtubule
formation/vesicle transport, as GLUT4, PPARγ, HK2, IRS-1, KIF1C, and KIFAP3; (ii)
GLUT4, Flotillin-1, and Caveolin-1 localization, all proteins involved in
energy-dependent cell trafficking; (iii) activation of I-targeted paths, as
IRS-1, PKB/AKT, mTOR, P70/S6K. Free fatty acids intracellular level was measured.
Sildenafil or a cGMP synthetic analog were used for comparison; PDE5 and PDE11
gene expression was evaluated in human fetal skeletal muscle cells.
METHODS: RTq-PCR, PCR, western blot, free fatty acid assay commercial kit, and
lipid stain non-fluorescent assay were used.
RESULTS: Tadalafil upregulated I-targeted investigated genes with the same
temporal pattern as I (GLUT4, PPARγ, and IRS-1 at 3 h; HK2, KIF1C, KIFAP3 at
12 h), re-localized GLUT4 in cell sites positively immune-decorated for
Caveolin-1 and Flotillin-1, suggesting the involvement of lipid rafts, induced
specific residue phosphorylation of IRS-1/AKT/mTOR complex in association with
free fatty acid de novo synthesis. Sildenafil or GMP analog did not affect GLUT4 
trafficking or free fatty acid levels.
CONCLUSION: In human fetal skeletal muscle cells tadalafil likely favors energy
storage by modulating lipid homeostasis via IRS-1-mediated mechanisms, involving 
activation of I-targeted genes and intracellular cascade related to metabolic
control. Those data provide some biomolecular evidences explaining, in part,
tadalafil-induced favorable control of human metabolism shown by clinical
studies.

DOI: 10.1007/s12020-017-1378-2 
PMID: 28786077 


368. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Mar;233(3):2602-2612. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26138. Epub 2017 Aug 
30.

Lipid composition of membrane microdomains isolated detergent-free from PUFA
supplemented RAW264.7 macrophages.

Hellwing C(1), Tigistu-Sahle F(2), Fuhrmann H(3), Käkelä R(2), Schumann J(1).

Author information: 
(1)Clinic for Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care, University Hospital
Halle (Saale), Halle (Saale), Germany.
(2)Division of Physiology and Neuroscience, Department of Biosciences, Helsinki
University Lipidomics Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
(3)Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of
Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Profound alterations in the lipid profile of raft and non-raft plasma membrane
microdomains were found when RAW264.7 macrophages were supplemented with
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in physiologically relevant concentrations.
For the first time lipids in the detergent-free isolated membrane domains of
phagocytic immune cells were characterized by mass spectrometry. The extent of
remodeling of the membrane lipids differed with different n3 and n6 PUFA
supplements. The mildest effects were detected for α-linolenic acid (LNA) and
linoleic acid (LA), the C18 precursors of the n3 and n6 families, respectively.
When the effects of highly unsaturated PUFAs were compared, eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) caused more extensive restructuring of membrane lipids than docosahexaenoic
acid (DHA) or arachidonic acid (AA). The supplements altered the lipid species
composition of both the raft and non-raft membrane fractions. The rafts
containing elevated proportions of highly unsaturated lipid species may relocate 
sterically incompatible lipids and proteins originally belonging to this
microdomain. Such effect was evident for sphingomyelin, which favored non-rafts
instead of rafts after EPA supplementation. The current work suggests that the
different functional consequences found previously when supplementing macrophages
with either EPA or DHA have their origin in the different effects of these PUFAs 
on membrane architecture.

© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26138 
PMID: 28782808  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


369. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(4):1407-1415. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8608. Epub 2017 Oct
16.

Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 
roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and
antibacterial properties.

Ghelichi S(1), Shabanpour B(1), Pourashouri P(1), Hajfathalian M(2), Jacobsen
C(2).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and
Environmental Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural
Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
(2)Division of Food Technology, National Food Institute, Technical University of 
Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

BACKGROUND: Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually
discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from
the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial
properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis 
(DH).
RESULTS: Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp
roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of
high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic
hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs
displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH.
Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and
non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased
with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe
oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains.
CONCLUSION: Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty
acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted 
from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water
emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates
from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8608 
PMID: 28771748  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


370. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Mar;233(3):2426-2433. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26115. Epub 2017 Aug 
30.

EPA blocks TNF-α-induced inhibition of sugar uptake in Caco-2 cells via GPR120
and AMPK.

Castilla-Madrigal R(1)(2), Barrenetxe J(1), Moreno-Aliaga MJ(1)(2)(3)(4), Lostao 
MP(1)(2)(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra,
Pamplona, Spain.
(2)University of Navarra, Nutrition Research Centre, Pamplona, Spain.
(3)IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain.
(4)CIBERobn, Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos
III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

The aim of the present work was to investigate in Caco-2 cells whether
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, could block
the inhibitory effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on sugar transport, and 
identify the intracellular signaling pathways involved. After pre-incubation of
the Caco-2 cells with TNF-α and EPA for 1 hr, EPA prevented the inhibitory effect
of the cytokine on α-methyl-d-glucose (αMG) uptake (15 min) and on SGLT1
expression at the brush border membrane, measured by Western blot. The ERK1/2
inhibitor PD98059 and the AMPK activator AICAR also prevented the inhibitory
effect of TNF-α on both αMG uptake and SGLT1 expression. Interestingly, the AMPK 
inhibitor, Compound C, abolished the ability of EPA to prevent TNF-α-induced
reduction of sugar uptake and transporter expression. The GPR120 antagonist,
AH7614, also blocked the preventive effect of EPA on TNF-α-induced decrease of
αMG uptake and AMPK phosphorylation. In summary, TNF-α inhibits αMG uptake by
decreasing SGLT1 expression in the brush border membrane through the activation
of ERK1/2 pathway. EPA prevents the inhibitory effect of TNF-α through the
involvement of GPR120 and AMPK activation.

© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26115 
PMID: 28771713  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


371. Animal. 2018 Mar;12(3):657-666. doi: 10.1017/S1751731117001902. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality and oxidative stability of beef
cattle offered alternative silages in a finishing ration.

He L(1), Yang J(2), Chen W(1), Zhou Z(1), Wu H(1), Meng Q(1).

Author information: 
(1)1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition,College of Animal Science and
Technology,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100094,China.
(2)4National Animal Husbandry Station,Beijing 100125,China.

As lack of forage resource, alternative roughage sources have been developed for 
ruminant production and their inclusion would exert a great effect on the dietary
nutrition, consequently affecting animal performance. Four silages (corn silage
(CS), corn stalk silage (SS), inoculated CS and inoculated SS) were separately
offered to 60 Bohai Black cattle (15 cattle/group) during a 24-week finishing
period, in which the growth performance, carcass trait, beef quality and
oxidative stability of steers were determined. Neither silage material nor silage
inoculant exerted a significant effect on the growth performance, carcass trait
and oxidative stability of beef cattle (P>0.05). As to beef quality, cattle
offered CS had higher (P0.05) on the proximate components and fatty acids profile
of beef muscle. There was neither an interaction (P>0.05) between inoculated
treatment and silage material. There were no differences (P>0.05) in cholesterol 
content and meat quality traits in animals fed alternative silages. The
collective findings suggest that it is not economical to substitute high-quality 
forage for relative low-quality forage in a high-concentrate finishing ration of 
beef cattle and silage inoculant inclusion would not exert a direct effect on
animal performance.

DOI: 10.1017/S1751731117001902 
PMID: 28770693 


372. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018 Mar;23(2):213-222. doi: 10.1007/s12192-017-0834-5.
Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new
functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis 
in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2).

Vishnu KV(1), Ajeesh Kumar KK(1), Chatterjee NS(2), Lekshmi RGK(1), Sreerekha
PR(1), Mathew S(1), Ravishankar CN(1).

Author information: 
(1)ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), Matsyapuri P.O, Kerala,
682029, India.
(2)ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), Matsyapuri P.O, Kerala,
682029, India. niladri_icar@hotmail.com.

Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of
polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo
oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as
hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may 
induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant
bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used 
as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded
Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient
considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic
acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of
sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced
cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation
was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective
cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL.
Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium
bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings.
Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression
of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the
protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced
cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells
treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that
sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection 
against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

DOI: 10.1007/s12192-017-0834-5 
PMCID: PMC5823802 [Available on 2018-09-01]
PMID: 28766116 


373. J Comp Physiol B. 2018 Mar;188(2):211-224. doi: 10.1007/s00360-017-1120-7. Epub
2017 Jul 31.

Embryonic and post-embryonic development inside wolf spiders' egg sac with
special emphasis on the vitellus.

Trabalon M(1), Ruhland F(2), Laino A(3), Cunningham M(3), Garcia F(3).

Author information: 
(1)Université de Rennes 1, UMR-6552 CNRS EthoS, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du
Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042, Rennes Cédex, France.
marie.trabalon@univ-rennes1.fr.
(2)Université de Rennes 1, UMR-6552 CNRS EthoS, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 avenue du
Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042, Rennes Cédex, France.
(3)Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de la Plata "Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R.
Brenner" (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata CONICET-UNLP, La Plata, Argentina.

The development of Pardosa saltans wolf spiders inside an egg sac includes two
periods: an embryonic period and a post-embryonic period after hatching. We
investigated spiderlings' energy expenditure to assess energetic costs during the
different embryonic and post-embryonic developmental stages during which they are
confined within their egg sac. We focused on the following developmental stages: 
egg, embryonic stages 1 and 2, and two stages, separated by a moult, during
post-embryogenesis inside the egg sac: "juvenile instars 1 and 2" until emergence
of 2 instar juveniles from their egg sac. We present the first biochemical
characterization of the vitellus of wolf spiders' eggs, embryos and juveniles.
Lipovitellins (LV) are composed of four apolipoproteins of 116, 87, 70 and
42 kDa, respectively, and LV represent 35-45% of total protein during
development. The principal LV lipids are triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty
acids and sterols. Egg caloric content averaged 127 cal/g (proteins: 91 cal/g,
lipids: 33 cal/g, carbohydrates: 3 cal/g). During development from undivided egg 
to emerged "juvenile 2", 67% of proteins, 51% of carbohydrates and 49% of
triglycerides stocks were depleted. At the end of the post-embryonic period, at
emergence from egg sac, body energy stock of "juveniles 2" was 38% of the initial
calorie stocks in the eggs.

DOI: 10.1007/s00360-017-1120-7 
PMID: 28761984 


374. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(4):1332-1338. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8597. Epub 2017 Sep
15.

In vitro methane and gas production with inocula from cows and goats fed an
identical diet.

Mengistu G(1)(2), Hendriks WH(1)(3), Pellikaan WF(1).

Author information: 
(1)Wageningen University & Research, Department of Animal Sciences, Animal
Nutrition Group, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
(2)Department of Animal, Rangeland and Wildlife Sciences, Mekelle University,
Mekelle, Ethiopia.
(3)Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht
University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

BACKGROUND: Fermentative capacity among ruminants can differ depending on the
type of ruminant species and the substrate fermented. The aim was to compare in
vitro cow and goat rumen inocula in terms of methane (CH4 ) and gas production
(GP), fermentation kinetics and 72 h volatile fatty acids (VFA) production using 
the browse species Acacia etbaica, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea,
Rhus natalensis, freeze-dried maize silage and grass silage, and a concentrate as
substrates.
RESULTS: Total GP, CH4 and VFA were higher (P ≤ 0.008) in goat inoculum than cows
across substrates. The half-time for asymptotic GP was lower (P < 0.0001) in
phase 1 and higher (P < 0.012) in phase 2, and the maximum rate of GP was higher 
(P < 0.0001) in phase 1 and phase 3 (P < 0.0001) in goats compared to cows.
Methane production and as a percentage of total GP was higher (P < 0.0001) and
the half-time tended (P = 0.059) to be at a later time for goats compared to
cows.
CONCLUSION: Goat inoculum showed higher fermentative activity with a concomitant 
higher CH4 production compared to cows. This difference highlights the ability of
goats to better utilise browse species and other roughage types. © 2017 Society
of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8597 
PMID: 28758214  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


375. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(4):1381-1387. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8604. Epub 2017 Sep
13.

A comparison of the proximate, fibre, mineral content, amino acid and the fatty
acid profile of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea caffra) nut and soyabean (Glycine max)
meals.

Malebana IM(1)(2), Nkosi BD(2), Erlwanger KH(1), Chivandi E(1).

Author information: 
(1)University of the Witwatersrand, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health
Sciences, Parktown, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
(2)Division of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural Research Council, Animal Production
Institute, Irene, Republic of South Africa.

BACKGROUND: As a result of shortages and the cost of the currently utilized
conventional dietary protein sources in the Sub-Saharan Africa feed industry, the
chemical evaluation of available non-conventional sources for feed is imperative.
One such source is Marula nut meal (a by-product of Marula oil extraction). The
present study chemically characterized the nutritional composition of two
differently processed Marula nut meals (MNMs) and compared them with that of
solvent extracted soyabean meal (SBM).
RESULTS: The MNMs had higher dry matter, ether extract and gross energy but lower
crude protein and ash contents compared to SBM. The cold press produced Marula
nut meal (MNM2) had higher arginine than the hydraulic filter press produced
Marula nut meal (MNM1) and SBM. The meals had similar neutral and acid detergent 
fibre contents. The MNMs had higher phosphorus, magnesium and copper
concentrations than SBM. Although the total saturated fatty acid proportion was
similar across the meals, total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid
proportions were higher in MNMs and SBM, respectively. Oleic acid was higher in
MNMs than in SBM.
CONCLUSION: The low crude protein content in MNMs compared to SBM is comparable
with other conventional dietary protein sources. Thus, the MNMs could be used as 
protein and energy feed ingredients. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8604 
PMID: 28758208  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


376. Life Sci. 2018 Mar 1;196:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.07.023. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of
endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Tian X(1), Liu Z(2), Yu T(3), Yang H(1), Feng L(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Respiration, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng 252000,
China.
(2)Department of Respiration, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng 252000,
China. Electronic address: dr_liuzj@sina.com.
(3)Department of Ultrasound, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng 252000,
China.

AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks
appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against
ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)
mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI.
MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary
impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics,
wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of
ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative
real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, 
inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO2 retention
as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in
rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg)
treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin
antagonists D-Lys3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the
symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin
antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the
ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt
induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by
ghrelin antagonists.
SIGNIFICANCE: Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results
provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.07.023 
PMID: 28751159  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


377. Animal. 2018 Mar;12(3):640-647. doi: 10.1017/S1751731117001860. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate
composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory
traits.

Cullere M(1), Tasoniero G(1), Giaccone V(1), Acuti G(2), Marangon A(3), Dalle
Zotte A(1).

Author information: 
(1)1Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health,University of
Padova,Agripolis,Viale dell'Università 16,35020 Legnaro,Padova,Italy.
(2)2Department of Veterinary Medicine,University of Perugia,Via San Costanzo
4,06126 Perugia,Italy.
(3)3Laboratorio Analisi Sensoriale,Veneto Agricoltura - Istituto per la Qualità e
le Tecnologie Agroalimentari,Via S. Gaetano 74,36016 Thiene,Vicenza,Italy.

In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects
have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock
species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge
regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the
present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and
oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the
diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate
composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile,
oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary
treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2)
corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to
growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were
slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate
composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H
supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours
perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total
saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to
the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the
healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic
acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further
enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the
dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level,
displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality
evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The
only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid 
profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research efforts to understand
to what extent the fatty acid profile of H can be improved.

DOI: 10.1017/S1751731117001860 
PMID: 28735587 


378. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Mar;233(3):2238-2246. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26096. Epub 2017 Aug 
30.

Maresin 1 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis and autophagy in 3T3-L1
adipocytes.

Laiglesia LM(1)(2), Lorente-Cebrián S(1)(2)(3), López-Yoldi M(1)(2), Lanas R(1), 
Sáinz N(2), Martínez JA(1)(2)(3)(4), Moreno-Aliaga MJ(1)(2)(3)(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department Nutrition Food Science Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona,
Spain.
(2)Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
(3)Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Pamplona, Spain.
(4)CIBERobn, Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salud Carlos 
III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

Obesity is associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as
tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which promotes inflammation in adipose
tissue. The omega-3 PUFAs, and their derived lipid mediators, such as Maresin 1
(MaR1) have anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue. This study aimed to
analyze if MaR1 may counteract alterations induced by TNF-α on lipolysis and
autophagy in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our data revealed that MaR1 (1-100 nM)
inhibited the TNF-α-induced glycerol release after 48 hr, which may be related to
MaR1 ability of preventing the decrease in lipid droplet-coating protein
perilipin and G0/G1 Switch 2 protein expression. MaR1 also reversed the decrease 
in total hormone sensitive lipase (total HSL), and the ratio of phosphoHSL at
Ser-565/total HSL, while preventing the increased ratio of phosphoHSL at
Ser-660/total HSL and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase
1/2 induced by TNF-α. Moreover, MaR1 counteracted the cytokine-induced decrease
of p62 protein, a key autophagy indicator, and also prevented the induction of
LC3II/LC3I, an important autophagosome formation marker. Current data suggest
that MaR1 may ameliorate TNF-α-induced alterations on lipolysis and autophagy in 
adipocytes. This may also contribute to the beneficial actions of MaR1 on adipose
tissue and insulin sensitivity in obesity.

© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26096 
PMID: 28703289  [Indexed for MEDLINE]


379. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Mar;69(2):125-143. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1343286. 
Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Impact of dietary fat on gut microbiota and low-grade systemic inflammation:
mechanisms and clinical implications on obesity.

Cândido FG(1), Valente FX(1), Grześkowiak ŁM(1), Moreira APB(2), Rocha DMUP(1),
Alfenas RCG(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde , Universidade Federal de Viçosa , Viçosa ,
Brazil.
(2)b Departamento de Nutrição , Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora , Juiz de
Fora , Brazil.

Dietary fat strongly affects human health by modulating gut microbiota
composition and low-grade systemic inflammation. High-fat diets have been
implicated in reduced gut microbiota richness, increased Firmicutes to
Bacteroidetes ratio, and several changes at family, genus and species levels.
Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and conjugated
linolenic fatty acids share important pathways of immune system
activation/inhibition with gut microbes, modulating obesogenic and
proinflammatory profiles. Mechanisms that link dietary fat, gut microbiota and
obesity are mediated by increased intestinal permeability, systemic endotoxemia, 
and the activity of the endocannabinoid system. Although the probiotic therapy
could be a complementary strategy to improve gut microbiota composition, it did
not show permanent effects to treat fat-induced dysbiosis. Based upon evidence to
date, we believe that high-fat diets and SFA consumption should be avoided, and
MUFA and omega-3 PUFA intake should be encouraged in order to regulate gut
microbiota and inflammation, promoting body weight/fat control.

DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1343286 
PMID: 28675945 


380. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Mar;69(2):144-154. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1340932. 
Epub 2017 Jun 28.

The potential synergistic behaviour of inter- and intra-genus probiotic
combinations in the pattern and rate of short chain fatty acids formation during 
fibre fermentation.

Fernando WMADB(1), Flint SH(2), Ranaweera KKDS(3), Bamunuarachchi A(3), Johnson
SK(4), Brennan CS(5).

Author information: 
(1)a Center of Excellence in Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of
Medical Sciences , Edith Cowan University , Joondalup , WA , Australia.
(2)b School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University , Palmerston North , New
Zealand.
(3)c Department of Food Science and Technology , Sri Jayewardenepura University ,
Nugegoda , Colombo , Sri Lanka.
(4)d School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute ,
Curtin University , Bentley , Australia.
(5)e Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences , Centre for Food
Research and Innovation Lincoln University , Lincoln , New Zealand.

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by
different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to
determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented
with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus
(LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and
48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of
bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus
that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while
propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as
acetate > propionate > butyrate and the total dietary fibre produced most of the 
SCFA. Most combinations utilised 60-80% of the fibre; BB + BL + LR digested the
fibre completely. The quantity, pattern and the time of release of SCFA depends
on the genus, but the combination of pre and probiotics is of great importance
for the outcome.

DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1340932 
PMID: 28659066 


381. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018 Mar;182(1):29-36. doi: 10.1007/s12011-017-1071-6. Epub 
2017 Jun 10.

Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

Olszowski T(1), Gutowska I(2), Baranowska-Bosiacka I(3), Łukomska A(2), Drozd
A(2), Chlubek D(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Pomeranian Medical University,
Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Str, 70-111, Szczecin, Poland.
(2)Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University,
Broniewskiego 24 Str, 71-460, Szczecin, Poland.
(3)Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical
University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Str, 70-111, Szczecin, Poland.
irena.bosiacka@pum.edu.pl.
(4)Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical
University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Str, 70-111, Szczecin, Poland.

Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim
of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, 
cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1
macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved
by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with
various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of
5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl2. Fatty acids were extracted from samples
according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas
chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated
fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated
fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with
very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction
in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and 
significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), 
without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of
macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced
significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and 
PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant
alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, 
which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage
behavior and inflammatory state.

DOI: 10.1007/s12011-017-1071-6 
PMCID: PMC5808062
PMID: 28600650 


382. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Mar;19(2):259-264. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12548. Epub 2017 Jun 
9.

Diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism: Biochemical profiles during
hypoglycemia.

Sakakibara A(1), Hashimoto Y(1), Kawakita R(1), Hosokawa Y(1), Nagahara K(2),
Hasegawa Y(2), Hoshino S(3), Nagasaka H(4), Yorifuji T(1).

Author information: 
(1)Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's Medical Center,
Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan.
(2)Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's
Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
(3)Department of Pediatrics, Kasugai Municipal Hospital, Kasugai, Japan.
(4)Department of Pediatrics, Takarazuka Municipal Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan.

OBJECTIVES: To define the ranges of biochemical markers during hypoglycemia for
the diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), using high sensitivity insulin
assays.
SUBJECTS: A total of 298 patients with CHI and 58 control patients with
non-hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, who were diagnosed after 2007.
METHODS: The levels of biochemical markers (glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate
[BHB], free fatty acids [FFA], lactate, ammonia) at the time of hypoglycemia were
analyzed along with the maximal glucose infusion rate (GIR) to maintain
euglycemia and clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Median levels of blood glucose in patients with CHI and in controls were
30 and 46 mg/dL, while insulin levels were 9.90 and undetectable (<.5) μU/mL,
respectively. Similarly, median levels of BHB were 17.5 and 3745 µmol/L, and
those of FFA were 270.5 and 2660 µmol/L, respectively. For patients after 5
months, cutoffs of insulin >1.25 μU/mL, BHB < 2000 µmol/L, and FFA < 1248 µmol/L 
predicted CHI with sensitivities of 97.5, 96.2, and 95.2% and specificities of
84.2, 89.3, and 92.3%, respectively. Maximal GIR in the CHI groups tended to
decrease with age. In addition, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, and 
elevated lactate at hypoglycemia were significantly more common in patients who
were off treatment within 100 days without pancreatectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: After introduction of high-sensitive assays, the diagnostic value of
insulin was improved, allowing for more efficient cutoffs to be set for diagnosis
of CHI. Premature birth, low birth weight and elevated lactate might be helpful
in predicting early remission of hypoglycemia.

© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12548 
PMID: 28597971 


383. Nat Prod Res. 2018 Mar;32(5):596-599. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1326487. Epub
2017 May 16.

Chemometric profile, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Camel's
foot creeper leaves (Bauhinia vahlii).

Panda P(1), Dash P(1), Ghosh G(1).

Author information: 
(1)a School of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Siksha 'O'Anusandhan University ,
Bhuabneswar , India.

The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of
antityrosinase activity and chemometric analysis of Bauhinia vahlii. The
experimental results revealed that the methanol extract of Bauhinia vahlii (BVM) 
possesses higher polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity than those
reported elsewhere for other more conventionally and geographically different
varieties. The BVM contain saturated fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid
(10.15%), octadecanoic acid (1.97%), oleic acid (0.61%) and cis-vaccenic acid
(2.43%) along with vitamin E (12.71%), α-amyrin (9.84%), methyl salicylate
(2.39%) and β-sitosterol (17.35%), which were mainly responsible for antioxidant 
as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of this
extract was comparable to that of Kojic acid. These findings suggested that the
B. vahlii leaves could be exploited as potential source of natural antioxidant
and tyrosinase inhibitory agent, as well.

DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1326487 
PMID: 28508671 


384. Nat Prod Res. 2018 Mar;32(5):610-615. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1327861. Epub
2017 May 15.

Chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the
leaves of Smilax brasiliensis Sprengel (Smilacaceae).

Amado PA(1), Ferraz V(2), da Silva DB(3), Carollo CA(3), Castro AHF(1), Alves
Rodrigues Dos Santos Lima L(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu , Federal University of São João Del-Rei ,
Divinópolis , Brazil.
(2)b Department of Chemistry , Federal University of Minas Gerais , Belo
Horizonte , Brazil.
(3)c Center of Biological Sciences and Health of UFMS , Federal University of
Mato Grosso do Sul , Campo Grande , Brazil.

The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of petroleum ether and methanol
extracts, fatty acids and methyl esters from leaves of Smilax brasiliensis were
evaluated, and the composition of the extracts was determined. Palmitic, linoleic
and linolenic acids were major components of the extracts. For antioxidant
activity, all samples exhibited IC50 values lower than BHT
(2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol). The extracts, fatty acids and methyl esters
from S. brasiliensis presented no toxicity to larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia
salina. Among the purified substances, only methyl linolenate showed toxicity
(LD50 = 21.47 μg/mL). This study showed, for the first time, the composition of
petroleum ether and methanol extracts from S. brasiliensis leaves, as well as the
antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts, fatty acids and methyl esters.

DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1327861 
PMID: 28504017 


385. J Diabetes Investig. 2018 Mar;9(2):403-410. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12688. Epub 2017 May
29.

Ficolin-3/adiponectin ratio for the prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus
in pregnant women.

Yuan XS(1), Shi H(2), Wang HY(3), Yu B(1), Jiang J(3).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Laboratory Medicine, Changzhou Maternity and Child Health
Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.
(2)Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Planned Parenthood
Research, Nanjing, China.
(3)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changzhou Maternity and Child Health 
Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To establish that the ficolin-3/adiponectin ratio is a
predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is eligible for screening
tests for GDM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 86 pregnant women who
developed GDM and 273 normal glucose tolerance participants was carried out.
Maternal serum ficolin-3, adiponectin levels were investigated at 16-18 weeks of 
gestation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: Compared with the normal glucose tolerance group, the GDM group showed
significantly higher levels of ficolin-3 and the ratio of ficolin-3/adiponectin; 
and decreased levels of adiponectin between 16-18 weeks of gestation (P < 0.05 or
P < 0.01). The cut-off values for the ratio of ficolin-3/adiponectin (≥1.06;
sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 96.5%) to discriminate the pregnant women who
developed GDM from the non-diabetic cases were identified using receiver
operating characteristic analysis. Using binary logistic regression analysis,
ficolin-3, retinol-binding protein-4 and adiponectin, but not C-reactive protein,
triglyceride and free fatty acids were shown as predictive factors for GDM.
CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of ficolin-3/adiponectin at 16-18 weeks of gestation was
changed in pregnant women who subsequently developed GDM, and might provide
effective early predicting and screening for GDM.

© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian
Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia,
Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12688 
PMID: 28445618 


386. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018 Mar;96(2):111-119. doi: 10.1111/aos.13436. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Clinical impact of inflammation in dry eye disease: proceedings of the ODISSEY
group meeting.

Baudouin C(1)(2)(3)(4)(5), Irkeç M(6), Messmer EM(7), Benítez-Del-Castillo JM(8),
Bonini S(9), Figueiredo FC(10), Geerling G(11), Labetoulle M(12), Lemp M(13),
Rolando M(14), Van Setten G(15), Aragona P(16); ODISSEY European Consensus Group 
Members.

Author information: 
(1)Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, INSERM-DHOS CIC
503, Paris, France.
(2)UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR-S968, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France.
(3)CNRS, UMR-7210, Paris, France.
(4)Ambroise Paré Hospital, APHP, Dept Ophthalmology, F-92100, Boulogne, France.
(5)University of Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 78000, Versailles, France.
(6)Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
(7)Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
(8)Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.
(9)University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.
(10)Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary and Newcastle
University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
(11)Department of Ophthalmology, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
(12)South Paris University, Kremlin-Bicêtre, Paris, France.
(13)Department of Ophthalmology, Georgetown University, Washington, USA.
(14)University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
(15)St. Eriks Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
(16)University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Dry eye disease (DED) is a common, multifactorial ocular condition with major
impact on vision and quality of life. It is now well recognized that the
pathophysiology of chronic DED can include a cycle of inflammation involving both
innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, in vitro/in vivo models have been
used to obtain a better understanding of DED-related inflammatory processes at
molecular/cellular levels although they do not truly reproduce the complex and
chronic hallmarks of human DED. In clinical DED research, advanced techniques
such as impression cytology, conjunctival biopsy, in vivo confocal microscopy and
multiplex tear analyses have allowed an improved assessment of inflammation in
DED patients. This was supported by the identification of reliable inflammatory
markers including matrix metalloproteinase-9, human leucocyte antigen-DR or
intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in tears and impression cytology samples. One
of the current therapeutic strategies focuses on breaking the inflammatory cycle 
perpetuating the ocular surface disease, and preclinical/clinical research has
led to the development of promising anti-inflammatory compounds. For instance,
cyclosporine, already approved in the United States, has recently been authorized
in Europe to treat DED associated with severe keratitis. In addition, other
agents such as corticosteroids, doxycycline and essential fatty acids, through
their anti-inflammatory properties, show encouraging results. We now have a
clearer understanding of the inflammatory processes involved in DED, and there is
hope that the still emerging preclinical/clinical findings will be translated
into new and highly effective therapies for patients in the near future.

© 2017 The Authors Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on
behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

DOI: 10.1111/aos.13436 
PMID: 28390092 


387. Environ Technol. 2018 Mar;39(6):739-748. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1310934. Epub
2017 Apr 11.

Evaluation of methanogenic microbial electrolysis cells under closed/open circuit
operations.

Luo L(1), Xu S(1), Jin Y(2), Han R(1), Liu H(1), Lü F(3).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Environment & Low-Carbon Science, School of Environment and
Architecture , University of Shanghai for Science and Technology , Shanghai ,
People's Republic of China.
(2)b China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park Environmental Technology Co., Ltd ,
Suzhou , People's Republic of China.
(3)c State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse , Tongji
University , Shanghai , People's Republic of China.

The present study investigated the independent roles of biofilm and external
power supply for volatile fatty acids degradation and methane production in the
microbial electrolysis cell. Reactors were operated in fed-batch mode in the
presence of graphite felt (GF) or titanium rod (Ti) as electrodes, in open
circuit (OC, without applied voltage) or closed circuit (CC) conditions, i.e. R1 
(Ti + CC), R2 (GF + CC) and R3 (GF + OC). The first-order kinetic analysis of
acetate degradation indicated that the presence of GF biofilm and applied voltage
in R2 improved the degradation rate of acetate by 23% as compared to R1, while it
was only a 7% increment in R3 with GF biofilm. The degradation of butyrate was
accelerated by 12% in the first 24 h, whereas there was no enhancement of the
propionic acid digestion. Generally, methane yields from the three reactors
followed the sequence: R2 > R1 > R3, indicating the positive effect of external
power supply on methane generation. High-throughput sequencing revealed that
Geobacter sp. could be enriched on conductive GF even without electric
stimulation. The clustered Geobacter and Methanosarcina in R2 presented the
potential to promote interspecies electron transfer and accelerate substrate
utilization and methane production.

DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1310934 
PMID: 28337937 


388. Environ Technol. 2018 Mar;39(5):628-639. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1309075. Epub
2017 Apr 4.

Inclusion of Saccharina latissima in conventional anaerobic digestion systems.

Ometto F(1), Berg A(1), Björn A(2), Safaric L(2), Svensson BH(2), Karlsson A(1), 
Ejlertsson J(1)(2).

Author information: 
(1)a Research and Development Department , Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB ,
Stockholm , Sweden.
(2)b Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Changes , Linköping
University , Linköping , Sweden.

Loading macroalgae into existing anaerobic digestion (AD) plants allows us to
overcome challenges such as low digestion efficiencies, trace elements
limitation, excessive salinity levels and accumulation of volatile fatty acids
(VFAs), observed while digesting algae as a single substrate. In this work, the
co-digestion of the brown macroalgae Saccharina latissima with mixed municipal
wastewater sludge (WWS) was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic
conditions. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the organic loading rate (OLR)
were fixed at 19 days and 2.1 g l-1 d-1 of volatile solids (VS), respectively.
Initially, WWS was digested alone. Subsequently, a percentage of the total OLR
(20%, 50% and finally 80%) was replaced by S. latissima biomass. Optimal
digestion conditions were observed at medium-low algae loading (≤50% of total
OLR) with an average methane yield close to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see
text] in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The conductivity
values increased with the algae loading without inhibiting the digestion process.
The viscosities of the reactor sludges revealed decreasing values with reduced
WWS loading at both temperatures, enhancing mixing properties.

DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1309075 
PMID: 28317451 


389. Korean J Intern Med. 2018 Mar;33(2):347-355. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2015.208. Epub
2017 Feb 1.

Compound K attenuates glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis through
AMPK-dependent pathways in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats.

Hwang YC(1), Oh DH(1), Choi MC(1), Lee SY(1), Ahn KJ(1), Chung HY(1), Lim SJ(2), 
Chung SH(3), Jeong IK(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University School of
Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
(2)Department of Pathology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul,
Korea.
(3)Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Laboratory, Kyung Hee
University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin
resistance. Compound K (CK) is the final metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides
that have been shown to exert antidiabetic effects. However, the molecular
mechanism of the antidiabetic effects in the liver have not been elucidated;
further, whether CK has beneficial effects in hepatosteatosis remains unclear.
Therefore, we evaluated the effect of CK on hepatosteatosis as well as its
mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima 
Fatty (OLETF) rats.
METHODS: Twenty-four-week-old male OL